B P Jacob

Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (14)43.3 Total impact

  • B Jacob, B Salky
    Surgical Endoscopy 04/2007; 21(3):492-3. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal prosthesis for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair would combine excellent parietal surface tissue ingrowth with minimal visceral surface adhesiveness. Currently, few data are available from randomized trials comparing the commercially available prostheses. In a pig model designed to incite adhesions, three 10 x 15-cm pieces of mesh (Proceed, Parietex Composite [PCO], and polypropylene [PPM]) were randomly positioned intraperitoneally in each of 10 animals using sutures and tack fixation. After a 28-day survival, the amount of shrinkage, the area and peel strength of visceral adhesions, the peak peel strength, the work required to separate mesh from the abdominal wall, and a coefficient representing the adhesiveness of tissue ingrowth were averaged for each type of mesh and then compared with the averages for the other prostheses. The histologic appearance of each prosthesis was documented. Proceed had more shrinkage (99.6 cm2) than PCO (105.8 cm2) or PPM (112 cm2), although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean area of adhesions to PCO (11%) was significantly less than for Proceed (48%; p < 0.008) or PPM (46%; p < 0.008). Adhesion peel strength was significantly less for PCO (5.9 N) than for Proceed (12.1 N; p < 0.02) or PPM (12.9 N; p < 0.02). According to a filmy-to-dense scale of 1 to 5, adhesions were more filmy with PCO (1.7) than with PPM (2.9) or Proceed (3.7) (p < 0.007). Peak peel strength from the abdominal wall was significantly higher for PCO (17.2 N) than for Proceed (10.7 N) or PPM (10 N; p < 0.002). The histology of each prosthesis showed a neoperitoneum only with PCO. With less shrinkage, fewer and less dense adhesions to the viscera, and significantly stronger abdominal wall adherence and tissue ingrowth at 28 days in this animal study, PCO was superior to both Proceed and PPM in all categories. Furthermore, PCO demonstrated all the favorable qualities needed in an optimal prosthesis for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, including the rapid development of a neoperitoneum.
    Surgical Endoscopy 04/2007; 21(4):629-33. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morbid obesity is an epidemic in this country. An increasing number of patients are undergoing weight loss surgery in an effort to combat the negative physical and psychological impact of morbid obesity. Fueling the increasing interest in surgical treatment of morbid obesity has been the development of new laparoscopic techniques. There are several surgical approaches to morbid obesity, and each has its own unique set of risks and potential complications. As more patients have weight loss surgery, clinicians working in the emergency department will frequently encounter complications of these procedures. To ensure timely diagnosis and optimal care, clinicians should be familiar with the standard weight loss approaches and the potential complications of these interventions.
    Annals of emergency medicine 03/2006; 47(2):160-6. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    B P Jacob, B Salky
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic colectomy for the management of colon cancer remains a controversial therapeutic option, especially when the outcomes are compared with the historically accepted survival data and recurrence rates after open surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates after laparoscopic colon resection for invasive colon adenocarcinoma. A total of 129 patients underwent consecutive laparoscopic colectomies for colon adenocarcinoma (between April 1992 and 2004 January) by a single surgeon at a single institution. Records were analyzed retrospectively and follow-up data was obtained. The Student t-test, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier survival data were used for statistical analysis. After patients with noninvasive disease on final pathology were excluded, the study population comprised 88 patients who underwent laparoscopic colectomies for invasive colon cancer with > 2 years of follow-up. Of these cases, 81 (93%) were amenable for complete follow-up at 11years (41 women and 40 men; mean age, 76 years). Mean follow-up was 61 months. There was one perioperative death (1.2%), and the overall postoperative morbidity rate was 13.6%. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 10.1 (+/-6). There were no port site recurrences. The Kaplan-Meier survival data were as follows for 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival, respectively stage I (n = 34) 89% and 89%; stage II (n = 22), 65% and 59%; stage III (n = 19), 72% and 67%; stages I-III combined, (n = 75), 77% and 73%. For this specific cohort of patients undergoing curative laparoscopic colectomies for invasive colon adenocarcinoma, the mean follow-up was > 5 years. Overall survival and disease-free survival for stage I, II, and III colon cancer as well as for stages I-III combined are favorable and comparable to historically acceptable open colectomy survival rates. Overall survival and disease-free survival after laparoscopic colectomy for invasive colon cancer is no worse, and perhaps better than, the previously reported rates for the same procedure done by an open technique.
