[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is accompanied by excessive production of catecholamines, which is characterized by a hypokalemic dip. A polymorphism of the adrenergic receptor has also been reported to be associated with target lesion revascularization (TLR) after coronary intervention. Subjects and Methods. We enrolled 276 consecutive patients with AMI within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent emergency coronary intervention using bare metal stents and had examinations over a 5-10-month follow-up period. The patients were divided into tertiles based on their serum potassium level on admission (low K, <3.9; mid K, ≥3.9, <4.3; and high K, ≥4.3). Results. Sixty-four TLRs were observed in the study. Increased potassium concentration was associated significantly with TLR. Patients in the high K group were about two and a half times more likely to have a TLR after AMI compared to those in the low K group. Multiple logistic analysis showed that potassium level on admission was an independent risk factor for TLR (odds ratio 1.69; confidence interval 1.04 to 2.74; P = 0.036). Conclusions. These findings indicated that increased potassium levels on admission might predict TLRs in AMI patients treated with bare metal stents.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:946803. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is prevalent and has serious consequences including re-infarction and death. Cigarette smoking is a coronary risk factor for AMI, although a "smoker's paradox" for AMI has been reported in Western countries. On the other hand, some researchers have reported that smoking is associated with subacute stent thrombosis (SAST) after AMI. However, the occurrence of this condition is not well documented in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify how prior smoking status may affect prognosis, including SAST, in Japanese patients with AMI.
A total of 266 consecutive patients with AMI were enrolled retrospectively in the study if they had undergone emergency coronary intervention (bare metal stent) within 24h of symptom onset, and had a 5-10 month follow-up examination. The patients were divided into three groups based on their cigarette smoking status (non-smokers, past smokers, and current smokers).
Current smokers were significantly younger than the other two groups, although their levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly higher. White blood cell count and hemoglobin level on admission were also significantly higher in current smokers compared with the other two groups. The incidence of SAST was significantly higher in current smokers than in the other groups, although the occurrence of heart failure after AMI was similar in the three groups. On the other hand, improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed in non-smokers and past smokers, but not in current smokers. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that current smoking was an independent risk factor for SAST (odds ratio 5.4; p<0.05). Current smokers were about five times more likely to have a SAST compared with non-smokers.
These findings indicate that current cigarette smoking predicts SAST after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI in Japanese patients.
Journal of Cardiology 11/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is rare and usually affects younger women in the peripartum period. Here, we report an interesting case of a 34-year-old woman with spontaneous coronary artery dissection that occurred 1 month after childbirth. Emergency coronary angiography showed stenosis of the left anterior descending artery, but immediately afterwards, a new occlusion of the right coronary artery occurred. Intravascular ultrasound was used to image both right and left coronary arteries. The new occlusion of the right coronary artery was probably iatrogenic, but the left coronary artery occlusion was spontaneous. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the right coronary artery because of her unstable hemodynamic condition. Revascularization of the left coronary artery was performed by bypass grafting. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 30. As the optimal treatment for spontaneous coronary artery dissection has not yet been established, treatments should be based on the patient's clinical presentation.
General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 06/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two cases of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a 4-in-3 "Slender Mother and Child" PCI technique. In both cases, coronary angiography revealed severe stenosis of the right coronary artery (RCA). In both cases, 5-Fr sheathless guiding catheters were inserted into the RCA (virtual 3-Fr PCI) but stents could not pass through because of stents previously implanted at the proximal site of the target lesions. After 4-Fr straight "child" guiding catheters were inserted into the 5-Fr sheathless "slender mother" guiding catheters, they were deployed successfully at the target lesions. This system might be useful to improve stent delivery in virtual 3-Fr PCI.
Postepy w Kardiologii Interwencyjnej / Advances in Interventional Cardiology 01/2013; 9(3):286-90. · 0.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for access site-related complications after transradial coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Transradial PCI has been shown to reduce access site-related bleeding complications compared with procedures performed through a femoral approach. Although previous studies focused on risk factors for access site-related complications after a transfemoral approach or transfemoral and transradial approaches, it is uncertain which factors affect vascular complications after transradial catheterization. We enrolled 500 consecutive patients who underwent transradial CAG or PCI. We determined the incidence and risk factors for access site-related complications such as radial artery occlusion and bleeding complications. Age, sheath size, the dose of heparin and the frequency of PCI (vs. CAG) were significantly greater in patients with than without bleeding complications. However, body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with than without bleeding complications. Sheath size was significantly higher and the frequency of statin use was significantly lower in patients with than without radial artery occlusion. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that sheath size [odds ratio (OR) 5.5; P < 0.05] and BMI (OR 0.86; P < 0.01) were risk factors for bleeding complications; and sheath size (OR 5.2; P < 0.05) and the lack of statin pretreatment (OR 0.50; P < 0.05) were risk factors for occlusive complications. In conclusion, these findings indicate that down-sizing of the devices used in transradial procedures might attenuate access site-related complications after transradial CAG or PCI. Statin pretreatment might also be a strategy that could prevent radial artery occlusion after transradial procedures.
