[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the molecular programs of normal and abnormal genital development, clear-cut definition of androgen-dependent gene expression patterns, without the influence of genotype (46, XX vs. 46, XY), is warranted. Previously, we have identified global gene expression profiles in genital-derived fibroblasts that differ between 46, XY males and 46, XY females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) due to inactivating mutations of the androgen receptor (AR). While these differences could be due to cell autonomous changes in gene expression induced by androgen programming, recent work suggests they could also be influenced by the location from which the fibroblasts were harvested (topology). To minimize the influence of topology, we compared gene expression patterns of fibroblasts derived from identical urogenital anlagen: the scrotum in normally virilized 46, XY males and the labia majora from completely feminized 46, XY individuals with CAIS.
612 transcripts representing 440 unique genes differed significantly in expression levels between scrotum and CAIS labia majora, suggesting the effects of androgen programming. While some genes coincided with those we had identified previously (TBX3, IGFBP5, EGFR, CSPG2), a significant number did not, implying that topology had influenced gene expression in our previous experiments. Supervised clustering of gene expression data derived from a large set of fibroblast cultures from individuals with partial AIS revealed that the new, topology controlled data set better classified the specimens.
Inactivating mutations of the AR, in themselves, appear to induce lasting changes in gene expression in cultured fibroblasts, independent of topology and genotype. Genes identified are likely to be relevant candidates to decipher androgen-dependent normal and abnormal genital development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital due to perforated relapsing duodenal ulcer. Clinical, laboratory, and surgical examinations revealed a peripancreatic lymph node gastrinoma as the cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Further examinations established multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) with a germline mutation at codon 1153 (T->A) in exon 7, causing an amino-acid change, from isoleucine to asparagine (Ile348Asn), in the MEN1 gene. The following findings strongly supported a diagnosis of primary lymph node gastrinoma: a rapid fall of the serum gastrin level after operation, the continuous normalization of the serum gastrin level before and after secretin stimulation, the lack of any symptoms, and the absence of another tumor for 13 years after surgical resection of the tumor-bearing lymph node. A review of similar cases in the world literature reveals that not all gastrinomas in lymph nodes are the result of metastastic spread. A long-term symptom-free follow-up after the excision of a lymphnode gastrinoma is the only reliable criterion for the diagnosis of a primary lymph node tumor. To our knowledge, this is the only well-documented case of a primary lymph node gastrinoma in a patient with MEN1. Our case supports the idea that any gastrinoma in patients with MEN1 should be surgically resected for cure if possible.
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery 01/2006; 13(5):477-81. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrone sulfate (E1S) is the most abundant estrogen in the circulation of adults. The present study was undertaken to assess estrone (E1) and estradiol formation from E1S in freshly resected bone [bone fragments (BFs)] and osteoblast-like cells (hOB) cultured from BFs. Furthermore, we compared estrogen formation from E1S in rat and human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines and that of estrogen formation from E1S with that of aromatization of androstenedione and testosterone in BFs and those from E1S and androstenedione in hOB cells. The bone used was from the head of the femur from a total of 15 women and 12 men. Steroid sulfatase activity (STA) was found, and the formation of estrone and estradiol from E1S was demonstrated. STA was similar in cells derived from BFs of men and women. STA was significantly lower in OS cell lines, compared with hOB cells. Estrogen formation from E1S in BFs was at least 20 times higher than that from androstenedione and about 50 times higher than that from testosterone. Similarly, estrogen formation from E1S in hOB cells exceeded the values derived from aromatization of androstenedione by two orders of magnitude. Based on these results, we conclude that hOB cells express the same pattern of E1S metabolism as resected bone and thus may accurately mirror the in vivo situation in man. In comparison with hOB cells, STA is fundamentally lower in widely used OS cell lines that express an osteoblastic phenotype. This shortcoming precludes their use as model cell lines to unravel STA metabolic pathways and its regulation in nontumorous bone. E1S is a major source of local bioactive estrogen formation in human bone. Because bone is highly susceptible to estrogen action, local estrogen formation from E1S may play an important role in bone maturation and homeostasis, particularly in elderly adults.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer metastasizes to the skeleton to form osteoblastic lesions. Androgen ablation is the current treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. This therapy is palliative, and the disease will return in an androgen-independent form that is preceded by a rising titer of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Here, we investigated the possibility that human osteoblasts might secrete factors that contribute to the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Primary cultures of human osteoblasts were used as a source of conditioned medium (OCM). Proliferation, expression of androgen-regulated genes, and transactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) were monitored in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in response to OCM using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Northern blot analysis, and reporter gene constructs. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) present in OCM were measured, and its contribution to proliferation and expression of PSA were investigated by neutralization studies with anti IL-6 antibodies.
