Peter S Talbot

The University of Manchester, Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (26)138.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Impulsive aggression (IA) in adults is associated with brain serotonin (5-HT) system abnormalities and is more common following childhood adversity. Within aggressive behavior, IA and callous unemotional (CU) traits are core components of differentiable factors with opposing 5-HT abnormalities. We aimed to investigate 5-HT abnormalities in IA and potential correlations with severity of childhood adversity while controlling for confounding 5-HT effects of high CU traits and mental disorders. Methods Healthy male subjects (mean age 34 ± 9 years) without high CU traits were recruited with IA ratings in the high (n = 14) and low (n = 13) population extremes. Serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT2A receptor availability was measured in multiple brain regions using positron emission tomography with 11C-DASB and 11C-MDL100907, respectively, and compared between high-IA and low-IA groups. Correlations were measured between SERT and 5-HT2A receptor availability, impulsivity and aggression, and childhood adversity. Results Compared with the low-IA group, SERT were significantly higher in brainstem regions in the high-IA group (by 29.0% ± 11.4%) and modestly lower across cortical regions (by 11.1% ± 6.0%), whereas 5-HT2A receptors were also modestly lower (by 8.6% ± 4.0%). Across all subjects, brainstem SERT were significantly positively correlated with impulsivity, aggression, and childhood trauma ratings. Within the high-IA group, higher brainstem SERT was most strongly predicted by severity of childhood trauma (r = .76 in midbrain). Conclusions Pre-and postsynaptic 5-HT differences are present in men with high levels of IA and are strongly suggestive of a persisting effect of childhood adversity on serotonergic neurodevelopment and emotional-behavioral control.
    Biological psychiatry 12/2012; 72(12):1004–1011. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the main psychoactive component of the recreational drug ecstasy, is a potent serotonin (5-HT) releaser. In animals, MDMA induces 5-HT depletion and toxicity in 5-HT neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate both presynaptic (5-HT transporter, SERT) and postsynaptic (5-HT(2A) receptor) markers of 5-HT transmission in recently abstinent chronic MDMA users compared with matched healthy controls. We hypothesized that MDMA use is associated with lower SERT density and concomitant upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Positron emission tomography studies using the SERT ligand [¹¹C]DASB and the 5-HT(2A) receptor ligand [¹¹C]MDL 100907 were evaluated in 13 current and recently detoxified MDMA users and 13 matched healthy controls. MDMA users reported a mean duration of ecstasy use of 8 years, regular exposure, and at least 2 weeks of abstinence before the scans. SERT and 5-HT(2A) receptor availability (binding potential, BP(ND)) were analyzed with a two-tissue compartment model with arterial input function. Current recreational MDMA use was significantly associated with lower SERT BP(ND) and higher 5-HT(2A) receptor BP(ND) in cortical, but not subcortical regions. Decreased SERT BP(ND) was regionally associated with upregulated 5-HT(2A) receptor BP(ND). In light of the animal literature, the most parsimonious interpretation is that repeated exposure to MDMA in humans, even in moderate amounts, leads to damage in 5-HT neuron terminals innervating the cortex. Alterations in mood, cognition, and impulse control associated with these changes might contribute to sustain MDMA use. The reversibility of these changes upon abstinence remains to be firmly established.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2012; 37(6):1465-73. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scanning properties and analytic methodology of the 5-HT2A receptor-selective positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 11C-MDL100907 have been partially characterised in previous reports. We present an extended characterisation in healthy human subjects. 64 11C-MDL100907 PET scans with metabolite-corrected arterial input function were performed in 39 healthy adults (18-55 years). 12 subjects were scanned twice (duration 150 min) to provide data on plasma analysis, model order estimation, and stability and test-retest characteristics of outcome measures. All other scans were 90 min duration. 3 subjects completed scanning at baseline and following 5-HT2A receptor antagonist medication (risperidone or ciproheptadine) to provide definitive data on the suitability of the cerebellum as reference region. 10 subjects were scanned under reduced 5-HT and control conditions using rapid tryptophan depletion to investigate vulnerability to competition with endogenous 5-HT. 13 subjects were scanned as controls in clinical protocols. Pooled data were used to analyse the relationship between tracer injected mass and receptor occupancy, and age-related decline in 5-HT2A receptors. Optimum analytic method was a 2-tissue compartment model with arterial input function. However, basis function implementation of SRTM may be suitable for measuring between-group differences non-invasively and warrants further investigation. Scan duration of 90 min achieved stable outcome measures in all cortical regions except orbitofrontal which required 120 min. Binding potential (BPP and BPND) test-retest variability was very good (7-11%) in neocortical regions other than orbitofrontal, and moderately good (14-20%) in orbitofrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Saturation occupancy of 5-HT2A receptors by risperidone validates the use of the cerebellum as a region devoid of specific binding for the purposes of PET. We advocate a mass limit of 4.6 μg to remain below 5% receptor occupancy. 11C-MDL100907 specific binding is not vulnerable to competition with endogenous 5-HT in humans. Paradoxical decreases in BPND were found in right prefrontal cortex following reduced 5-HT, possibly representing receptor internalisation. Mean age-related decline in brain 5-HT2A receptors was 14.0±5.0% per decade, and higher in prefrontal regions. Our data confirm and extend support for 11C-MDL100907 as a PET tracer with very favourable properties for quantifying 5-HT2A receptors in the human brain.