Cardiovascular intervention and therapeutics. 06/2012; 27(3):174-80.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two male patients, one in his thirties and the other in his fifties, were admitted to different hospitals for congestive heart failure (CHF). In both patients, laboratory findings indicated high plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (266.0 and 902.7pg/mL, respectively) and echocardiography showed large left ventricular diastolic dimensions (LVDd) (67 and 73mm, respectively) and low ejection fractions (EF) (26% and 18%, respectively). Coronary arteriography revealed no organic stenosis in either patient. Following treatment, plasma BNP levels decreased to below the limit of measurement (4pg/mL) in both patients and echocardiography revealed improved LVDd (61 and 52mm, respectively) and EF (41% and 45%, respectively). Because these patients are related, genetic factors might have affected low plasma BNP levels. Moreover, these results suggest that marked decrease in plasma BNP during follow up may be an indicator of preserved neurohormonal and organ systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) on clinical outcomes in Japanese patients who undergo coronary stent implantation.
A total of 1,270 patients (males 915, 69 years) were enrolled and dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and a thienopyridine derivative was prescribed (clopidogrel 630, ticlopidine 640). Patients were divided into 2 groups treated with or without PPI. PPI was administered in 331 cases (26%), and non-PPI in 939 (74%). There were no significant differences in cardiovascular death (PPI vs. non-PPI: 5 vs. 11 cases), nonfatal myocardial infarction (3 vs. 5), and stroke (3 vs. 16) between PPI and non-PPI groups, but the ratio of gastrointestinal events had a higher tendency in non-PPI group compared with PPI group (1 vs. 17, P=0.08). In subgroup analysis of patients taking clopidogrel, or patients with acute coronary syndrome, there was no significant difference in the ratio of cardiovascular events (7 vs. 16, 6 vs. 17, NS). The non-PPI group had a tendency of an increased risk of gastrointestinal events compared with the PPI group (0 vs. 9, P=0.06; 1 vs. 7, P=0.14).
In contrast to the negative drug interaction of PPI reported elsewhere, in the present study the intake of PPI was not associated with an increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients treated with stents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 45-year-old man presented with acute inferior myocardial infarction and underwent emergent coronary angiography (CAG). CAG revealed total occlusion of both the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and distal left circumflex artery, and two bare-metal stents were deployed in the RCA. After the procedure, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) with 100 mg aspirin and 75 mg clopidogrel daily were given as usual, however, stent thrombosis occurred three times and he underwent repeat interventions. To investigate the cause of repeated stent thrombosis, the platelet function during DAT was measured. The result showed that he did not achieve an adequate antiplatelet effect.
Clopidogrel is a prodrug that requires biotransformation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme in the liver. Recently, the carriers of CYP2C19*2 or *3 null-of-function allele, have been shown to demonstrate an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including stent thrombosis, compared with non-carriers. This patient carried the CYP2C19*3/*3 genotype.
This is the first report of repetitive stent thrombosis in a poor metabolizer carrying two loss-of-function alleles (CYP2C19*3/*3).
Journal of Cardiology Cases 08/2011; 4(1):e16–e19.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased resting heart rate (HR) due to sympathetic hyperactivity is associated with coronary risk factors and increased cardiovascular events. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is accompanied by autonomic imbalance, which is characterized by sympathetic activation and parasympathetic inactivation. Although an increased HR in patients with acute coronary syndrome has been reported to be associated with 30-day and 6-month mortality before the coronary intervention era, it is unclear if an increased HR on admission is associated with the prognosis of AMI in the coronary intervention era.
We enrolled 200 consecutive patients with AMI within 24 h of symptom onset. All patients underwent coronary angiography. They were divided into quartiles based on resting HR on admission.
There was no difference in coronary risk factors and previous medical treatment among the four groups. Anterior AMI was significantly lower in the lowest quartile compared with other quartiles. There was no difference in peak creatine kinase value among the four groups, however left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before discharge evaluated by echocardiography in the highest quartile group was significantly reduced compared to other quartiles. An increased HR was significantly associated with in-hospital death. Patients in the highest quartile of HR were about nine times more likely to have a poor prognosis after AMI compared to those in the lowest quartile. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that HR ≥93 was an independent risk factor for in-hospital death. HR was significantly associated with Killip class and LVEF on admission.
These findings indicate that increased HR on admission predicts for poor cardiac function and in-hospital death after AMI.
