Kent W Christopherson

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (36)173.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Early treatment of CLL/SLL does not impact survival-reflecting limitations in detecting progression early and identifying asymptomatic patients likely to benefit from early treatment. Improved understanding of CLL/SLL biology would identify better prognostic/predictive markers. This study attempts to address these issues by determining the relationship between cytokine aberrations and poor clinical outcomes in CLL/SLL in the context of a genetic-based prognostic model. Fifty-nine serum cytokines/chemokines were measured in 28 untreated CLL/SLL patients. Patients were stratified as GR or int/PR using cytogenetics. Comparison of CLL/SLL with 28 HCs revealed increased expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-5, sIL-2Rα; P≤0.01) and decreased levels of Th1 cytokines (IL-17, IL-23, IFN-γ; P≤0.003). In a multivariate analysis of GR versus int/PR groups, differential expression of sIL-2Rα maintained significance with increased expression in int/PR CLL/SLL. With median follow-up of 54.3 months after diagnosis, four patients incurred disease progression, with an IL-17/sIL-2Rα model predicting need for treatment in all cases. In summary, specific cytokine signatures are associated with genetically defined aggressive disease and predict need for therapy. This suggests utility in detecting disease progression early, identifying those likely to incur a survival advantage with early treatment, and directing future therapy.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 11/2012; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important treatment option for patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Methods to improve transplant efficiency are being explored with the intent to improve engraftment and immune reconstitution post-HSCT. A current approach under investigation involves treatment of donor cells with inhibitors that target the protease CD26, a negative regulator of the chemokine CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1. CD26 inhibitor treatment has been shown to improve the functional response of CD34(+) cord blood (CB) cells, but not CD34(+) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, to CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1. The effect of CD26 inhibitors on unfractionated CB, bone marrow, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells has not been evaluated previously. We observed that although CB had greater CD26 expression than bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood, treatment with a CD26 inhibitor (Diprotin A) resulted in increased responsiveness to stromal cell-derived factor-1 for all three mononuclear cell sources tested. This suggests that clinical therapeutic benefit might be gained by using CD26 inhibitors as a strategy to improve engraftment of unfractionated mobilized peripheral blood cells as well as CB cells.
    Experimental hematology 07/2012; 40(11):945-52. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, surface CD1d, which is involved in immune cell interactions, was assessed for effects on hematopoiesis. Mouse BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) express CD1d. The numbers and cycling status of HPCs in the BM and spleen of different strains of cd1d(-/-) mice were enhanced significantly, suggesting that CD1d is a negative regulator of HPCs. In support of this, CD1d was required for the SCF and Flt3 ligand synergistic enhancement of CSF induction of HPC colony formation and for HPC response to myelosuppressive chemokines. Colony formation by immature subsets of HPCs was greatly enhanced when normal, but not cd1d(-/-), BM cells were pretreated with CD1d Abs in vitro. These effects required the full CD1d cytoplasmic tail. In contrast, long-term, but not short-term, repopulating HSC engraftment was impaired significantly, an effect that was minimally influenced by the presence of a truncated CD1d cytoplasmic tail. Pretreatment of normal BM cells with CD1d Abs greatly enhanced their engraftment of HSCs. The results of the present study implicate CD1d in a previously unrecognized regulatory role of normal and stressed hematopoiesis.
