[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, several Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies in populations of European descent have identified and validated novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), highly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aims were to validate these markers in other European and non-European populations, then to assess their combined effect in a large French study comparing T2D and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals.
In the same French population analyzed in our previous GWA study (3,295 T2D and 3,595 NGT), strong associations with T2D were found for CDKAL1 (OR(rs7756992) = 1.30[1.19-1.42], P = 2.3x10(-9)), CDKN2A/2B (OR(rs10811661) = 0.74[0.66-0.82], P = 3.5x10(-8)) and more modestly for IGFBP2 (OR(rs1470579) = 1.17[1.07-1.27], P = 0.0003) SNPs. These results were replicated in both Israeli Ashkenazi (577 T2D and 552 NGT) and Austrian (504 T2D and 753 NGT) populations (except for CDKAL1) but not in the Moroccan population (521 T2D and 423 NGT). In the overall group of French subjects (4,232 T2D and 4,595 NGT), IGFBP2 and CXCR4 synergistically interacted with (LOC38776, SLC30A8, HHEX) and (NGN3, CDKN2A/2B), respectively, encoding for proteins presumably regulating pancreatic endocrine cell development and function. The T2D risk increased strongly when risk alleles, including the previously discovered T2D-associated TCF7L2 rs7903146 SNP, were combined (8.68-fold for the 14% of French individuals carrying 18 to 30 risk alleles with an allelic OR of 1.24). With an area under the ROC curve of 0.86, only 15 novel loci were necessary to discriminate French individuals susceptible to develop T2D.
In addition to TCF7L2, SLC30A8 and HHEX, initially identified by the French GWA scan, CDKAL1, IGFBP2 and CDKN2A/2B strongly associate with T2D in French individuals, and mostly in populations of Central European descent but not in Moroccan subjects. Genes expressed in the pancreas interact together and their combined effect dramatically increases the risk for T2D, opening avenues for the development of genetic prediction tests.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(5):e2031. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome scans in families with type 2 diabetes identified a putative locus on chromosome 20q. For this study, linkage disequilibrium mapping was used in an effort to narrow a 7.3-Mb region in an Ashkenazi type 2 diabetic population. The region encompassed a 1-logarithm of odds (LOD) interval around the microsatellite marker D20S107, which gave a LOD score of >3 in linkage analysis of a combined Caucasian population. This 7.3-Mb region contained 25 known and 99 predicted genes. Predicted single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from public databases and validated. Two SNPs were unique to the Ashkenazi. Here, 91 SNPs with a minor allele frequency of >or=10% were genotyped in pooled DNA from 150 case subjects and 150 control subjects of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. The SNP association study showed that SNP rs2664537 in the TIX1 gene had a significant P value of 0.035, but the finding did not replicate in an additional case pool. In addition, HNF4a and Mybl2 were screened for mutations and new polymorphisms. No mutations were identified, and a new nonsynonymous SNP (R687C in exon 14 of Mybl2) was found. The limits to this type of association study are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concentration of glucose in plasma is an important determinant of pancreatic beta-cell mass, whereas the relative contributions of hypertrophy, proliferation, and cell survival to this process are unclear. Glucose results in depolarization and subsequent calcium influx into islet beta-cells. Because depolarization and calcium (Ca(2+)) influx promote survival of neuronal cells, we hypothesized that glucose might alter survival of islet beta-cells through a similar mechanism. In the present studies, cultured mouse islet beta-cells showed a threefold decrease in apoptosis under conditions of 15 mM glucose compared with 2 mM glucose (P < 0.05). MIN6 insulinoma cells incubated in 25 mM glucose for 24 h showed a threefold decrease in apoptosis compared with cells in 5 mM glucose (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 6.3 +/- 1%, respectively, P < 0.001). High glucose (25 mM) enhanced survival-required depolarization and Ca(2+) influx and was blocked by phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitors. Glucose activation of the protein kinase Akt was demonstrated in both insulinoma cells and cultured mouse islets by means of an antibody specific for Ser(473) phospho-Akt and by an in vitro Akt kinase assay. Akt phosphorylation was dependent on PI 3-kinase but not on MAPK. Transfection of insulinoma cells with an Akt kinase-dead plasmid (Akt-K179M) resulted in loss of glucose-mediated protection, whereas transfection with a constitutively active Akt enhanced survival in glucose-deprived insulinoma cells. The results of these studies defined a novel pathway for glucose-mediated activation of a PI 3-kinase/Akt survival-signaling pathway in islet beta-cells. This pathway may provide important targets for therapeutic intervention.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 11/2002; 283(4):E784-93. · 4.51 Impact Factor