Ahmet Colak

Karadeniz Technical University, Atrabazandah, Trabzon, Turkey

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Publications (133)201.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate endometrial echotexture changes on ultrasonographic digital images during subclinical endometritis using a computer-assisted image analysis program. Endometrial samples were collected from 140 Brown Swiss cows (days in milk=35±3) using a cytobrush method and classified as having a non-inflamed uterus (n=66) and uterus with acute (n=42), subacute (n=21), and chronic (n=11) inflammations. The mean cellular infiltration density was 0%, 31±5%, 37±6%, and 16±8% for cows with non-inflamed uterus and cows with acute, subacute, and chronic uterine inflammations (P<0.0001). As the cell infiltration density increased, both cervical diameter and mean gray level did not change. There were a liner decrease in homogeneity and a linear increase in contrast in response to increased cellular infiltration density. The sensitivity and specificity were 79.73% and 46.97% for the homogeneity value and 59.46% and 69.70% for the contrast value, respectively. In conclusion, monitoring endometrial echotexture alterations, especially homogeneity and contrast, changed depending on the cellular density and inflammation status and may be potential diagnostic markers for subclinical endometritis in cows. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Animal Reproduction Science 02/2015; 155. DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.01.015 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: A relatively new local type of eggplant, Solanum melongena L. ‘Kadife’ is widely consumed in Turkey because of its economic availability and good nutritional qualities. However, the high polyphenol content of eggplant renders it susceptible to unattractive oxidative browning catalyzed by polyphenol oxides (PPOs). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to characterize PPO in this eggplant cultivar at three stages of its development. Methods: In this study, we determined substrate specificity, optimum pH and temperature, and optimum substrate concentration of the partial purified eggplant fruits PPO during ripening. Results: L-DOPA was proved to be the preferred PPO substrate in all three stages of ripening. Optimum activity was observed at pH 7.0 for PPO in extracts of ripening and overly-ripe eggplant, while activity in extracts of immature eggplant exhibited a broad pH optimum between, pH 5.0 and 7.0. In general, at all ripening stages, PPO was most active at 30°C and was most sensitive to inhibition by sodium metabisulphite and ascorbic acid. The metal ions (Hg2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ and Co2+) mostly inhibited PPO activities. Conclusion: These data regarding the properties of PPO should enhance understanding of the browning reaction in eggplant and lead to the development of techniques for controlling this undesirable process.
    Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 08/2014; 40(1):44-50. DOI:10.5505/tjb.2015.27146
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate nosocomial infections associated with central venous catheter (CVC) in Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit (NSICU) and to discuss the means of prevention. Material and Methods: The patients who were admitted to Neurosurgery ICU at the GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital between the years of 2008 to 2011 were evaluated for the study. All the patient medical records that were collected at the Hospital Infection Control Committee were screened retrospectively. Of the 426 patients' medical records that were screened, 145 patients with CVC were included in this study. Results: A total of 145 patients who were treated with CVC in NSICU were followed up. Of the 145 patients, 98 were surgically treated for main diagnosis and their CVC was inserted under operation room conditions. The remaining 47 patients were followed up in NSICU and their CVC was inserted in the environment of ICU. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (25%, n= 10) was the most commonly isolated agent from the patients with CVC-induced infections, followed by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (16%, n=4). Conclusion: In this study, the rate of CVC related infection of blood circulation was higher in the patients who underwent surgery and whose catheter was inserted in the operation room. It can be postulated that surgical stress might result immunosuppression that predisposes CVC patients to infections. Key words: Intensive Care, Central Venous Catheterization, Infection
    Journal of Neurological Sciences 01/2014; 31(3):557-567. · 0.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The D-glucose/D-xylose isomerase was purified from a thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans TH2, by precipitating with heat shock and using Q-Sepharose ion exchange column chromatography, and then characterized. The purified enzyme had a single band having molecular weight of 49 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of D-glucose as a substrate, the optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 80°C and 7.5, respectively. The purified xylose isomerase of G. thermodenitrificans TH2 was extremely stable at pH 7.5 after 96 h incubation at 4°C and 50°C. When the thermal stability profile was analyzed, it was determined that the purified enzyme was extremely stable during incubation periods of 4 months and 4 days at 4°C and 50°C, respectively. The K m and V max values of the purified xylose isomerase from G. thermodenitrificans TH2 were calculated as 32 mM and 4.68 μmol/min per mg of protein, respectively. Additionally, it was detected that some metal ions affected the enzyme activity at different ratios. The enzyme was active and stable at high temperatures and nearly neutral pHs which are desirable for the usage in the food and ethanol industry.
    Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 01/2014; 50(1). DOI:10.1134/S0003683814010062 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An esterase from a thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DF20, was partially purified. Final purification factor was found to be 64.5-fold using Q-Sepharose ion exchange column chromatography. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of a single active esterase. The substrate specificity of this esterase was high for p-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB) substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 7.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The pH and heat stability profiles show that this enzyme is more stable under neutral conditions at 50 degrees C. K-m and V-max values for this esterase acting on pNPB were 0.12 mM and 54.6 U/mg protein, respectively. Presence of 10% (v/v) acetonitrile in the reaction medium indicated that purified enzyme was strongly inhibited. It was also detected that some metal ions affected enzyme activity at different rates. As a result, it was observed that esterase from Geobacillus sp. DF20 has extreme temperature and pH stabilities. Therefore, the stability and K-m value of the enzyme make this study interesting when compared with the literature.
    Turkish Journal of Chemistry 01/2014; 38(4):538-546. DOI:10.3906/kim-1308-23 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To purify and characterize an esterase from a thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus sp. TF17. Methods: The crude esterase was purified by using acetone precipitation and ion exchange choromatography methods and characterized. Results: The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 50 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The purified enzyme was extremely stable in the range of pH 4.0-9.0 after 72 hour incubation at 4 degrees C. The thermal stability profile shows that this enzyme is stable in the range of 30-50 degrees C after 72 h incubation. The K-m and V-max values for this esterase in the presence of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB) as substrate were found as 0.056 mM and 19.38 U/mg protein, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited more than about 60% in the presence of some organic solvents such as isopropanol and acetonitrile. Additionally, it was detected that some metal ions affect the enzyme activity at different ratio. Conclusion: An esterase was purified and characterized from Geobacillus sp. TF17. The pH and thermal stability of purified enzyme are quite high. The data obtained from this study show that the purified esterase has advantages for industrial or biotechnological applications in terms of especially its high thermal-and pH-stability.
    Türk Biyokimya Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 09/2013; 38(3). DOI:10.5505/tjb.2013.36035 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    Ahmet Colak, Hakan Simsek, Serdar Kaya
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    ABSTRACT: New techniques have minimized the incision length and thus required modifications of surgical instruments. The Taylor retractor is one of these instruments. We therefore designed several modifications of the classical Taylor retractor. The following structural modifications were made on the classical Taylor retractor: First, we provided detachable blades with three different lengths (60, 70, 80 mm). Second, we breached a slit wide enough to let the intervertebral disc rongeurs to nestle down in it. Third, instead of a single sharp tip at the end of the blade, an arched blade that had two smooth tips was designed. Adjustable blades allowed placing the retractor just on the skin without any space between the retractor and skin by sliding the retractor over its blade downwards, thus providing a low-profile surgical retraction. The slit facilitated reaching the other side of the disc by leaning against the retractor. Pressing slightly and lowering the retractor subsided the skin and the paravertebral muscle, consequently facilitated motion of rongeurs and provided better exposure owing to low profile retraction. The arched blade with two tips served better placement with less traumatization at the facet joint. The relevant modifications facilitated the surgical procedure. We believe one retractor with adjustable blades is enough for more comfortable surgery at any depth.
    Turkish neurosurgery 09/2013; 23(5):590-592. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.5973-12.1 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ganglioglioma is one of the rare mixed neuronal glial tumors of the central nerve system. It is responsible for 0.4 - 2% of the intracranial tumors observed in infants and young matures. Its most common localization is the supratentorial region. Typically, the first symptom is epilepsy. Due to the glial structure, that rare tumor can exhibit a malign transformation. Growing slowly through several months or years, it forms neurological dysfunction. The standard treatment of that supratentorial tumor is usually total resection. If an anaplastic quality is observed, the patient undergoes radiotherapy after the surgical intervention. In this article, we presented a 53-year-old patient who presented with headache and dysphasia. The patient was operated for the cystic mass in the left parietal lobe reported as an abscess. The pathology was reported as ganglioglioma and we discussed the case according to the literature.