    Blood 04/2012; 119(24):5731-41. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell mobilization, which is defined as the forced egress of stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood (PB) using chemokine receptor agonists, is an emerging concept for enhancing tissue regeneration. However, the effect of stem cell mobilization by a single injection of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist AMD3100 on intramembranous bone regeneration is unclear. We therefore asked: Does AMD3100 mobilize adult stem cells in C57BL/6 mice? Are stem cells mobilized to the PB after marrow ablation? And does AMD3100 enhance bone regeneration? Female C57BL/6 mice underwent femoral marrow ablation surgery alone (n = 25), systemic injection of AMD3100 alone (n = 15), or surgery plus AMD3100 (n = 57). We used colony-forming unit assays, flow cytometry, and micro-CT to investigate mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells to the PB and bone regeneration. AMD3100 induced mobilization of stem cells to the PB, resulting in a 40-fold increase in mesenchymal stem cells. The marrow ablation injury mobilized all three cell types to the PB over time. Administration of AMD3100 led to a 60% increase in bone regeneration at Day 21. A single injection of a CXCR4 antagonist lead to stem cell mobilization and enhanced bone volume in the mouse marrow ablation model of intramembranous bone regeneration.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 04/2012; 470(9):2503-12. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Kent W Christopherson
    Blood 01/2012; 119(3):645-6. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achieving improvements in survival and reducing relapse remains a challenge in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of the active form of novel agent sapacitabine, CNDAC, compared to current chemotherapeutic drugs Ara-C and mitoxantrone using two AML cell lines, HL-60 (promyelocytic) and THP-1 (monocytic), as well as bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) cells collected from AML patients. Cell lines were exposed to compound for 3-6 days and primary cells for 4 days. The viability of primary cells was additionally evaluated 3, 7, and 31 days after removal of tested compound to determine the durability of the response. Our studies indicate that CNDAC and mitoxantrone have a greater impact on viability than ara-C in primary AML cells and AML cell lines. CNDAC is more effective at reducing viability and inducing apoptosis than ara-C at equivalent concentrations in the THP-1 cell line, which is defined as displaying resistance to ara-C. As sapacitabine has shown in vivo activity at clinically achievable doses, future studies are warranted to assess the potential for combining it with ara-C and/or mitoxantrone, with an emphasis on cells and patients insensitive to ara-C treatment.
    Advances in Hematology 01/2012; 2012:727683.
  • Antonio Jimenez, Henry C Fung, Kent W Christopherson
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    ABSTRACT: The field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has overcome many obstacles that have led to our current clinical ability to utilize cells collected from marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. It is in this context that it becomes evident that future progress will lie in our development of an understanding of the biology by which the process of HSCT is regulated. By understanding the cellular components and the mechanisms by which HSCT is either enhanced or suppressed it will then be possible to design therapeutic strategies to improve rates of engraftment that will have a positive impact on immune reconstitution post-HSCT. In this review we focus primarily on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the current challenges associated with allo-HSCT, and some developing strategies to improve engraftment in this setting.
    Transfusion 11/2011; 51 Suppl 4:125S-137S. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Megakaryopoiesis involves commitment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) toward the myeloid lineage in combination with the proliferation, maturation, and terminal differentiation of progenitors into megakaryocytes. The exact mechanism of megakaryocyte development from HSC is unknown, but growth factors such as thrombopoietin have been identified as critical. Additionally, it has been suggested that the chemokine CXCL12/stromal-cell derived factor-1α has a role in regulating megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. We recently reported the importance of the extracellular protease CD26 (dipeptidylpeptidase IV) in regulating HSC responses to CXCL12, as well as modulating HSC trafficking into and out of the bone marrow. However, the importance of CD26 for megakaryopoiesis has not been reported. We therefore compared megakaryocyte development between CD26-deficient (CD26(-/-)) mice and C57BL/6 control mice. Adult CD26(-/-) mice and C57BL/6 control mice were evaluated using blood differentials, histological analysis, flow cytometric analysis, and progenitor colony assays. Bone marrow from CD26(-/-) mice has a significantly expanded megakaryocyte and megakaryocyte progenitor population compared to control C57BL/6 mice bone marrow. Our results indicate that endogenous CD26 normally suppresses megakaryopoiesis and that loss of CD26 activity results in expansion of the megakaryocyte progenitor population in vivo. This suggests the potential use of CD26 inhibitors to improve megakaryocyte progenitor function and/or reconstitution of the megakaryocyte cell population.
