Toshio Homma

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, MI, United States

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Publications (4)22.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)beta is implicated in the pathogenesis of cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity. We examined the efficacy of TGF beta receptor (R)II/immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc, a soluble chimeric protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human TGF beta RII and IgG1 Fc, on CsA nephrotoxicity in mice. Subcutaneous injection of CsA (25 mg/kg/d) was given daily to mice maintained on a low-sodium diet. On days 1 and 7, an expression vector carrying cDNA for either TGF beta RII/IgG Fc or beta-galactosidase was transfected into the skeletal muscles by electroporation. At 2 or 3 weeks of CsA administration, plasma and renal TGF beta 1 levels, and tubulointerstitial injury and fibrosis were evaluated. After 2 weeks of CsA administration, plasma and renal TGF beta 1 levels increased to the maximum and then declined toward the baseline levels. Renal TGF beta 1 mRNA remained elevated until 3 weeks. Tubulointerstitial alterations became appreciable in 2 weeks and intensified by 3 weeks. At 2 weeks, the TGF beta RII/IgG Fc intervention abolished the increase in plasma TGF beta 1, attenuated the increase in renal TGF beta 1 by 50%, and markedly suppressed the histologic alterations. At 3 weeks, the histologic alterations remained markedly suppressed by the intervention, with no appreciable effects on the renal TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein. The introduction of TGF beta RII/IgG Fc by gene transfer effectively abrogated CsA-induced tubulointerstitial alterations. Suppression of tubulointerstitial changes was evident at 3 weeks when renal TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein were comparable to those with CsA alone, indicating that early anti-TGF beta intervention is effective in suppressing the progression of CsA nephrotoxicity despite persistent increases in renal TGF beta 1 expression.
    Transplantation 06/2004; 77(9):1433-42. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the in vivo function of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (Agtr1) on macrophages in renal fibrosis. Fourteen days after the induction of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), wild-type mice reconstituted with marrow lacking the Agtr1 gene (Agtr1(-/-)) developed more severe interstitial fibrosis with fewer interstitial macrophages than those in mice reconstituted with Agtr1(+/+) marrow. These differences were not observed at day 5 of UUO. The expression of profibrotic genes - including TGF-beta1, alpha1(I) collagen, and alpha1(III) collagen - was substantially higher in the obstructed kidneys of mice with Agtr1(-/-) marrow than in those with Agtr1(+/+) marrow at day 14 but not at day 5 of UUO. Mice with Agtr1(-/-) marrow were characterized by reduced numbers of peripheral-blood monocytes and macrophage progenitors in bone marrow. In vivo assays revealed a significantly impaired phagocytic capability in Agtr1(-/-) macrophages. In vivo treatment of Agtr1(+/+) mice with losartan reduced phagocytic capability of Agtr1(+/+) macrophages to a level comparable to that of Agtr1(-/-) macrophages. Thus, during urinary tract obstruction, the Agtr1 on bone marrow-derived macrophages functions to preserve the renal parenchymal architecture, and this function depends in part on its modulatory effect on phagocytosis.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2003; 110(12):1859-68. · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating data show that excess of angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in cardiac fibrosis. Many experimental studies suggested that Ang II induces cardiac fibrosis not by its blood pressure-raising action, but rather by a direct action on the heart. However, it has been difficult to distinguish the local and systemic actions in vivo. Recent genetic technology sheds new light on this problem. This review focuses on the recent advances and newly arising issues regarding the mechanism of Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis.
    Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 10/1999; 9(7):180-184. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the endothelium, is now known to encompass the generation of many potent cytokines which impact endothelial cells, adjacent tissue such as smooth muscle cells, and distant sites in an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine manner, respectively. This review addresses two of these cytokines, nitric oxide and endothelin, and describes how each effects the functions of endothelial cells, including regulation of platelet aggregation and coagulation, regulation of vasomotor tone, modulation of inflammation, and the regulation of cellular proliferation. The emphasis is on the increasingly recognized importance of the autocrine and paracrine mechanisms by which nitric oxide and endothelin act. In particular, autoinduction of endothelin is proposed as a central mechanism underlying endothelin''s renowned effects. Additionally, specific nitric oxide/endothelin interactions are discussed by which each cytokine modulates the production and actions of the other. The net effect observed in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological settings, therefore, reflects a balance of these opposing functions.
    Pediatric Nephrology 03/1995; 9(2):235-244. · 2.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

122 Citations
22.50 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2003
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Neurology
      Nashville, MI, United States