    Turkish neurosurgery 07/2013; 23(4):557-560. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.5682-12.2 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An esterase from Lycoperdon pyriforme was characterized. The enzyme had a maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 40C with p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate. Km and Vmax values were calculated as 2.13 mM and 0.65 U/mg protein, respectively. The enzyme activity was conserved more than 90% over a broad range of pH (3.0–9.0) at 4C after 24 h of incubation. The activity increased 37 ± 3.6% after 120 min of incubation at 40C. Li+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the enzyme 12 ± 1.8, 16 ± 2.5 and 15 ± 2.5%, respectively. The esterase was inhibited in different ratios by some detergents such as Triton X-114, Triton X-100, Tween 20 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) and sodium dodecylsulfate. It retained most of its activity in the presence of methanol and dimethylsulphoxide at the final concentration of 10% (v/v). pH and moderate thermal stability of L. pyriforme esterase and its activity in some organic solvents could make it useful for some industrial purposes such as detergent and paper industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSEsterases play a major role in the degradation of natural materials and industrial pollutants, viz., cereal wastes, plastics and other toxic chemicals. They are also useful in the synthesis of optically pure compounds, perfumes and antioxidants. Because of these biocatalytic applications, it may be interesting to study novel esterases from different organisms. Therefore, it is important to study esterase activity of Lycoperdon pyriforme. In this way, a new esterase having potential applications can be found.
    Journal of Food Biochemistry 04/2013; 37(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2011.00621.x · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was purified from Lactarius piperatus (L.) Pers. by using Sepharose 4B‐L‐tyrosine‐p‐amino benzoic acid affinity column. Optimum pH and temperature of purified PPOs of L. piperatus were found to be 7.0 and 20C, respectively, by using catechol as a substrate. The enzyme retained 100% of its original activity at 4C and its optimum pH value for 24 and 72 h. L. piperatus PPO was also quite stable at 20C after 4 h incubation. The K m and V max values were calculated as 1 mM and 25 U/mg protein, respectively. Ascorbic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor for the enzyme. The mushroom PPO was an effective biocatalyst in the selected organic solvents such as dichloromethane, heptane and toluene when using catechin as a substrate. All data support that L. piperatus has a highly active PPO possessing similar biochemical and kinetic characteristics to some plant PPO enzymes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSPolyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are a group of copper‐containing enzymes that are widely distributed from bacteria to mammals. Some different mushroom PPOs are subjected to further characterization studies in terms of their biochemical characteristics and their potentials in biotechnological applications. So, purification and characterization studies for PPOs from new sources are very important to explain their biochemical properties and behavior. Thus, one more enzyme may also find applications in food or drug industries.
    Journal of Food Biochemistry 02/2013; 37(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2011.00604.x · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concomitant tubercular and fungal cerebellar abscess is rare and we report the first concomitant recurrent multi-lobulated tubercular and fungal cerebellar abscess in an immunocompromised girl with Histiocytosis-X. She presented with cerebellar abscess history diagnosed during the ongoing treatment for tuberculous meningitis. The abscess was drained. Upon the detection of cerebellar abscess recurrence and pulmonary infection, she was referred to our clinic five weeks after the first surgical intervention. Patient was conscious, co-operating but confused. She had severe cachexia, stiff neck and fever. Fundus examination showed bilateral papilledema. Cranial MR images revealed multiple lobulated lesions. Suboccipital craniectomy was performed and abscess was evacuated in toto. Lesion was multi-lobulated. Thick, yellow-gray purulent material was drained. Histopathological examinations yielded Langhans giant cells,budding and branching fungal structures. Fungal infection was identified. We emphasize that posterior decompression and total resection should be considered first in the management of lesions with mass effect in the posterior fossa. Also the presence of concomitant fatal fungal abscess highlights that although the clinic and former diagnoses of the patient may direct the clinician to a certain pathogen, unusual resistant organisms should not be.