    Experimental hematology 01/2011; 39(5):580-590.e1. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that inhibition or loss of CD26 (DPPIV/dipeptidylpeptidase IV) results in a defect in normal mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This suggests that CD26 is a necessary component of the mobilization pathway. Our goal in this study was to determine whether mobilization can be induced by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in mice lacking CD26 (CD26(-/-)). Ten week old CD26(-/-) and C57BL/6 mice received a subcutaneous injection of AMD3100. One hour post-injection the mice were euthanized and peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected and evaluated. AMD3100 mobilizes hematopoietic progenitors into the peripheral blood of CD26(-/-) and mice. Our finding that AMD3100 rapidly mobilizes hematopoietic progenitor cells from the bone marrow into the periphery in CD26-deficient transgenic mice that otherwise exhibit a mobilization defect in response to G-CSF suggests that: (1) CD26 is downstream of G-CSF but upstream of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis and (2) AMD3100 can be used as a single agent to mobilize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in normal donors or patients that have an intrinsic defect in their response to G-CSF treatment. Stem cell transplants are often the only curative treatment in some cancer patients. The ability to perform the transplantation and its success is dependent on the ability to mobilize adequate numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The use of AMD3100 as a single agent would give patients or donors an additional option for a successful stem cell transplant.
    Experimental hematology 12/2010; 39(3):384-90. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • L. A. Paganessi, A. L. Walker, H. C. Fung, K. W. Christopherson
    Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - BIOL BLOOD MARROW TRANSPLANT. 01/2009; 15(2):15-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are routinely obtained from marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are traditionally isolated from marrow. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have previously demonstrated their ability to act as a feeder layer in support of ex vivo cord blood expansion. However, the use of BM-MSCs to support the growth, differentiation, and engraftment of cord blood may not be ideal for transplant purposes. Therefore, the potential of MSCs from a novel source, the Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords, to act as stromal support for the long-term culture of cord blood HSC was evaluated. Umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) were cultured from the Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord segments. The UC-MSCs were then profiled for expression of 12 cell surface receptors and tested for their ability to support cord blood HSCs in a long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay. Upon culture, UC-MSCs express a defined set of cell surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, and HLA-A) and lack other markers (CD45, CD34, CD38, CD117, and HLA-DR) similar to BM-MSCs. Like BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs effectively support the growth of CD34+ cord blood cells in LTC-IC assays. These data suggest the potential therapeutic application of Wharton's jelly-derived UC-MSCs to provide stromal support structure for the long-term culture of cord blood HSCs as well as the possibility of cotransplantation of genetically identical, HLA-matched, or unmatched cord blood HSCs and UC-MSCs in the setting of HSC transplantation.
    Transfusion 10/2008; 48(12):2638-44. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ras-related GTPases Rap1a and 1b have been implicated in multiple biological events including cell adhesion, free radical production, and cancer. To gain a better understanding of Rap1 function in mammalian physiology, we deleted the Rap1a gene. Although loss of Rap1a expression did not initially affect mouse size or viability, upon backcross into C57BL/6J mice some Rap1a-/- embryos died in utero. T cell, B cell, or myeloid cell development was not disrupted in Rap1a-/- mice. However, macrophages from Rap1a null mice exhibited increased haptotaxis on fibronectin and vitronectin matrices that correlated with decreased adhesion. Chemotaxis of lymphoid and myeloid cells in response to CXCL12 or CCL21 was significantly reduced. In contrast, an increase in FcR-mediated phagocytosis was observed. Because Rap1a was previously copurified with the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase, we addressed whether GTPase loss affected superoxide production. Neutrophils from Rap1a-/- mice had reduced fMLP-stimulated superoxide production as well as a weaker initial response to phorbol ester. These results suggest that, despite 95% amino acid sequence identity, similar intracellular distribution, and broad tissue distribution, Rap1a and 1b are not functionally redundant but rather differentially regulate certain cellular events.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2008; 179(12):8322-31. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • L. A. Paganessi, S. A. Gregory, H. C. Fung, K. W. Christopherson
    Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - BIOL BLOOD MARROW TRANSPLANT. 01/2008; 14(2):29-29.
