[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, several laboratories have reported on the cloning of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genomes as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in Escherichia coli and on procedures to manipulate these genomes by using the bacterial recombination machinery. However, the HSV-BACs reported so far are either replication incompetent or infectious, with a deletion of one or more viral genes due to the BAC vector insertion. For use as a multipurpose clone in research on HSV-1, we attempted to generate infectious HSV-BACs containing the full genome of HSV-1 without any loss of viral genes. Our results were as follows. (i) E. coli (YEbac102) harboring the full-length HSV-1 genome (pYEbac102) in which a BAC flanked by loxP sites was inserted into the intergenic region between U(L)3 and U(L)4 was constructed. (ii) pYEbac102 was an infectious molecular clone, given that its transfection into rabbit skin cells resulted in production of infectious virus (YK304). (iii) The BAC vector sequence was almost perfectly excisable from the genome of the reconstituted virus YK304 by coinfection of Vero cells with YK304 and a recombinant adenovirus, AxCANCre, expressing Cre recombinase. (iv) As far as was examined, the reconstituted viruses from pYEbac102 could not be phenotypically differentiated from wild-type viruses in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the viruses grew as well in Vero cells as did the wild-type virus and exhibited wild-type virulence in mice on intracerebral inoculation. (v) The infectious molecular clone pYEbac102 is in fact useful for mutagenesis of the HSV-1 genome by bacterial genetics, and a recombinant virus carrying amino acid substitutions in both copies of the alpha0 gene was generated. pYEbac102 will have multiple applications to the rapid generation of genetically engineered HSV-1 recombinants in basic research into HSV-1 and in the development of HSV vectors in human therapy.
Journal of Virology 02/2003; 77(2):1382-91. DOI:10.1128/JVI.77.2.1382-1391.2003 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The infected cell protein no. 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a promiscuous transactivator shown to enhance the expression of gene introduced into cells by infection or transfection. At the molecular level, ICP0 is a 775-aa ring finger protein localized initially in the nucleus and late in infection in the cytoplasm and mediates the degradation of several proteins and stabilization of others. None of the known functions at the molecular level account for the apparent activity of ICP0 as a transactivator. Here we report that ICP0 functionally interacts with cellular transcription factor BMAL1, a member of the basic helix-loop-helix PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) super family of transcriptional regulators. Specifically, sequences mapped to the exon II of ICP0 interacted with BMAL1 in the yeast two-hybrid system and in reciprocal pull-down experiments in vitro. Moreover, the enhancement of transcription of a luciferase reporter construct whose promoter contained multiple BMAL1-binding sites by ICP0 and BMAL1 was significantly greater than that observed by ICP0 or BMAL1 alone. Although the level of BMAL1 present in nuclei of infected cells remained unchanged between 3 and 8 h after infection, the level of cytoplasmic BMAL1 was reduced at 8 h after infection. The reduction of cytoplasmic BMAL1 was significantly greater in cells infected with the ICP0-null mutant than in the wild-type virus-infected cells, suggesting that ICP0 mediates partial stabilization of the protein. These results indicate that ICP0 interacts physically and functionally with at least one cellular transcription-regulatory factor.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2001; 98(4):1877-82. DOI:10.1073/pnas.041592598 · 9.67 Impact Factor