    NeuroImage 07/2011; 59(1):271-85. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iterative image reconstruction methods such as ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) are widely used in PET. Reconstructions via OSEM are however reported to be biased for low-count data. We investigated this and considered the impact for dynamic PET. Patient listmode data were acquired in [(11)C]DASB and [(15)O]H(2)O scans on the HRRT brain PET scanner. These data were subsampled to create many independent, low-count replicates. The data were reconstructed and the images from low-count data were compared to the high-count originals (from the same reconstruction method). This comparison enabled low-statistics bias to be calculated for the given reconstruction, as a function of the noise-equivalent counts (NEC). Two iterative reconstruction methods were tested, one with and one without an image-based resolution model (RM). Significant bias was observed when reconstructing data of low statistical quality, for both subsampled human and simulated data. For human data, this bias was substantially reduced by including a RM. For [(11)C]DASB the low-statistics bias in the caudate head at 1.7 M NEC (approx. 30 s) was -5.5% and -13% with and without RM, respectively. We predicted biases in the binding potential of -4% and -10%. For quantification of cerebral blood flow for the whole-brain grey- or white-matter, using [(15)O]H(2)O and the PET autoradiographic method, a low-statistics bias of <2.5% and <4% was predicted for reconstruction with and without the RM. The use of a resolution model reduces low-statistics bias and can hence be beneficial for quantitative dynamic PET.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 02/2011; 56(4):931-49. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • NeuroImage 01/2010; 52. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) is a widely used method of reconstructing PET data. Several authors have reported bias when reconstructing frames containing few counts via OSEM, although the level of bias reported varies substantially. Such bias may lead to errors in biological parameters as derived via dynamic PET. We examine low-statistics bias in OSEM reconstruction of patient data and estimate the subsequent errors in biological parameter estimates. Patient listmode data were acquired during a [<sup>11</sup>C]-DASB scan using a brain PET scanner, the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT). These data were sub-sampled to create many independent, low-count replicates. Each replicate was reconstructed with and without the use of an image based resolution model (PSF), from which bias and variance were calculated as a function of the noise equivalent counts (NEC). Time-activity curves were subsequently generated by Monte Carlo simulation and used to study the propagation of bias from the images into the biological parameters of interest, for which noise and bias were based on the NEC. The investigation was complemented by simulation of a PET scanner. Significant bias was observed when reconstructing data of low statistical quality, for both human and simulated data. For human data, this bias was substantially reduced by including a PSF model (e.g. caudate head, 1.7 M NEC, -5.5% bias with PSF, -13% bias without PSF). For the observed levels of bias, Monte Carlo simulations predicted biases in the binding potential of -4 and -10% (with/without PSF). The use of the PSF changed the variance characteristics of the images, reducing variance at the voxel level for low to moderate numbers of iterations. We conclude that OSEM reconstruction of dynamic PET data can yield parameter estimates of acceptable accuracy (for DASB), despite producing biased images at low statistics. This is however dependent upon the application. The use of a resolution model is show- - n to reduce bias and is thus recommended. The most likely mechanism for this reduction is the suppression of noise. The magnitude of the bias for other tracers and methods of data analysis is yet to be evaluated.
    Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS/MIC), 2009 IEEE; 12/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Sibutramine is a centrally acting monoamine reuptake inhibitor prescribed as an appetite suppressant in the management of obesity. Its effects are mostly attributable to serotonin and norepinephrine transporter (SERT and NET, respectively) inhibition by its potent metabolites mono-desmethylsibutramine (M1) and di-desmethylsibutramine (M2). However, there is a paucity of in vivo data in humans about mechanisms underlying both clinical efficacy and the dose-independent non-response observed in a minority of patients. Twelve healthy male patients (mean age 41 years) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover investigation of brain SERT occupancy by sibutramine 15 mg daily at steady state. Correlations were measured between occupancy and (i) plasma concentrations of sibutramine, M1 and M2; (ii) appetite suppression. (11)C-DASB PET scans were performed on the HRRT camera. Binding potentials (BP(ND)) were calculated by the Logan reference tissue (cerebellum) method. SERT occupancy was modest (mean 30+/-10%), was similar across brain regions, but varied widely across subjects (15-46%). Occupancy was correlated positively (p=0.09) with M2 concentration, but not with sibutramine or M1. No significant appetite suppression was seen at <25% occupancy and greatest suppression was associated with highest occupancy (25-46%). However, several subjects with occupancy (36-39%) in the higher range had no appetite suppression. SERT occupancy by clinical doses of sibutramine is of modest magnitude and may be mediated predominantly by M2 in humans. 5-HT reuptake inhibition may be necessary but is not sufficient for sibutramine's efficacy in humans, supporting preclinical data suggesting that the hypophagic effect requires the co-inhibition of both SERT and NET.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 11/2009; 35(3):741-51. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative non-invasive imaging of target structures in the human central nervous system provided by positron emission tomography (PET) permits investigation of the relationship between molecular events and pharmacological effects in living humans. Due to their prominent role in opiate and stimulant drug misuse and dependence, as well as in nociceptive signaling, µ- and κ-opioid receptors are potential targets for advances in neuro(psycho)pharmacological treatment of these illnesses and syndromes. In this review, we describe recent developments in specific positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals for these opioid receptor subclasses. Implications for further advances and clinical applications of the labeled ligands are discussed. Drug Dev. Res. 67:890–904, 2006. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Drug Development Research 11/2006; 67(12):890 - 904. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    Peter S Talbot, Stephen J Cooper
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    ABSTRACT: In healthy humans, there is an apparent dissociation between cognitive and affective consequences of reduced brain serotonin (5-HT), as rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) causes alterations in a consistent constellation of cognitive processes in the general absence of mood deterioration. This study aimed to investigate possible neural mechanisms underlying this relative dissociation by measuring the effects of reduced 5-HT on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). A total of 16 healthy, euthymic male subjects (mean age 39+/-9 years) without a personal or family history of affective disorder had mood ratings and single photon emission computed tomography scans with the rCBF tracer 99mTc-HMPAO under reduced 5-HT (RTD) and control conditions. Across individuals, modest positive and negative changes in subjective happiness associated with RTD were significantly correlated with change of rCBF in a cluster comprising subgenual (affective) anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and associated regions (Brodmann's area (BA) 25, posterior BA11 and 47, caudate nucleus and ventral striatum; SPM99 p<0.05, corrected). The covariation was such that increasing sadness was associated with increased rCBF and vice versa. Independent of mood change, RTD was associated with reduced rCBF in the dorsal (cognitive) ACC (BA32; SPM99 p<0.05, corrected). The subgenual prefrontal cortex and dorsal ACC are important components of the ventral and dorsal neural systems that regulate and integrate affective and cognitive functions. The results therefore suggest that the dissociation between affective and cognitive consequences of RTD may possibly be attributable to differential effects of reduced 5-HT on these neural systems.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2006; 31(8):1757-67. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid tryptophan (Trp) depletion (RTD) has been reported to cause deterioration in the quality of decision making and impaired reversal learning, while leaving attentional set shifting relatively unimpaired. These findings have been attributed to a more powerful neuromodulatory effect of reduced 5-HT on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) than on dorsolateral PFC. In view of the limited number of reports, the aim of this study was to independently replicate these findings using the same test paradigms. Healthy human subjects without a personal or family history of affective disorder were assessed using a computerized decision making/gambling task and the CANTAB ID/ED attentional set-shifting task under Trp-depleted (n=17; nine males and eight females) or control (n=15; seven males and eight females) conditions, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. There was no significant effect of RTD on set shifting, reversal learning, risk taking, impulsivity, or subjective mood. However, RTD significantly altered decision making such that depleted subjects chose the more likely of two possible outcomes significantly more often than controls. This is in direct contrast to the previous report that subjects chose the more likely outcome significantly less often following RTD. In the terminology of that report, our result may be interpreted as improvement in the quality of decision making following RTD. This contrast between studies highlights the variability in the cognitive effects of RTD between apparently similar groups of healthy subjects, and suggests the need for future RTD studies to control for a range of personality, family history, and genetic factors that may be associated with 5-HT function.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2006; 31(7):1519-25. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor that is used in human and animal medicine as an injectable anesthetic. The illegal use of ketamine as a recreational drug is rapidly growing. Very little is currently known about the consequences of repeated ketamine exposure in the human brain. Animal studies indicate that the prefrontal dopaminergic system is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of repeated administration of NMDA antagonists. In this study, dopamine D1 receptor availability was assessed by using positron emission tomography and the selective D1 receptor radioligand [11C]NNC 112 in a group of 14 recreational chronic ketamine users and matched healthy subjects. History of ketamine abuse was confirmed in subjects by hair analysis. [11C]NNC 112 binding potential was measured with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex D1 receptor availability was significantly up-regulated in chronic ketamine users ([11C]NNC 112 binding potential: mean=1.68 ml/g, SD=0.40) relative to comparison subjects (mean=1.35 ml/g, SD=0.35). No significant differences were noted in other cortical, limbic, or striatal regions. In the chronic ketamine user group, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [11C]NNC 112 binding potential up-regulation was significantly correlated with the number of vials of ketamine (with a vial representing approximately 200-300 mg of ketamine) used per week. Chronic ketamine users exhibited a regionally selective up-regulation of D1 receptor availability in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a phenomenon observed following chronic dopamine depletion in animal studies. These data suggest that the repeated use of ketamine for recreational purposes affects prefrontal dopaminergic transmission, a system critically involved in working memory and executive function.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 01/2006; 162(12):2352-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decrease in dopamine type 2 receptors (D2) and mesolimbic dopamine transmission predisposes animals to consume alcohol. This study measured D2 receptors and dopamine transmission in human alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride. Fifteen AD and 15 healthy control (HC) subjects were scanned before and after a psychostimulant challenge (amphetamine .3 mg/kg intravenous). The outcome measures for baseline D2 receptor availability were binding potential (BP) and the equilibrium partition coefficient (V3''). Amphetamine-induced [11C]raclopride displacement was measured as the difference in V3'' between the two scans. [11C]raclopride BP was significantly reduced by 16.6% in the limbic striatum, 19.2% in the associative striatum, and 21.3% in the sensorimotor striatum in AD subjects compared with HC. The alcohol-dependent subjects showed a blunting of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the limbic striatum: [11C]raclopride displacement was -5.2% +/- 3.6% in AD subjects compared with -13.0% +/- 8.8% in HC. However, no significant difference in [11C]raclopride displacement was seen in the associative (-4.6% +/- 5.8% in AD subjects vs. -6.7 +/- 5.4% in HC) and sensorimotor (-12.3% +/- 7.3% in AD subjects vs. -13.7 +/- 7.5% in HC) subdivisions of the striatum between the two groups. Alcohol dependence was associated with a decrease in D2 receptors in each striatal subdivision, whereas amphetamine-induced dopamine release was reduced in the limbic striatum only.