Journal of Cardiology 09/2010; 56(2):197-203. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is conflicting information about whether mortality after AMI is higher in women than men. We investigated the significance of plasma adiponectin concentrations on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to delineate any differences between men and women. The study patients consisted of 114 men and 42 women with AMI. The incidence of MACE was significantly higher in women than men during the entire follow-up period (p<0.05). Compared with men for post-AMI MACE, the hazard ratio for women was 5.6 after adjustment for prognostic factors. Killip class (p<0.001) and sex differences (p<0.05) were independent predictors of MACE at 1 year post-AMI. Plasma adiponectin levels in women were significantly higher than men on admission (8.66 microg/mL [range: 6.6-14.08] versus 4.71 microg/mL [range: 3.47-7.27], p<0.0001) and during the post-AMI course (all p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified plasma adiponectin level on admission as an independent predictor of MACE in men (p<0.001) and the difference between plasma adiponectin levels at discharge and on admission in women (p<0.05). Patterns of serial changes in plasma adiponectin concentrations are different between men and women and plasma adiponectin concentrations can be used to predict future adverse cardiac events in AMI patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Von Willebrand factor (VWF), a cofactor in platelet adhesion and aggregation, increases hemostasis and thrombosis. Recently, a metalloprotease that cleaves VWF multimers has been identified, namely ADAMTS13. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serial changes in plasma VWF and ADAMTS13 and the prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We measured serial changes of plasma VWF and ADAMTS13 antigen levels in 92 patients with AMI and 40 control subjects. VWF levels were significantly higher in patients with AMI compared with controls (p <0.01) on admission, peaked 3 days after admission, and remained high for 14 days. In contrast, on admission, ADAMTS13 levels were significantly lower in patients with AMI compared with controls (p <0.0001), with minimum antigen levels reached after 3 days, and remained lower for 14 days. The ratio of VWF/ADAMTS13 antigen levels was higher in patients with AMI compared with controls throughout the time course. Cox hazards analysis revealed that the early increase of VWF and VWF/ADAMTS13 ratio levels and the early decrease of ADAMTS13 levels were significant predictors of future thrombotic events during the 1-year follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with major decreases of ADAMTS13 levels and high increases of VWF/ADAMTS13 levels had significantly greater probabilities for development of thrombotic events (p = 0.0104 and 0.0209, respectively). In conclusion, these findings suggest that monitoring the changes of VWF and ADAMTS13 antigen levels in the early phase might be valuable for predicting and preventing thrombosis during 1-year follow-up in patients with AMI.
The American Journal of Cardiology 09/2007; 100(5):758-63. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of statin therapy on T-cell activation in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention by using flow cytometric analysis. The increased frequency of interferon-gamma-positive CD4(+) T cells after percutaneous coronary intervention was significant in the group treated without statins but not in the group treated with statins.
The American Journal of Cardiology 07/2004; 93(12):1547-9. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is one of the major prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is an enzyme responsible for extracellular collagen degradation and remodeling. The present study investigated whether the concentration of serum MMP-1 was associated with the LVEF after AMI. Blood was sampled on admission, and at 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 2 weeks and 4 weeks in 24 patients with their first AMI. Left ventriculography was performed 4 weeks after the onset of AMI and the LVEF was calculated by center line method. MMP-1 concentrations were higher at 7 days and at 2 weeks than on admission (p<0.001), and at 7 days (r=-0.655, p=0.0005) and at 2 weeks (r=-0.636, p=0.0008) were negatively correlated with the LVEF. The patients with AMI were divided into high and low LVEF groups according to the results of left ventriculography. Although there were no differences in the clinical characteristics between the 2 LVEF groups, the MMP-1 concentrations at 24 h (p<0.01), 7 days (p<0.01) and 2 weeks (p<0.05) were lower in the high LVEF group than in low LVEF group. A high concentration of MMP-1 at the subacute phase after AMI predicts advanced left ventricular remodeling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiographically normal coronary arteries have concealed intimal thickening that importantly contribute to coronary arterial disease activity. Increased plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) are associated with myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether the PAI contributes to vascular wall thickening detected by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in normal coronary angiogram. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the PAI activity contributes to the extent of atherosclerotic changes in angiographically normal coronary arteries using IVUS technique.
We studied 33 consecutive patients with normal coronary angiograms. These patients were divided into a high level of plasma PAI activity group (H-PAI; n=12) and a normal range of PAI activity group (N-PAI; n=21), according to the plasma PAI activity levels.
The average of "percent intima+media area (%I+M area)" and "maximal intima+media (I+M) thickness" were significantly greater in the H-PAI group as compared with those in the N-PAI group (p<0.05). Minimal lumen diameter and lumen area were comparable between these groups. The plasma PAI activity level was the independent predictor of increase in maximal I+M thickness, in multiple regression analysis with the traditional risk factors as covariates.
Thickened intima+media of angiographically normal coronary arteries were associated with high plasma level of PAI activity, independently of other traditional risk factors. PAI may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary intimal thickening that might increase coronary arterial tone.
Thrombosis Research 01/2003; 112(3):123-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor