Maarten D Sollewijn Gelpke

The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Beaverton, Oregon, United States

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Publications (14)166.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: White rot fungi efficiently degrade lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in wood that is among the most abundant natural materials on earth. These fungi use extracellular oxidative enzymes that are also able to transform related aromatic compounds found in explosive contaminants, pesticides and toxic waste. We have sequenced the 30-million base-pair genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain RP78 using a whole genome shotgun approach. The P. chrysosporium genome reveals an impressive array of genes encoding secreted oxidases, peroxidases and hydrolytic enzymes that cooperate in wood decay. Analysis of the genome data will enhance our understanding of lignocellulose degradation, a pivotal process in the global carbon cycle, and provide a framework for further development of bioprocesses for biomass utilization, organopollutant degradation and fiber bleaching. This genome provides a high quality draft sequence of a basidiomycete, a major fungal phylum that includes important plant and animal pathogens.
    Nature Biotechnology 07/2004; 22(6):695-700. DOI:10.1038/nbt967 · 39.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nature Biotechnology journal featuring biotechnology articles and science research papers of commercial interest in pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental sciences.
    Nature Biotechnology 07/2004; 22(7):899-899. DOI:10.1038/nbt0704-899a · 39.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first chordates appear in the fossil record at the time of the Cambrian explosion, nearly 550 million years ago. The modern ascidian tadpole represents a plausible approximation to these ancestral chordates. To illuminate the origins of chordate and vertebrates, we generated a draft of the protein-coding portion of the genome of the most studied ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. The Ciona genome contains approximately 16,000 protein-coding genes, similar to the number in other invertebrates, but only half that found in vertebrates. Vertebrate gene families are typically found in simplified form in Ciona, suggesting that ascidians contain the basic ancestral complement of genes involved in cell signaling and development. The ascidian genome has also acquired a number of lineage-specific innovations, including a group of genes engaged in cellulose metabolism that are related to those in bacteria and fungi.
    Science 01/2003; 298(5601):2157-67. DOI:10.1126/science.1080049 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The compact genome of Fugu rubripes has been sequenced to over 95% coverage, and more than 80% of the assembly is in multigene-sized scaffolds. In this 365-megabase vertebrate genome, repetitive DNA accounts for less than one-sixth of the sequence, and gene loci occupy about one-third of the genome. As with the human genome, gene loci are not evenly distributed, but are clustered into sparse and dense regions. Some “giant” genes were observed that had average coding sequence sizes but were spread over genomic lengths significantly larger than those of their human orthologs. Although three-quarters of predicted human proteins have a strong match toFugu, approximately a quarter of the human proteins had highly diverged from or had no pufferfish homologs, highlighting the extent of protein evolution in the 450 million years since teleosts and mammals diverged. Conserved linkages between Fugu and human genes indicate the preservation of chromosomal segments from the common vertebrate ancestor, but with considerable scrambling of gene order.
    Science 09/2002; 297(5585):1301-10. DOI:10.1126/science.1072104 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Maarten D Sollewijn Gelpke · Jooyoung Lee · Michael H Gold
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    ABSTRACT: The site-directed mutations H82A and Q222A (residues near the heme access channel), and W171A and F267L (residues near the surface of the protein) were introduced into the gene encoding lignin peroxidase (LiP) isozyme H8 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The variant enzymes were produced by homologous expression in P. chrysosporium, purified to homogeneity, and characterized by kinetic and spectroscopic methods. The molecular masses, the pIs, and the UV-vis absorption spectra of the ferric and oxidized states of these LiP variant enzymes were similar to those of wild-type LiP (wtLiP), suggesting the overall protein and heme environments were not significantly affected by these mutations. The steady-state and transient-state parameters for the oxidation of veratryl alcohol (VA) by the H82A and Q222A variants were very similar to those of wtLiP, demonstrating that these residues are not involved in VA oxidation and that the heme access channel is an unlikely site for VA oxidation. In contrast, the W171A variant was unable to oxidize VA, confirming the apparent essentiality of Trp171 in VA oxidation by LiP. The kinetic rates of spontaneous LiP compound I reduction in the absence of VA were similar for W171A and wild-type LiP, suggesting that there may not be a radical formed on the Trp171 residue of LiP in the absence of VA. For the F267L variant, both the K(m app) value in the steady state and the apparent dissociation constant (K(D)) for compound II reduction were greater than those for wtLiP. These results indicate that the site including W171 and F267, rather than the heme access channel, is the site of VA binding and oxidation in LiP. Whereas Trp171 appears to be essential for VA oxidation, it apparently is not independently responsible for the spontaneous decomposition of oxidized intermediates. The nearby Phe267 apparently is also involved in VA binding.
    Biochemistry 04/2002; 41(10):3498-506. DOI:10.1021/bi011930d · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is a heme-containing enzyme produced by white-rot fungi and is part of the extracellular lignin degrading system in these organisms. MnP is unique among Mn binding enzymes in its ability to bind and oxidize Mn(II) and efficiently release Mn(III). Initial site-directed mutagenesis studies identified the residues E35, E39, and D179 as the Mn binding ligands. However, an E39D variant was recently reported to display wild-type Mn binding and rate of oxidation, calling into question the role of E39 as an Mn ligand. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed computer modeling studies which indicated metal-ligand bond distances in the E39D variant and in an E35D--E39D--D179E triple variant which might allow Mn binding and oxidation. To test the model, we reconstructed the E35D and E39D variants used in the previous study, as well as an E39A single variant and the E35D--E39D--D179E triple variant of MnP isozyme 1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We find that all of the variant proteins are impaired for Mn(II) binding (K(m) increases 20--30-fold) and Mn(II) oxidation (k(cat) decreases 50--400-fold) in both the steady state and the transient state. In particular, mutation of the E39 residue in MnP decreases both Mn binding and oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the E39A variants decreased approximately 10(4)-fold, while that of the E39D variant decreased approximately 10(3)-fold. Contrary to initial modeling results, the triple variant performed only as well as any of the single Mn ligand variants. Interestingly, the catalytic efficiency of the triple variant decreased only 10(4)-fold, which is approximately 10(2)-fold better than that reported for the E35Q--D179N double variant. These combined studies indicate that precise geometry of the Mn ligands within the Mn binding site of MnP is essential for the efficient binding, oxidation, and release of Mn by this enzyme. The results clearly indicate that E39 is a Mn ligand and that mutation of this ligand decreases both Mn binding and the rate of Mn oxidation.
    Biochemistry 03/2001; 40(7):2243-50. DOI:10.1021/bi002104s · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    M D Gelpke · H L Youngs · M H Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that Arg177 is involved in MnII binding at the MnII binding site of manganese peroxidase isozyme 1 (MnP1) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by examining two mutants: R177A and R177K. We now report on additional mutants: R177D, R177E, R177N, and R177Q. These new mutant enzymes were produced by homologous expression in P. chrysosporium and were purified to homogeneity. The molecular mass and the UV/visible spectra of the ferric and oxidized intermediates of the mutant enzymes were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, suggesting proper folding, heme insertion, and preservation of the heme environment. However, steady-state and transient-state kinetic analyses demonstrate significantly altered characteristics of MnII oxidation by these new mutant enzymes. Increased dissociation constants (Kd) and apparent Km values for MnII suggest that these mutations at Arg177 decrease binding of MnII to the enzyme. These lowered binding efficiencies, as observed with the R177A and R177K mutants, suggest that the salt-bridge between Arg177 and the MnII binding ligand Glu35 is disrupted in these new mutants. Decreased kcat values for MnII oxidation, decreased second-order rate constants for compound I reduction (k2app), and decreased first-order rate constants for compound II reduction (k3) indicate that these new mutations also decrease the electron-transfer rate. This decrease in rate constants for compounds I and II reduction was not observed in our previous study on the R177A and R177K mutations. The lower rate constants suggest that, even with high MnII concentrations, the MnII binding geometries may be altered in the MnII binding site of these new mutants. These new results, combined with the results from our previous study, clearly indicate a role for Arg177 in promoting efficient MnII binding and oxidation by MnP.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2001; 267(24):7038-45. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Maarten D. Sollewijn Gelpke · Heather L. Youngs · Michael H. Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that Arg177 is involved in MnII binding at the MnII binding site of manganese peroxidase isozyme 1 (MnP1) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by examining two mutants: R177A and R177K. We now report on additional mutants: R177D, R177E, R177N, and R177Q. These new mutant enzymes were produced by homologous expression in P. chrysosporium and were purified to homogeneity. The molecular mass and the UV/visible spectra of the ferric and oxidized intermediates of the mutant enzymes were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, suggesting proper folding, heme insertion, and preservation of the heme environment. However, steady-state and transient-state kinetic analyses demonstrate significantly altered characteristics of MnII oxidation by these new mutant enzymes. Increased dissociation constants (Kd) and apparent Km values for MnII suggest that these mutations at Arg177 decrease binding of MnII to the enzyme. These lowered binding efficiencies, as observed with the R177A and R177K mutants, suggest that the salt-bridge between Arg177 and the MnII binding ligand Glu35 is disrupted in these new mutants. Decreased kcat values for MnII oxidation, decreased second-order rate constants for compound I reduction (k2app), and decreased first-order rate constants for compound II reduction (k3) indicate that these new mutations also decrease the electron-transfer rate. This decrease in rate constants for compounds I and II reduction was not observed in our previous study on the R177A and R177K mutations. The lower rate constants suggest that, even with high MnII concentrations, the MnII binding geometries may be altered in the MnII binding site of these new mutants. These new results, combined with the results from our previous study, clearly indicate a role for Arg177 in promoting efficient MnII binding and oxidation by MnP.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 12/2000; 267(24):7038-7045. DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01798.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Maarten D Sollewijn Gelpke · Dawei Sheng · Michael H Gold
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    ABSTRACT: The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) gene promoter was used to drive the homologous expression of the lignin peroxidase (LiP) isozyme H2 gene in primary metabolic cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The molecular mass, pI, and optical absorption spectra of purified recombinant LiPH2 (rLiPH2) were essentially identical to those of wild-type LiPH2 (wtLiPH2). wtLiPH2 was prepared by growing cells in the absence of MnII, conditions under which P. chrysosporium manganese peroxidase (MnP) is not expressed, ensuring that wtLiPH2 was not contaminated with MnP. The kinetics of veratryl alcohol (VA) oxidation were essentially identical for rLiPH2 and wtLiPH2. The rLiPH2, wtLiPH2, and wild-type LiP isozyme H8 (wt-LiPH8) enzymes were used to reexamine previous claims that LiPH2 can oxidize Mn" at a rate sufficient to promote catalytic turnover of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that rLiPH2, wtLiPH2, and LiPH8 do not turn over under steady-state conditions, when MnII is the sole reducing substrate. Furthermore, transient-state kinetic analyses show that the reduction rate of the catalytic intermediate, LiP compound I, by VA was at least 2 x 10(3)-fold higher than the rate of reduction in the presence of MnII. No reduction of LiP compound II was observed in the presence of MnII. In contrast to previous claims, these data strongly suggest that MnII is not a productive substrate for LiPH2 or LiPH8.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/2000; 381(1):16-24. DOI:10.1006/abbi.2000.1972 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • M H Gold · H L Youngs · M. D. S Gelpke
    Metal ions in biological systems 02/2000; 37:559-86.
  • Maarten D. Sollewijn Gelpke · Pierre Moënne-Loccoz · Michael H. Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Site-directed mutations R177A and R177K in the gene encoding manganese peroxidase isozyme 1 (mnp1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were generated. The mutant enzymes were expressed in P. chrysosporium during primary metabolic growth under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter, purified to homogeneity, and characterized by spectroscopic and kinetic methods. The UV-vis spectra of the ferric and oxidized states and resonance Raman spectra of the ferric state were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme, indicating that the heme environment was not significantly affected by the mutations at Arg177. Apparent K(m) values for Mn(II) were approximately 20-fold greater for the R177A and R177K MnPs than for wild-type MnP. However, the apparent K(m) values for the substrates, H(2)O(2) and ferrocyanide, and the k(cat) values for Mn(II) and ferrocyanide oxidation were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. The second-order rate constants for compound I (MnPI) reduction of the mutant MnPs by Mn(II) were approximately 10-fold lower than for wild-type MnP. In addition, the K(D) values calculated from the first-order plots of MnP compound II (MnPII) reduction by Mn(II) for the mutant enzymes were approximately 22-fold greater than for wild-type MnP. In contrast, the first-order rate constants for MnPII reduction by Mn(II) were similar for the mutant and wild-type MnPs. Furthermore, second-order rate constants for the wild-type and mutant enzymes for MnPI formation, for MnPI reduction by bromide, and for MnPI and MnPII reduction by ferrocyanide were not significantly changed. These results indicate that both the R177A and R177K mutations specifically affect the binding of Mn, whereas the rate of electron transfer from Mn(II) to the oxidized heme apparently is not affected.
    Biochemistry 09/1999; 38(35):11482-9. DOI:10.1021/bi990943c · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    M D Sollewijn Gelpke · M Mayfield-Gambill · G P Lin Cereghino · M H Gold
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    ABSTRACT: The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter was used to drive expression of lip2, the gene encoding lignin peroxidase (LiP) isozyme H8, in primary metabolic cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression vector, pUGL, also contained the Schizophyllum commune ura1 gene as a selectable marker. pUGL was used to transform a P. chrysosporium Ura11 auxotroph to prototrophy. Ura+ transformants were screened for peroxidase activity in liquid cultures containing high-carbon and high-nitrogen medium. Recombinant LiP (rLiP) was secreted in active form by the transformants after 4 days of growth, whereas endogenous lip genes were not expressed under these conditions. Approximately 2 mg of homogeneous rLiP/liter was obtained after purification. The molecular mass, pI, and optical absorption spectrum of rLiPH8 were essentially identical to those of the wild-type LiPh8 (wt LiPH8), indicating that heme insertion, folding, and secretion functioned normally in the transformant. Steady-state and transient-state kinetic properties for the oxidation of veratryl alcohol between wtLiPH8 and rLiPH8 were also identical.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/1999; 65(4):1670-4. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    G. Vijay Bhasker Reddy · Maarten D. Sollewijn Gelpke · Michael H. Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Under secondary metabolic conditions, the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol. The pathway for the degradation of 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol has been elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by purified lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). The multistep pathway is initiated by a LiP- or MnP-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination reaction to produce 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. The quinone is reduced to 2,6-dichloro-1,4-dihydroxybenzene, which is reductively dechlorinated to yield 2-chloro-1,4-dihydroxybenzene. The latter is degraded further by one of two parallel pathways: it either undergoes further reductive dechlorination to yield 1, 4-hydroquinone, which is ortho-hydroxylated to produce 1,2, 4-trihydroxybenzene, or is hydroxylated to yield 5-chloro-1,2, 4-trihydroxybenzene, which is reductively dechlorinated to produce the common key metabolite 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. Presumably, the latter is ring cleaved with subsequent degradation to CO2. In this pathway, the chlorine at C-4 is oxidatively dechlorinated, whereas the other chlorines are removed by a reductive process in which chlorine is replaced by hydrogen. Apparently, all three chlorine atoms are removed prior to ring cleavage. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of aromatic reductive dechlorination by a eukaryote.
    Journal of Bacteriology 11/1998; 180(19):5159-64. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first chordates appear in the fossil record at the time of the Cambrian explosion, nearly 550 million years ago. The modern ascidian tadpole represents a plausible approximation to these ancestral chordates. To illuminate the origins of chordate and vertebrates, we generated a draft of the protein-coding portion of the genome of the most studied ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. The Ciona genome contains ~16,000 protein-coding genes, similar to the number in other invertebrates, but only half that found in vertebrates. Vertebrate gene families are typically found in simplified form in Ciona, suggesting that ascidians contain the basic ancestral complement of genes involved in cell signaling and development. The ascidian genome has also acquired a number of lineage-specific innovations, including a group of genes engaged in cellulose metabolism that are related to those in bacteria and fungi.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
166.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002
    • The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Beaverton, Oregon, United States
    • DOE Joint Genome Institute
      Walnut Creek, California, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • Oregon Institute of Technology
      Wilsonville, Oregon, United States