OCM increased the proliferation and expression of PSA at both the protein and RNA levels in LNCaP cells. Synergistic increases in the activities of PSA (6.1 kb)- and pARR(3)-tk-luciferase reporters were measured in cells cotreated with both OCM and androgen. OCM targeted the NH(2)-terminal domain of the AR. The effect of OCM on transcriptional activity of the AR was inhibited by an antiandrogen. Neutralizing antibodies to IL-6 blocked proliferation and expression of PSA by OCM.
Osteoblasts secrete factors, such as IL-6, that cause androgen-independent induction of PSA gene expression and proliferation of prostate cancer cells by a mechanism that partially relies on the AR. Identifying such molecular mechanisms may lead to improved clinical management of metastatic prostate cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 04/2004; 10(5):1860-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previous studies we established that human bone and human osteoblast-like cells (hOB cells) cultured from bone express 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) activity, as demonstrated by the conversion of testosterone and androstenedione to their corresponding 5alpha-reduced metabolites, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstanedione. Two 5alpha-R isozymes (types 1 and 2) have been identified in various tissues. As their nature in bone is unknown, we investigated which isozymes were expressed in first passage hOB cells cultured from bone specimens obtained from six donors (five women and one man). For comparison, 5alpha-reductase isozyme expression in genital skin fibroblasts cultured from foreskin of three males was determined. Pharmacological and biochemical studies using selective inhibitors of the 5alpha-R isozymes were performed, and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. In hOB cells, LY191704, a potent nonsteroidal selective inhibitor of 5alpha-R type 1, and the 4-azasteroid 17beta-(N,N,-diethyl-carbamoyl)-4-methyl-4-aza-5alpha-androstan-3-one (a dual inhibitor of 5alpha-R types 1 and 2) inhibited 5alpha-R activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of approximately 4 nM. Finasteride, a selective inhibitor of 5alpha-R type 2, blocked 5alpha-R activity with an IC(50) of approximately 60 nM. The IC(50) of progesterone, a physiological substrate for 5alpha-R, was approximately 200 nM. In genital skin fibroblasts, LY191704 inhibited 5alpha-R with an IC(50) of more than 5000 nM, whereas finasteride and 17beta-(N,N,-diethyl-carbamoyl)-4-methyl-4-aza-5alpha-androstan-3-one effectively inhibited 5alpha-R with IC(50) of approximately 4 nM. Experiments to determine 5alpha-reductase activity in homogenates of hOB cells as a function of pH showed very low activity at pH 5.5, but a broad shoulder of activity from pH 6.0-9.0, which was not inhibited by finasteride, but was nearly completely blocked by LY191704. RT-PCR revealed that 5alpha-R type 1 and 2 mRNAs were expressed in both bone and genital skin fibroblasts. Based on our pharmacological and biochemical studies, it appears that 5alpha-R activity in hOB cells is catalyzed predominantly by the type 1 rather than the type 2 isozyme. This expression pattern is in contrast to that in genital skin fibroblasts, where the activity of the type 2 isozyme prevails. As in most androgen target tissues DHT is biologically more active as an androgen than testosterone, DHT is formed in bone by 5alpha-R type 1 action from circulating testosterone, and bone cells also express the androgen receptor, local DHT production may play a physiological role in human bone homeostasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In bone androgens and estrogens exert profound osteoprotective effects. Cultured human osteoblast (hOB)-like cells are able to metabolize circulating androgens or androgen precursors, such as testosterone and androstenedione, respectively, by aromatization (aromatase), 5α-reduction (5α-reductase) and reduction/oxidation at the 17β-position (17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, 17β-HSDs). In this study it was demonstrated that cultured normal human osteoblast-like cells as well as the osteosarcoma cell lines HOS and MG 63 express 17β-HSDs types 1, 2, 3 and 4.