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    ABSTRACT: Given the tremendous need for and potential of umbilical cord blood (CB) to be utilized as a donor source for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation in adults, there is a strong push to overcome the constraints created by the limited volumes and subsequent limited HSC and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) numbers available for HSC transplantation from a single collection. We have previously described the use of CD26 inhibitor treatment of donor cells as a method to increase the transplant efficiency of mouse HSCs and HPCs into a mouse recipient. To study the use of CD26 inhibitors as a method of improving the transplantation of human CB HSCs and HPCs, we utilized the nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient/beta 2 microglobulin null (NOD/SCID/B2m(null)) immunodeficient mouse model of HSC transplantation. We report here significant improvements in the engraftment of long-term repopulating cells following the treatment of either CD34(+) or lineage negative (lin()) donor CB with the CD26 inhibitor, Diprotin A, prior to transplant. These results establish a basis on which to propose the use of CD26 inhibitor treatment of donor CB units prior to transplantation for the purpose of improving transplant efficiency and subsequently patient outcome.
    Stem Cells and Development 07/2007; 16(3):355-60. · 4.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 are suggested to be involved in migration, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Mutation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in breast cancer is associated with metastasis and aggressive clinical phenotype. In this report, we demonstrate that wild type but not the dominant-negative mutant (V143A) or cancer-specific mutants (R175H or R280K) of p53 repress CXCR4 expression. Recently described cancer-specific p53 isoform, Delta133p53, also failed to repress CXCR4 promoter activity. Short-interfering RNA-mediated depletion of p53 increased endogenous CXCR4 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that contain wild-type p53. Basal CXCR4 promoter activity in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells deleted of p53 [HCT116(p53KO)] was 10-fold higher compared to that in parental HCT116 cells with functional wild-type p53. Deletion analysis of CXCR4 promoter identified a seven-base pair p53-repressor element homologous to cyclic AMP/AP-1 response (CRE/AP-1) element. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed binding of ATF-1 and cJun to the CRE/AP-1 element. The p53 rescue drug PRIMA-1 reduced CXCR4 mRNA and cell surface expression in MDA-MB-231 cells, which express R280K mutant p53. CP-31398, another p53 rescue drug, similarly reduced cell surface levels of CXCR4. PRIMA-1-mediated decrease in CXCR4 expression correlated with reduced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells through matrigel. These results suggest a mechanism for elevated CXCR4 expression and metastasis of breast cancers with p53 mutations or isoform expression. We propose that p53 rescue drugs either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs may be effective in reducing CXCR4-mediated metastasis.
    Oncogene 06/2007; 26(23):3329-37. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokine treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SCF) is a mainstay of current and future clinical and research protocols for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization, therapeutic care after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and ex vivo hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) expansion. We have previously shown that the peptidase CD26 (DPPIV/dipeptidylpeptidase IV) negatively regulates HSC/HPC and that inhibition of CD26 improves the chemotactic ability and trafficking of HSC/HPC. We set out to establish whether short-term in vitro G-CSF, GM-CSF, or SCF treatment upregulates CD26 and thereby has a detrimental effect on the chemotactic potential of HSC/HPC that could be reversed by CD26 inhibitor treatment. CD34+ or CD34+CD38- cells, a population enriched in HSC, were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and subjected to G-CSF, GM-CSF, or SCF treatment. We then evaluated CD26 expression, CD26 activity, and CXCL12 (SDF-1)-induced migration in the presence or absence of a CD26 inhibitor, Diprotin A. Treatment with G-CSF and GM-CSF but not SCF upregulates CD26 expression and activity resulting in a CD26 inhibitor-reversible downregulation of CXCL12-induced chemotactic response. Short-term in vitro G-CSF and GM-CSF treatment upregulates the peptidase CD26, resulting in downregulation of the functional ability of CD34+CD38- cells to respond to the chemokine CXCL12. This suggests that current and future clinical protocols utilizing G-CSF and GM-CSF may have unforeseen detrimental effects on the trafficking of HSC/HPC during HSCT that can be overcome through the use of CD26 inhibitors.
