Wiktor Wesołowski

Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (18)14.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of patients to organic substances produced and identified in surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Identification of these substances in surgical smoke was performed by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The selected biomarkers of exposure to surgical smoke included benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their concentrations in the urine samples collected from each patient before and after the surgery were determined by SPME-GC/MS. Qualitative analysis of the smoke produced during laparoscopic procedures revealed the presence of a wide variety of potentially toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dioxins and other substances. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene in the urine of the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in contrast to the other determined compounds, were significantly higher after the surgery than before it, which indicates that they were absorbed. The source of the compounds produced in the abdominal cavity during the surgery is tissue pyrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide atmosphere. All patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at risk of absorbing and excreting smoke by-products. Exposure of the patient to emerging chemical compounds is usually a one-time and short-term incident, yet concentrations of benzene and toluene found in the urine were significantly higher after the surgery than before it.
    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 04/2014; · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Małgorzata Kucharska, Wiktor Wesołowski, Jan P. Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: A new procedure has been developed for the assay of cyclopentane using gas chromatography with mass detection. The method is based on the adsorption of cyclopentane on activated charcoal and desorption with carbon disulfide. The resulted solutions are analyzed by gas chromatography using mass detection. The working range of the analytical method is from 150 to 5000 µg/ml (300 to 10 000 mg/m3 for 0,5 l air sample and 30 to 1 000 mg/m3 for 5 l air sample). Limit of quantification: 131,2 µg/ml.
    Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy. 03/2014; 30(1 (79)):69-82.
  • Małgorzata Kucharska, Wiktor Wesołowski
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    ABSTRACT: Despite common use of inhalatory anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), halothane, sevoflurane, and the like, occupational exposure to these substances in operating theatres was not monitored in Poland until 2006. The situation changed when maximum admissible concentration (MAC) values for anesthetics used in Poland were established in 2005 for N2O, and in 2007 for sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane. The aim of this work was to assess occupational exposure in operating rooms on the basis of reliable and uniform analytical procedures.
    Medycyna pracy 02/2014; 65(1):43-54. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to show the diagnostic procedure used in the two cases with false-positive serum acetaminophen results in suspected acetaminophen poisoning. The determination of serum acetaminophen were carried out using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (Specord 40 Analytik Jena), coupled with an analytic computer station WinASPECT. The employed method of determination was based on the acetaminophen reaction with sodium nitrite, which yields yellow colour of solution in the presence of sodium hydrate. The intensity of the yellow colour depends on the concentration of acetaminophen in serum. The relationship between absorbance and concentration was linear at concentrations in the range 50-600 microg/mL, with relative standard deviation of +/- 2.1% and detection limit of 30 microg/mL. To confirm or reject the doubtful results of colorimetric assays, the serums of patients were measured with high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The analysis of presented cases leads to a conclusion that acetaminophen results should be confirmed either by scanning urine for p-aminophenol presence (which is a routine procedure in our laboratory) or by using a different method of measuring acetaminophen serum levels.
    Przegla̧d lekarski 01/2013; 70(8):695-7.
  • W.Wesołowski, M.Kucharska, J.Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: A new procedure has been developed for the assay of ethyl bromide with gas chromatography with mass detection(GC-MS). The method is based on the adsorption of ethyl bromide on petroleum charcoal and desorption with 10% acetone in toluene, The resulting solutions are analysed with GC-MS. The working range of this analytical method is 10 to 1500 micrograms/mL (1-150 mg/m3 for a 10 L air sample). LOQ: 1.76 microgram/mL.
    Podstawy i Metody Oceny Srodowiska Pracy. 01/2013; 29(1):101-112.
  • W.Wesołowski, M.Kucharska, J.P.Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: The method is based on the adsorption of butan-2-one on Petroleum Charcoal, desorption with carbon disulfide and gas chromatographic (GC-MSD) analysis of the resulting solution. The determination limit of the method is 44,5 mg/m3
    Podstawy i Metody Oceny Srodowiska Pracy. 01/2012; 28(1):65-70.
  • M.Kucharska, W.wesołowski, J.P.Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: The method is based on the adsorption of cyclohexanol on charcoal, desorption with 5% solution of isopropanol in carbon disulfide and gas chromatographic (GC-MSD) analysis of the resulting solution. The determination limit of the method is 1 mg/m3.
    Podstawy i Metody Oceny Srodowiska Pracy. 01/2012; 28(1):71-76.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the usefulness of determining unchanged forms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely toluene (TOL), ethylbenzene (EB) and xylene (XYL), in urine with the effectiveness of the already used biomarkers of occupational exposure. Surveys were conducted in two workplaces (paint factory and footwear factory). In total, 65 subjects participated in the study. Air samples were collected using individual samplers during work shift. Urine and blood samples were collected at the end of work shift. Urine samples were analyzed for unchanged compounds and selected metabolites, while blood samples were tested for unchanged compounds. VOCs in blood and urine were determined by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC-MS). In the paint factory, the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of VOCs in the air ranged as follows: 0.2-4.7 mg/m(3) for TOL, 0.4-40.9 mg/m(3) for EB and 0.1-122.6 mg/m(3) for XYL. In the footwear factory, the GM concentration of TOL in the air amounted to 105.4 mg/m(3). A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between VOCs in blood, urine and air. The regression analyses performed for paint factory workers showed that TOL-U and TOL-B were better biomarkers of exposure (r = 0.72 and r = 0.81) than benzoic acid (r = 0.12) or o-cresol (r = 0.55). The findings of the study point out that the concentration of unchanged VOCs in urine can be a reliable biological indicator of low level occupational exposure to these compounds.