    Biological Psychiatry 12/2005; 58(10):779-86. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serotonin system is believed to play a role in modulating impulsivity and violence. Previous imaging studies have implicated the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive aggression. This study evaluated regional serotonin transporter distribution in the brain of individuals with impulsive aggression by using positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter PET radiotracer [(11)C]McN 5652. Ten individuals with impulsive aggression and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects underwent [(11)C]McN 5652 PET. All individuals were medication free at the time of scanning. Regional total distribution volumes were derived by using a one-tissue compartment kinetic model with arterial input function. Outcome measures of serotonin transporter availability included the binding potential and the specific-to-nonspecific partition coefficient (V(3)''). Serotonin transporter availability was significantly reduced in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with impulsive aggression compared with healthy subjects, as noted by differences in both binding potential (mean=3.1 ml/g [SD=1.9] versus 5.0 ml/g [SD=2.0], respectively) and V(3)'' (mean=0.15 [SD=0.09] versus 0.26 [SD=0.09]). In other regions examined, serotonin transporter density was nonsignificantly lower in individuals with impulsive aggression compared with healthy subjects. Pathological impulsive aggressivity might be associated with lower serotonergic innervation in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that plays an important role in affective regulation.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 06/2005; 162(5):915-23. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although abnormal serotonin (5-HT) function is implicated in a range of mental disorders, there is currently no method to directly assess 5-HT synaptic levels in the living human brain. The in vivo binding of some dopamine (DA) radioligands such as (11)C-raclopride is affected by fluctuations in endogenous DA, thus providing an indirect measure of DA presynaptic activity. Attempts to identify a serotonergic radiotracer with similar properties have proved unsuccessful. Here, we investigated in humans the effects of reduced synaptic 5-HT on the in vivo binding of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) radioligand (11)C-DASB, using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and the rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) technique. Eight (8) subjects (5M, 3F) were scanned with (11)C-DASB under control and reduced endogenous 5-HT conditions, in a within-subject, double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Regional distribution volumes (V(T)) were calculated using kinetic modeling and metabolite-corrected arterial input function. (11)C-DASB specific binding was estimated as binding potential (BP) and specific to nonspecific equilibrium partition coefficient (V(")(3)), using the cerebellum as reference region. RTD caused small but significant mean reductions in (11)C-DASB V(T) (-6.1%) and BP (-4.5%) across brain regions, probably explained by a concomitant reduction in (11)C-DASB plasma free fraction (f(1)) of similar magnitude. No significant change in (11)C-DASB V(")(3) was observed between control and reduced 5-HT conditions. Nor was there a significant relationship between the magnitude of tryptophan depletion and change in BP and V(")(3) across individual subjects. These results suggest that (11)C-DASB in vivo binding is not affected by reductions in endogenous 5-HT.
    Synapse 04/2005; 55(3):164-75. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain kappa-opioid receptors (ORs) may be involved in several pathologic conditions, such as addiction, psychosis, and seizures. (+/-)-4-Methoxycarbonyl-2-[(1-pyrrolidinylmethyl]-1-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)acetyl]-piperidine (GR89696) is a potent and selective kappa-OR agonist. The (-)-isomer, GR103545, is the active enantiomer of GR89696. The aim of this study was to characterize the potential of 11C-GR103545 to image kappa-OR in vivo with PET. Brain uptake of 11C-GR103545 was studied in baboons under control conditions and after blockade by naloxone (1 mg/kg intravenously). Uptake of the racemic 11C-GR89696 and of the inactive enantiomer (+)-11C-GR89696 was also evaluated. Regional total distribution volumes were derived using the arterial input function and a 2-tissue-compartment model. 11C-GR103545 showed excellent brain penetration and uptake kinetics, with significant washout observed within the time frame of the PET experiment. Naloxone pretreatment did not affect cerebellar total distribution volume and reduced total distribution volume in other regions to a level comparable to that in the cerebellum. The regional pattern of 11C-GR103545 binding potential was consistent with the distribution of kappa-OR in primate brain, with highest levels observed in anterior cortical regions (prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex) and striatum. In most regions, the specific-to-nonspecific equilibrium partition coefficient (V3'') ranged from 1 to 2, predicting reliable quantification. 11C-GR103545 V3'' values were approximately double the 11C-GR89696 V3'' values, whereas (+)-11C-GR89696 V3'' values were negligible, demonstrating the enantiomeric selectivity of the binding and the advantage of using the pure active enantiomer for PET studies. 11C-GR103545 is a promising PET radiotracer for imaging the kappa-OR.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2005; 46(3):484-94. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    International Review of Neurobiology 02/2005; 67:385-440. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [(18)F]fallypride is a new positron emission tomography (PET) dopamine D(2) receptor radiotracer that provides visualization of D(2) receptors in both striatal and extrastriatal areas. Here, the vulnerability of [(18)F]fallypride binding to endogenous dopamine (DA) levels was evaluated by examining the effect of amphetamine on [(18)F]fallypride binding in striatal and extrastriatal regions. Data were acquired in three male baboons at three different doses of i.v. amphetamine, using two different [(18)F]fallypride administration protocols (single bolus and bolus plus constant infusion). Scans were performed following a single bolus of [(18)F]fallypride under control conditions and following 1 mg/kg i.v. amphetamine and with an [(18)F]fallypride bolus plus constant infusion design under control, 0.5 mg/kg, and 0.3 mg/kg amphetamine i.v. conditions. Significant decreases in [(18)F]fallypride binding potential were seen in striatum (-49%, -18%, and -14%), thalamus (-25%, -23%, and -14%), and hippocampus (-36%, -24%, and -12%) following 1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, and 0.3 mg/kg doses of amphetamine, respectively. Additional analyses were performed suggesting that these results were not artifacts of nonreceptor-related effects such as regional flow changes or partial volume effects. In conclusion, [(18)F]fallypride binding is vulnerable to endogenous competition by DA in striatum as well as extrastriatal regions, suggesting that this ligand may be suitable for the study presynaptic DA function in striatal and extrastriatal areas.