    Experimental Hematology 09/2006; 34(8):1060-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary function of chemokines is the regulation of leukocyte trafficking by stimulating directional chemotaxis. The chemokine CXCL14 (BRAK) is highly expressed in all normal tissues, but is not expressed in most malignant tissues. The chemotactic activity of CXCL14 has been difficult to characterize. Recently it was reported that CXCL14 is a chemoattractant for activated monocytes and immature dendritic cells. Given that CXCL14 is downregulated upon transition to malignancy, we sought to characterize whether CXCL14 might play a role in NK cell chemotaxis. Human natural killer (NK) cells were isolated from buffy coats obtained from normal volunteers and were activated with lymphocyte conditioned media, IL-2, and ionomycin. Standard transwell chemotaxis assays, proliferation assays, and chromium release cell cytotoxicity assays were performed. CXCL14 was found to stimulate migration of activated human NK cells in transwell chemotaxis assays by 1.4-fold. Similarly, it increased migration of an IL-2-dependent natural killer leukemia (NKL) cell line by 1.9-fold. Antisera against CXCL14 or pertussis toxin blocked this chemotactic effect. However, CXCL14 did not affect the proliferation or cytotoxic activity of normal human NK cells. CXCL14 also stimulated the chemotaxis of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CXCL14 may play a role in the trafficking of NK cells to sites of inflammation or malignancy. In addition, the downregulation of the expression of CXCL14 might be an important step in successful oncogenesis to prevent NK immune surveillance of the malignancy.
    Experimental Hematology 09/2006; 34(8):1101-5. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemokine CXCL12 (stromal cell derived factor-1/SDF-1) stimulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) through the corresponding chemokine receptor CXCR4. CXCL12 is thought to be important for both proper HSC homing, retention, and engraftment into the bone marrow (BM) and mobilization out of the BM. Previous studies suggest that breaking the CXCL12-CXCR4 interaction mobilizes HPCs, blocking CXCR4 inhibits HSC homing, and overexpression increases HSC/HPC repopulation. The efficiency of mobilization and engraftment therefore appears to be dependent on the response of HSCs/HPCs to CXCL12, which is in turn dependent upon levels of CXCR4 expressed on HSCs/HPCs. However, expression of CXCR4 on the surface of HSCs/HPCs appears to be variable. To study the function of CXCR4 on HSCs/HPCs, we used the MSCV-based bicistronic (EGFP) retroviral vector MIEG3 to overexpress CXCR4 on M07e cells, an established model of human HPC. CXCR4 overexpression resulted in significant increases in CXCL12-induced chemotaxis and cell survival. Most importantly, cells overexpressing CXCR4 responded to CXCL12 at levels typically too low induce a response. These data suggest that an increased transplant efficiency resulting from CXCR4 overexpression is likely a function of increased HSC/HPC homing and increased HSC/HPC survival in the recipient's BM. These experiments also validate the ability of the MIEG3-CXCR4 retroviral construct to overexpress CXCR4 efficiently and the use of MIEG3-CXCR4 M07e cells for further study. Finally, this information may have future potential therapeutic implications for improvements in transplant efficiency.
    Stem Cells and Development 07/2006; 15(3):325-33. · 4.67 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 01/2006; 195(6).
  • Heather Ramsey, Kent Christopherson, Robert Hromas
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    ABSTRACT: We isolated and characterized a novel AML1 (also termed Runx1) fusion transcript from a radiation-associated acute myeloid leukemia with a t(19;21). This fusion transcript, termed AML1-AMPl9, was joined out of frame, resulting in a truncated AML1 protein that inhibits activation of AML1 target promoters. It is now becoming clear that truncations of AMLl are more common in leukemia than previously thought. To analyze the effect of truncated AML1 species on myeloid differentiation and proliferation, AML1-AMPl9 was retrovirally transduced into the IL-3-dependent 32D cells. 32D cells over-expressing AML1-AMPl9 failed to differentiate normally when stimulated with G-CSF, but continued to proliferate and maintained a primitive phenotype. However, AML1-AMPl9 did not transform the cells to cytokine independence, implying that for full transformation of a myeloid progenitor by truncated AML1 another genetic lesion is required.
    Leukemia Research 09/2004; 28(8):863-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
173.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • Rush University Medical Center
      • Section of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cell Therapy
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2004
    • University of New Mexico
      • Cancer Research and Treatment Center
      Albuquerque, NM, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States