    Surgical Endoscopy 05/2005; 19(5):643-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this porcine survival model, we compared laparoscopic computer-mediated flexible circular stapled (SurgASSIST) gastro-jejunostomies in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) to open hand-sewn (HS) and laparoscopic end-to-end (EEA) anastomosis. RYGBP was performed in 15 pigs. Depending on the technique used to create the gastro-jejunostomy, the pigs were divided in 3 groups. In group A, a standard two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis were performed. In group B and C, gastro-jejunostomies using EEA (B) or SurgASSIST (C) were attempted. Operation time, intraoperative technical failure, postoperative anastomotic leakage, and necropsy results were measured. 14 pigs survived surgery. One leakage from the gastro-jejunostomy was detected intraoperatively in group B. There was no evidence of leakage postoperatively from the proximal gastro-jejunostomy in any groups. No statistical difference was found between the groups concerning the operation time or the diameter and degree of healing of the anastomosis. We found the SurgASSIST system safe for performing gastro-jejunostomies in laparoscopic RYGBP. There were no anastomotic failures intra- or postoperatively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of anastomotic stricture or delayed healing processes.
    Obesity Surgery 01/2005; 15(6):782-7. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Only recently has the spleen been perceived as an organ with a major immune function. This raised an interest in spleen salvage after spleen trauma and pancreatic tail resection, for the treatment of hematologic disorders and inducement tolerance for allogenic transplants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new technique for spleen transplantation: laparoscopic spleen autotransplantation in a large animal model. Ten 35-kg pigs were used for this study. A laparoscopic hand-assisted splenectomy was first performed. The spleen was extracted through the handport to be flushed with a 4 degrees C saline solution and prepared extracorporeally. The graft was then reintroduced into the same animal's abdominal cavity, and a splenic-to-common iliac artery and vein bypass was performed laparoscopically using a 7-0 polytetrafluoroethylene running suture. The animal was killed 1 week postoperatively for histologic examination. All 10 animals tolerated the procedure well. No conversion to open surgery was required. The mean operative time was 253 +/- 45 min. The mean time needed to create the artery and vein anastomoses was 116 +/- 165 min, and the mean blood loss was 190 +/- 120 ml. There was no intra- or postoperative death. Intraoperative complications included two stenosed vascular anastomoses, which were taken down and revised. Seven of the 10 spleens were histologically viable 1 week after surgery. The nonviable transplantations were attributable to a thrombosis of the common iliac artery (n = 1) or the transplant artery (n = 2). Hand-assisted laparoscopic spleen autotransplantation is feasible in an animal model. This procedure could constitute an option when spleen resection is necessary for pancreatic tail resection, or when spleen preservation is important to the maintenance or restoration of an immune function.
    Surgical Endoscopy 10/2004; 18(9):1335-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emergent colostomies are associated with increased morbidity related to second closure operations. The purpose of this canine pilot study was to create a minimally invasive procedure that would reduce the time interval and morbidity involved with colostomy reversals after left colon end colostomies. Six mongrel dogs underwent modified laparoscopic Hartmann's procedures in which the stapled end of the rectal stump was approximated to the left colon proximal to the stoma. After 1 week, they underwent an endoluminal colostomy reversal with a computer-mediated, circular stapling device and varying anvil insertion methods. Variables recorded included anvil insertion technique and feasibility, OR time, complications, and number of days to first meal and bowel movement. A contrast enema performed 1 week post colostomy reversal ruled out anastomosis leaks and stenosis. The dogs were euthanized and subjected to necropsy. Of four anvil insertion techniques tested, the most feasible employed a large-bore needle to perforate through the stapled end of the Hartmann pouch into the lumen of the left colon. Simultaneous endoluminal views of the rectal stump with a sigmoidoscope and the left colon lumen with an endoscope permitted a controlled and safe needle puncture. Through the needle, a guide wire was inserted to withdraw the anvil via the colostomy into place. A transanally inserted stapler was then married to the anvil under fluoroscopic guidance, thus completing the anastomosis. The colostomy was then taken down and transected at the level of the colocolostomy. Average operating time was 126 min (range 90-180), diet was tolerated within 1.5 days, and average number of days to first bowel movement was 2.5. The absence of stenosis, leaks, and inadvertent visceral injuries confirmed feasibility. In this canine model, a dual endoscopic-assisted colostomy reversal with a computer-mediated, circular stapling device is feasible. Using this technique, colostomy reversals can possibly be performed 1 week post-colostomy without entering the peritoneal cavity, thus reducing the number of invasive operations and subsequent morbidity required to manage emergent colon perforations.