    Turkish neurosurgery 01/2013; 23(1):88-94. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.3718-10.1 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate nitric oxide (NOx) concentration in infected and non-infected mammary quarters of dairy heifers before and after calving. The relationship between bacterial species and NOx concentrations, as well as correlation between NOx concentrations and postpartum somatic cell count (SCC), was assessed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the bacteria commonly isolated during the pre- and postpartum period. Infected quarters had greater NOx concentrations than non-infected quarters before (30.81 v. 22.83 μM/ml, P < 0.05) and after (9.56 v. 5.77 μM/ml, P < 0.0001) calving. It was determined that the interaction between sampling period and infectious status had no effect on NOx concentration (P < 0.16). Infected quarters had greater SCC (log10) than healthy quarters (4.95 v. 4.39; P < 0.0001). NOx concentrations, however, did not correlate with SCC (r = 0.02). In summary, changes in NOx concentration were mainly dependent on the infectious status of the quarters with variations among the bacterial species (P < 0.05).
    animal 10/2012; 7(3):1-6. DOI:10.1017/S1751731112001917 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate results of surgery in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis (DS) patients over 70 years old. MATERIAL and This is a non-randomized retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of 34 patients older than 70 years who underwent surgery. At the end of two-year follow-up period, preoperative and postoperative courses were assessed by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Visual Analog Scales (VAS). The mean age was 75 years (range 70-86 years). The mean duration of symptoms was 13.5 years (range 2-30 years). All patients underwent physiotherapy and also 15 (11 female, 4 male) patients used brace. L4-L5 was the most commonly affected level (n=26), Preoperative ODI and VAS scores were mean 71,63 (range 34-100) and 6,77 (range 2-9) (p < 0,05). Postoperative ODI and VAS scores were mean 22,73 (range 0-100) and 2,13 (range 0-10) (p < 0,05). Patients were asked if they had known the outcome, would they accept surgical treatment or not. 86.6% (n=26) of the patients answered the question positively. A conventional decompressive laminectomy with foraminotomy and posterolateral fusion in situ with transpedicular instrumentation is necessary and reduces pain and recovers functional disability in elderly patients over 70 years old with DS.
    Turkish neurosurgery 09/2012; 22(5):534-9. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.5981-12.1 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Particulate matter is an important air-pollutant and its toxicity has been reported. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) constitute a large portion of particulate matter. Therefore, we established our study to investigate the effects of DEP on neural tissue in early stage chicken embryos. MATERIAL and Four study groups and one control group, each of which included 24 objects were designed. Eggs were incubated for 30 hours. Solutions of DEP containing 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/0.1 ml were prepared with serum saline. At the end of thirty hours diesel exhaust particle solutions were administered under the embryonic discs. After 72nd hour of the incubation, embryos were excised and evaluated macroscopically and histopathologically. The difference between the embryos that were defined as poorly and well developed, was found statistically significant (p < 0.05). Neural tube defects were detected in 16 of 104 embryos. Statistically significant association between the administration of DEP and development of neural tube defect was identified (p=0.037). Thus, the direct neurotoxic effects of DEP, which the whole population encounters inevitably, have been shown in the early stages of embryonic development. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of these particles in the later stages of embryonic development.
    Turkish neurosurgery 01/2012; 22(1):77-82. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.4965-11.1 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic subdural hematoma is a very rarely observed complication after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). A 21-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with complaining of headache, weakness and tremor. The fundoscopic examination revealed slightly indistinct border of the papilla and neurological examination findings were normal. The cranial computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings demonstrated three-ventricular hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis and ETV was performed. The symptoms got better after the operation. At 1½ month postoperatively the patient reapplied to our clinic with a symptom of severe headache. Cranial BT imaging demonstrated enlargement of subdural hematoma. The hematoma was treated by burr-hole evacuation and drainage and totally disappeared in the postoperative period. The follow-up CT scan was evaluated as normal. Nowadays, ETV is accepted as a safe and an alternative method for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus instead of shunt operation. Chronic subdural hematoma is a rarely observed complication after ETV.
    Turkish neurosurgery 01/2012; 22(1):119-22. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.3336-10.0 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An anterior cervical decompression and fusion operation was complicated by extensive bleeding from the disc space. Histopathological evaluation of the resected specimen revealed the diagnosis as the very first reported case of capillary hemangioma in intervertebral disc space. Retrospective review of the preoperative MRI demonstrated supporting findings of a capillary hemangioma within the cervical intervertebral disc.