    Synapse 11/2004; 54(1):46-63. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [18F]Fallypride is a new and promising radiotracer, suitable for imaging D2 receptors with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in both striatal and extrastriatal regions. The high signal to noise ratio of [18F]fallypride has been attributed to its high affinity for D2 receptors (K(D) of 0.03 nM, measured in vitro at room temperature). We sought to further characterize this tracer in terms of its in vivo affinity, possible affinity differences between brain regions and dependence of in vitro affinity on temperature. PET scans were performed in baboons over a wide range of concentrations to measure the in vivo K(D) of [18F]fallypride in striatal and extrastriatal regions. Several analytical approaches were used, including nonlinear kinetic modeling and equilibrium methods. Also, in vitro assays were performed at 22 and 37 degrees C. No significant differences in the in vivo K(D) were detected between regions. In vivo K(D) of [18F]fallypride was 0.22+/-0.05 nM in striatum, 0.17+/-0.05 nM in thalamus, and 0.21+/-0.07 nM in hippocampus. These values were intermediate between in vitro K(D) measured at 22 (0.04+/-0.03 nM) and 37 degrees (2.03+/-1.07 nM). The in vivo affinity of [18F]fallypride was not as high as previously estimated from in vitro values. This property might contribute to the favorable kinetic properties of the tracer. The in vivo affinity was similar between striatal and extrastriatal regions. This result indicates that the measured regional in vivo affinities of this tracer are not affected by putative regional differences in endogenous dopamine, and that [18F]fallypride is an appropriate tool to provide unbiased estimates of the occupancy of D2 receptors by antipsychotic drugs in striatal and extrastriatal regions.
    Psychopharmacology 10/2004; 175(3):274-86. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • Peter S Talbot
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the molecular neuroimaging of anxiety disorders, and attempts to put recent advances in the context of previous findings. Knowledge of the metabolic correlates of symptom severity and treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder has been significantly extended, particularly response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication. However, the first neuroreceptor studies of serotonin transporter availability in obsessive-compulsive disorder have proved inconclusive, and further studies are anticipated. Reduced 5-HT1A receptor binding has been reported in panic disorder. Recent findings have extended the knowledge of hippocampal abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder, and have highlighted the complexity of the association between cortisol and the hippocampus in this disorder.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 09/2004; 6(4):274-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (-)-N-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine (DA) D2 receptor agonist and [11C]NPA is a suitable radiotracer to image D2 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study the vulnerability of the in vivo binding of [11C]NPA to acute fluctuation in synaptic DA was assessed with PET in baboons and compared to that of the reference D2 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]raclopride. Three male baboons were studied with [11C]raclopride and [11C]NPA under baseline conditions and following administration of the potent DA releaser amphetamine (0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) i.v.). Kinetic modeling with an arterial input function was used to derive the striatal specific-to-nonspecific equilibrium partition coefficient (V3"). [11C]Raclopride V3" was reduced by 24 +/- 10%, 32 +/- 6%, and 44 +/- 9% following amphetamine doses of 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. [11C]NPA V3" was reduced by 32 +/- 2%, 45 +/- 3%, and 53 +/- 9% following amphetamine doses of 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. Thus, endogenous DA was more effective at competing with [11C]NPA binding compared to [11C]raclopride binding, a finding consistent with the pharmacology of these tracers (agonist vs. antagonist). These results also suggest that 71% of D2 receptors are configured in a state of high affinity for agonists in vivo. In conclusion, [11C]NPA might provide a superior radiotracer to probe presynaptic DA function with PET in health and disease.
    Synapse 07/2004; 52(3):188-208. · 2.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

837 Citations
138.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2012
    • The University of Manchester
      • • Mental Health and Neurodegeneration Research Group
      • • Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • School of Psychology
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2012
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2005
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      • Anxiety Disorders Clinic
      New York City, New York, United States