    Surgical Endoscopy 04/2004; 18(3):433-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Brian P Jacob, Michel Gagner
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    ABSTRACT: Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.
    Surgical Clinics of North America 01/2004; 83(6):1405-19. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • W B Inabnet, B P Jacob, M Gagner
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    ABSTRACT: The technique of thyroidectomy mandates adequate visualization of the operative field to identify pertinent anatomical structures. The purpose of this prospective review was to assess the feasibility and safety of endoscopic thyroidectomy by a cervical approach. All patients who underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy were assessed by retrospective review of a prospective database. Thirty-eight patients underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy by a cervical approach. Thirty-five of 38 cases were successfully completed endoscopically with a mean OR time of 190 min. One patient experienced a permanent recurrent laryngeal palsy. Endoscopic thyroidectomy by a cervical approach is a feasible procedure. As in conventional thyroid surgery, great care should be exercised when dissecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
    Surgical Endoscopy 12/2003; 17(11):1808-11. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing the length of the Roux limb in open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) effectively increases excess weight loss in superobese patients with a body mass index (BMI) >50 kg/m2. Extending the RYGB limb length for obese patients with a BMI < 50 could produce similar results. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of superobese patients undergoing laparoscopic RYGB with standard (< or =100-cm) with those undergoing the procedure with an extended (150-cm) Roux limb length over 1-year period of follow-up. Methods: Retrospective data over 2.5 years were reviewed to identify patients with a BMI < 50 who underwent primary laparoscopic RYGB with 1-year follow-up ( n = 58). Forty-five patients (sRYGB group) received limb lengths < or = 100 cm, including 45 cm ( n = 1), 50 cm ( n = 2), 60 cm ( n = 6), 65 cm ( n = 1), 70 cm ( n = 1), 75 cm ( n = 3), and 100 cm ( n = 31). Thirteen patients (eRYGB group) received 150-cm limbs. Postoperative weight loss was compared at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Comparing the sRYGB vs the eRYGB group (average +/- SD), respectively: There were no significant differences in age (41.5 +/- 11.0 vs 38.0 +/- 11.9 years), preoperative weight (119.2 +/- 11.9 vs 127.8 +/- 12.5 kg), BMI (43.7 +/- 3.0 vs 45.2 +/- 3.5 kg/m2), operative time (167.1 +/- 72.7 vs 156.5 +/- 62.4 min), estimated blood loss (129.9 +/- 101.1 vs 166.8 +/- 127.3 cc), or length of stay (median, 3 vs 3 days; range, 2-18 vs 3-19). Body weight decreased over time in both groups, except in the sRYGB group between 3 and 6 months and 6 and 12 months after surgery and in the eRYGB group between 6 and 12 months. BMI also decreased over time, except in the eRYGB group between 6 and 12 months. Absolute weight loss leveled out between 6 and 12 months in both groups, with no increase after 6 months. Percent of excess weight loss did not increase in the eRYGB group after 6 months. An extended Roux limb did not significantly affect body weight, BMI, absolute weight loss, or precent of excess weight loss at any time point when the two groups were compared. A trend toward an increased proportion of patients with >50% excess weight loss ( p = 0.07) was observed in the extended Roux limb group. In this series, no difference in weight loss outcome variables were observed up to 1 year after laparoscopic RYGB. Thus, extending Roux limb length from < or =100 cm to 150 cm did not significantly improve weight loss outcome in patients with a BMI < 50 kg/m2.
    Surgical Endoscopy 07/2003; 17(7):1055-60. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is now performed laparoscopically widely with low morbidity and mortality. However, in some cases long-term adequate weight loss is not satisfied because of dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy. Therefore, a prosthetic material and bio-membranes have been used to prevent dilatation. In this study, we used posterior rectus sheath by laparoscopy, to evaluate feasibility and safety of the procedure. 20 Yorkshire pigs, under general anesthesia, had a standard laparoscopic RYGBP. In addition, 10 had their gastrojejunostomy anastomosis wrapped with 2x10 cm posterior rectus sheath. Clinical and operative outcome after operation were compared with the control group of laparoscopic RYGBP cases. The median weight of the pigs was 46.1 kg (range 42-51) in the posterior rectus sheath-applied group and 45.2 kg (range 42-49) in the control group. All gastrojejunostomies in the posterior rectus sheath-applied group were successfully reinforced laparoscopically. Both groups loss weight compared with their normal growth weight, but there was no significant difference in the median weight loss between the two groups. Two pigs in the posterior rectus sheath-applied group developed a stenosis at the gastrojejunostomy anastomosis following RYGBP. All pigs in the posterior rectus sheath-applied group were found to develop hypertrophic smooth muscle and connective tissue scarring at the gastrojejunostomy on histologic examination. Laparoscopic application of posterior rectus sheath around the gastrojejunostomy in laparoscopic RYGBP is feasible and safe. The sheath-applied group developed stenosis and connective tissue scarring. Additional research is needed to evaluate effectiveness in preventing dilation of the anastomosis.
    Obesity Surgery 05/2003; 13(2):258-62. · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • B P Jacob, G Dakin, C Divino, W Kim, M Gagner
    Surgical Endoscopy 03/2003; 17(2):354; author reply 355. · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Brian P Jacob, Michel Gagner
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    ABSTRACT: Since the gastric bypass was first described for weight-reduction surgery almost 50 years ago, a number of remarkable contributions have been made to the field. These advances have led to significant modifications of the technique, evolution of laparoscopic bariatric surgery equipment, and improvement of long-term results. Despite the currently wide-spread practice of laparoscopic bariatric surgery, the precise technique for laparoscopic gastric bypass still varies from institution to institution, and the surgery continues to carry a morbidity rate. Advances in laparoscopic equipment, technology, and our understanding of the pathophysiology behind weight loss, have allowed surgeons to modify the procedure described originally to minimize the morbidity and maximize long-term weight loss. This chapter describes the technique of laparoscopic gastric bypass used at a major academic center that performs over 1000 bariatric procedures each year. In addition, the many recent advances in methodology and pathophysiology are described in detail.
    Surgical technology international 02/2003; 11:119-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel transplantation represents a valid therapeutic option for patients with intestinal failure, obviating the need for long-term total parenteral nutrition. Recently, reports have shown the feasibility of performing living related intestinal transplantation using segmental small bowel grafts. The limitations of this technique include inadequate harvested small bowel lengths, as compared with the lengths obtained in cadaveric small bowel harvests, and large incisions for the donor. In this pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility of laparoscopically harvesting long segments of proximal jejunum for small bowel transplantation using a porcine model. The results can be used to evaluate the potential for applying this technique in human cases. For this study 10 yorkshire pigs were used. Under general anesthesia, each pig underwent laparoscopic segmental resection of 200 cm of proximal jejunum on a vascular pedicle. The harvested graft then was autoreimplanted using an open technique by anastomosing the vascular pedicle to the superior mesenteric vessels. Success was determined 2 hours after anastomosis by visually identifying a pink graft with viable-appearing mucosa, an artery with a strong thrill, and palpable venous flow. The animals were then sacrificed. The mean operation time required to laparoscopically harvest the small bowel graft was 80 min (range, 35-120 min), and the mean length of harvested graft was 220 cm (range, 200-260 cm). The mean length of the graft's vascular pedicle was 4.5 cm (range, 4-5 cm). All 10 grafts were successfully harvested laparoscopically and then reimplanted using an open technique. All the grafts maintained good vascular flow, and showed no evidence of mucosal necrosis at necropsy. Obviously, further studies would be required to examine the long-term results of reimplanting a laparoscopically harvested small bowel graft, but proposals for such studies is beyond the scope of this report. Minimally invasive techniques can be used to harvest proximal small bowel grafts for living related small bowel transplantation.
    Surgical Endoscopy 01/2003; 16(12):1786-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

198 Citations
43.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007
    • Mount Sinai Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Surgery
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Surgery
      New York City, New York, United States