    European Spine Journal 07/2011; 20 Suppl 2:S157-60. DOI:10.1007/s00586-010-1457-z · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate time-dependent changes in leptin concentrations in brain tissue following experimental traumatic brain injury and to examine the relationship with cytokines. After circular craniectomy, 33 male Wistar-albino rats were positioned on a stereotaxic frame and subjected to cortical contusion injury and then divided into 3 groups based on the depth of deformation as: 0 mm (sham controls, n=3), 1.5 mm (moderate injury, n=15) and 2.7 mm (severe injury, n=15). Animals were sacrificed on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days post-injury. One day after moderate injury, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and leptin levels were found to be markedly increased in the brain tissue. On the 3rd and 5th days, the levels returned to the shamcontrol levels. Following severe injury, IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-? levels increased in correlation after the 1st day and reached the sham-control levels on the same days. However, leptin tissue levels decreased on the 1st and 3rd days and normalized to the sham-control levels on the 5th day. Our results showed that the release of leptin is decreased in the early stage of severe injury. Thus, leptin replacement may play an important role in therapy in cases with severe traumatic brain injury.
    Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery: TJTES 07/2011; 17(4):298-302. DOI:10.5505/tjtes.2011.69077 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and endocrinological effects of four different treatments for the induction of abortion in bitches. For this purpose, 28 pregnant bitches between days 25 and 35 of gestation, were randomly assigned to four groups. In group I (n = 7), only aglepristone (AGL, 10mg/kg bw, two injections 24 h apart, s.c.) was administered. In group II (n = 7), AGL (as in group I), cabergolin (CAB, 5 μg/kg, daily p.o., until completion of abortion) and misoprostol (MIS, 200 μg for bitches with ≤ 20 kg bw, 400 μg for bitches with > 20 kg bw, daily intravaginally, until completion of abortion) were administered. In group III (n = 7), AGL (as in group I) and MIS (as in group II) were administered. In group IV (n = 7) AGL, (as in group I) and cloprostenol (CLO, 1μg/kg bw, s.c., two injections 24 h apart with the AGL injections) were combined. In all groups, bitches were examined daily, clinically and ultrasonographically to monitor resorptions/abortions. To measure serum progesterone (P4) and total estrogen (TE) concentrations, blood samples were collected in all groups immediately after the first AGL administration and every other day until completion of abortion. No statistical differences were found between groups concerning the duration until completion of abortion following treatment (n.s.); however, in Group III, 6 d after the start of treatment all pregnancies were terminated whereas in Group I, II and IV, only 57.1% (4/7), 85.7 % (6/7) and 42.8 % (3/7) of pregnancies were terminated. In the latter groups, all pregnancies were terminated between days 8 and 10 after the start of treatment. In Group IV, P4 concentrations on days two and one before the beginning of abortion and the day the abortion started was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.01). No statistical differences were found between groups for TE concentrations (P > 0.05). In Groups I, II and III, no severe side effects occurred. Severe vomiting after each treatment and until the end of abortion was observed in Group IV only. In conclusion, only when a combination of AGL and MIS was used abortion was completed within 6 d in all bitches whereas the additional use of CAB did not improve the treatment.
    Theriogenology 03/2011; 76(1):74-82. DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.01.019 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior cervical fusion procedures are among the most commonly performed spinal operations. Investigators have reported pseudoarthrosis rates ranging from 3 to 36% following anterior cervical fusion operations. The diagnosis of pseudoarthrosis has been based on the triad of pain, radiographic evidence of instability, and loss of correction or fixation. Scintigraphic imaging may be involved in pseudoarthrosis investigation by increase of nuclear agent uptake at the operated level but today it is not used in clinical practice as a routine imaging modality. MATERIAL and Nine cases operated for degenerative disc disease on single level but suffering postoperative prolonged neck pain were involved in the study. All cases underwent 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) bone SPECT later than postoperative twelfth month. Results showed a correlation between severity of neck pain and fusion status. Increased and prolonged uptake of nuclear agent should cause a suspicion on so-called fusion, proven by radiology.
    Turkish neurosurgery 01/2011; 21(4):539-44. · 0.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
201.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Karadeniz Technical University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Atrabazandah, Trabzon, Turkey
  • 2012
    • Istanbul Training and Research Hospital
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2008–2012
    • Ataturk University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Kalikala, Erzurum, Turkey
    • Haydarpasa Numune Research and Teaching Hospital
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2008–2011
    • Maltepe University
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2002–2010
    • Gulhane Military Medical Academy
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
    • Kafkas University
      Cars, Kars, Turkey
  • 2003–2008
    • Taksim Training and Research Hospital
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 1990–1996
    • Hacettepe University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
  • 1993
    • Balikesir State Hospital
      Hadrianutherae, Balıkesir, Turkey
  • 1991
    • Ankara University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey