Are you R Paul?

Claim your profile

Publications (6)21.31 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SSR125329A ([(Z)-3-(4-Adamantan-2-yl-3,5-dichloro-phenyl)-allyl]-cyclohexyl-ethyl-amine) is a new ligand exhibiting high affinity for sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors and for the human Delta8-Delta7-sterol isomerase. Here we show that this molecule has potent immunoregulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. SSR125329A inhibited staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced mouse splenocyte proliferation in vitro, whereas in vivo it enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic release of interleukin-10 while simultaneously inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis. It also prevented graft-versus-host disease in B6D2F1 mice and protected Mrl/lpr mice against the development of its spontaneous rheumatoid-like syndrome. There is high interplay of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory processes, particularly in human rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this study provide substantial evidence that sigma receptor ligands may represent a new effective approach for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2003; 456(1-3):123-31. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SR31747 is a novel agent that elicits immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects. This drug was shown to inhibit Delta8-Delta7 sterol isomerase in yeast. To test whether this enzyme could also be an SR31747 target in mammals, the binding, antiproliferative and sterol biosynthesis inhibitory properties of various drugs were studied in recombinant sterol isomerase-producing yeast cells. Our results clearly show that SR31747 is a high affinity ligand of recombinant mammalian sterol isomerase (Kd = 1 nM). Tridemorph, a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor that is widely used in agriculture as an antifungal agent, is also a powerful inhibitor of murine and human sterol isomerases (IC50 value in the nanomolar range). Some drugs, like cis-flupentixol, trifluoperazine, 7-ketocholestanol and tamoxifen, inhibit SR31747 binding only with the mammalian enzymes, whereas other drugs, like haloperidol and fenpropimorph, are much more effective with the yeast enzyme than with the mammalian ones. Emopamil, a high affinity ligand of human sterol isomerase, is inefficient in inhibiting SR31747 binding to its mammalian target, suggesting that the SR31747 and emopamil binding sites on mammalian sterol isomerase do not overlap. In contrast, SR31747 binding inhibition by tamoxifen is very efficient and competitive (IC50 value in the nanomolar range), indicating that mammalian sterol isomerase contains a so-called antiestrogen binding site. Tamoxifen is found to selectively inhibit sterol biosynthesis at the sterol isomerase step in the cells that are producing the mammalian enzyme in place of their own sterol isomerase. Finally, we also show that tridemorph, a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor widely used in agriculture as an antifungal agent, is not selective of yeast Delta8-Delta7 sterol isomerase but is also highly efficient against murine Delta8-Delta7 sterol isomerase or human Delta8-Delta7 sterol isomerase. This observation contrasts with our already published results showing that fenpropimorph, another sterol isomerase inhibitor used in agriculture, is only poorly efficient against the mammalian enzymes.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/1998; 285(3):1296-302. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SR 31747A, defined as a sigma ligand, is a novel immunosuppressive agent that blocks proliferation of human and mouse lymphocytes. Using a radiolabeled chemical probe, we here purified a target of SR 31747A and called it SR 31747A-binding protein (SR-BP). Purified SR-BP retained its binding properties and migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gel as a Mr 28,000 protein. Cloning of the cDNA encoding human SR-BP shows an open reading frame for a 223-amino acid protein, which is homologous to the recently cloned sigma 1 receptor. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence was found to be related to fungal C8-C7 sterol isomerase, encoded by the ERG2 gene. The ERG2 gene product has been identified recently as the molecular target of SR 31747A that mediates antiproliferative effects of the drug in yeast. Northern blot analysis of SR-BP gene expression revealed a single transcript of 2 kilobases which was widely expressed among organs, with the highest abundance in liver and the lowest abundance in brain. Subcellular localization analysis in various cells, using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against SR-BP, demonstrated that this protein was associated with the nuclear envelope. When studying the binding of SR 31747A on membranes from yeast expressing SR-BP, we found a pharmacological profile of sigma 1 receptors; binding was displaced by (+)-pentazocine, haloperidol, and (+)-SKF 10,047, with (+)-SKF 10, 047 being a more potent competitor than (-)-SKF 10,047. Scatchard plot analysis revealed Kd values of 7.1 nM and 0.15 nM for (+)-pentazocine and SR 31747A, respectively, indicating an affinity of SR-BP 50-fold higher for SR 31747A than for pentazocine. Additionally, we showed that pentazocine, a competitive inhibitor of SR 31747A binding, also prevents the immunosuppressive effect of SR 31747A. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that SR-BP represents the molecular target for SR 31747A in mammalian tissues, which could be critical for T cell proliferation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1997; 272(43):27107-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In our preceding paper, we demonstrated that both human and rat lymphocytes possess saturable high-affinity binding sites for the new sigma ligand SR 31747. Here we investigate the potential activity of this ligand on immune responses. In vitro, our study shows that SR 31747 exerts a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferative response to mitogens on mouse and human lymphocytes without affecting cell viability. This suppressive effect elicited by SR 31747 occurs over a concentration range which correlates with the pharmacological profile of the molecule in binding assays, strongly suggesting that SR 31747 acts through a receptor-mediated process. We showed that the SR 31747 effect, which was observed on purified T lymphocytes, affects a late event in the activation process which occurs after the G1 during the S phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, no anti-proliferative effect was observed in a variety of tumor cell lines, supporting a specific effect limited to normal immune cells. In vivo, in mice, treatment with SR 31747 prevented both graft-versus-host disease and delayed-type hypersensitivity granuloma formation, while antibody response to sheep red blood cells was not affected. These results strongly suggest that the sigma-related receptor recognized by SR 31747 is very likely coupled to a biological function of lymphocytes.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 08/1994; 52(2):193-203. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interactions of a new compound SR 31747 with sigma sites were examined in rat spleen membranes and in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Nanomolar concentrations of SR 31747 selectively inhibited in a non-competitive manner the binding of the prototypic sigma ligands [3H](+)-pentazocine, [3H](+)-3PPP and [3H]DTG on rat spleen membranes. Characterization of SR 31747 binding sites using [3H]SR 31747 as a ligand showed that this compound binds reversibly, with high affinity to one class of sites on rat spleen membranes (Kd 0.66 nM, Bmax 5646 fmol/mg protein). The pharmacological profile of [3H]SR 31747 binding sites was consistent with the presence of specific sites distinct from classical sigma 1 and sigma 2 receptor subtypes strongly suggesting an allosteric modulation of sigma sites by SR 31747. Similarly, [3H]SR 31747 binding sites were demonstrated on human PBL and also on purified subpopulations of human mononuclear cells (granulocytes, NK cells, T4, T8 and B lymphocytes). Administered to mice by i.p. or oral route 30 min before sacrifice, SR 31747 strongly inhibited the binding of [3H](+)-3PPP to mice spleen membranes with ED50 values of 0.18 and 1.43 mg/kg, respectively. Taken together these results could suggest a potential immunological activity of SR 31747 either directly or through allosteric modulation of peripheral sigma sites.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 08/1994; 52(2):183-92. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The biochemical, electrophysiological and behavioural effects of SR 31742A, a novel and selective ligand of sigma sites in brain, labelled with (+)-[3H]3PPP (Ki = 5.3 +/- 0.3 nM), were investigated in rodents and compared with those of DA antagonists having (haloperidol) or not (spiroperidol) a high affinity for sigma sites. Like haloperidol but unlike spiroperidol, SR 31742A, (ED50 = 0.065 mg/kg, i.p., and 0.21 mg/kg, p.o.) antagonized sigma-dependent turning behaviour in mice and inhibited (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) the spontaneous firing of hippocampal (CA3) neurones in urethane-anaesthetized rats. In chloral hydrate-anaesthetized rats, like classical antipsychotic compounds, SR 31742A (0.625-5 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the number of spontaneously active A9 and A10 DA cells after single administration and produced an opposite effect after repeated injections. The drug SR 31742A reduced (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) the hyperactivity elicited by various drugs including that produced by injection of (+)-amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens and impaired avoidance responses at doses (5, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), sparing escape behaviour. SR 31742A lacked affinity for DA receptors and neither did the compound induce catalepsy nor antagonize such effects elicited by apomorphine as climbing, hypothermia, stereotypy or the inhibition of firing of DA neurones. SR 31742A did not affect the basal metabolism of DA but at 10 mg/kg (i.p.) it significantly reduced the amphetamine-induced rise in levels of 3-MT in the striatum of mice. Together, these results indicate a modulatory role for sigma sites upon the activity of hippocampal and DA systems and that sigma ligands exert effects, which suggest antipsychotic potential.
    Neuropharmacology 07/1993; 32(6):605-15. · 4.11 Impact Factor