    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 01/2010; 23(1):21-6. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 01/2003; 4(6):1054-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicokinetics and metabolism of pseudocumene after inhalation exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to pseudocumene vapors at nominal concentrations of 25,100 or 250 ppm in the dynamic inhalation chambers for 6 h. Blood samples were collected during (between 1st and 6th h) and after exposure (betwen 6th min and 6th h). Blood concentrations of pseudocumene were estimated by gas chromatography using the headspace technique. During a six-hour exposure, the concentration of pseudocumene in blood increased rapidly within the first 2 h reaching then a plateau. The elimination of pseudocumene from blood followed an open two-compartment model. Urine samples were collected from the exposed animals, and metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Three metabolites were measured in the rat urine after hydrolysis: 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid (3,4-DMBA), 2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid (2,4-DMBA) and 2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid (2,5-DMBA). A significant linear correlation was found between the level of exposure and the concentration of dimethylbenzoic acids. The enzyme kinetics of pseudocumene biotransformation was calculated by Lineweaver-Burk equation. Metabolic constants, Km (mg/l) and Vmax (mg/h/kg), the parameters for pseudocumene biotransformation by rats were estimated (3,4-DMBA - Km = 28, Vmax = 96; 2,4-DMBA - Km = 7, Vmax = 25; 2,5-DMBA - Km = 7, Vmax = 23).
    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 02/2002; 15(1):37-42. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some clinical and laboratory studies indicate that industrial solvents such as toluene, styrene, xylene, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide or their mixtures may affect the inner ear, although the mechanism of this process is still not well understood. The aim of this investigation was to assess the incidence of hearing and vestibular disorders (using modem audiological and vestibular tests) in 61 workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents at the production of paints and varnishes; the control group included 40 age-matched non-exposed subjects. Environmental and biological monitoring revealed that the most significant exposure can be attributed to the following mixture constituents: ethylbenzene, xylene and trimethylbenzene isomers such as pseudocumene, mesitylene and hemimellitene. Electronystagmographic examinations showed the symptoms of vestibular dysfunction, as well as the decreased duration, amplitude and slow phase angular velocity of induced nystagmus in 47.5% of the subjects exposed versus 5% of controls. This was accompanied by sensorineural high frequency hearing loss, identified by means of pure tone audiometry in 42% of those exposed versus 5% controls, and reduced amplitudes of transiently evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. The findings closely correspond with the rate of the total exposure to the solvent mixture. A possible mechanism responsible for ototoxicity of solvents is discussed.
    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 02/2002; 15(3):247-56. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • W Wesołowski, J P Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of occupational exposure to solvent vapours in the production of paints and lacquers is presented. The measurements were carried out in 5 paint and lacquer producing plants of the varied level of technical and technological advancement. Evaluation of exposure was based on determination of all substances identified in the work environment. Analysis was performed by gas chromatography with MSD and FID. Standard mixtures composed of 40 substances were used for calibration. The determined levels of exposure were directly dependent on technical conditions and modernisation status in factories investigated. Measurements were carried out in the uniform analytical system, which assures comparability of the data from all the factories under study.
    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 02/1997; 10(1):79-88. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Wiktor Wesołowski, Jan P.Gromiec
    Analysis of chemical and dust contaminants in workplace air, Edited by J.P.Gromiec, E.Więcek, 01/1997: pages 81-112; Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine., ISBN: 83-86052-47-3
  • Radosław Świercz, Konrad Rydzyński, Wiktor Wesołowski
    Toxicology Letters 10/1996; 88:44-45. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • W Wesołowski, J P Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of workers employed in the distribution and transportation of liquid fuels is a very complex problem. As a preliminary stage, an analytical procedure for the identification and quantitative determination of liquid fuel components is presented. The composition of different types of gasoline was also analysed. Knowledge about the fuel composition is essential for predicting exposure to hydrocarbons and other unburned compounds amitted from tanks and car engines.
    Medycyna pracy 02/1996; 47(1):19-29. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to examine the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to mixtures of organic solvent at concentrations within or slightly exceeding the MAC values, used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers. The tests were performed on a group of 175 people, 107 men aged 22-59 (x = 41.25), and 68 women aged 20-55 (x = 38.62). The period of employment was x = 17.34 years and cumulative dose index 16.97 for males; for females, the corresponding values were x = 14.75 and x = 11.42, respectively. The control group included 175 people (107 men and 68 women) not exposed to chemicals matched according to sex, age, and work shift distribution. The neurological examinations included subjective and objective examinations of the nervous system, electroencephalographic (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) evaluations. The assessment of organic solvent exposure was performed according to the method described in PN89/Z-04008/07, and the solvent mixtures were shown to contain xylenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, aliphatic hydrocarbons and the components of painter's naphtha. The most frequent complaints among the exposed males included headache, vertigo, concentration difficulties, sleep disorders, sleepiness during the day, increased emotional irritability, mood swings with a tendency to anxiety. The objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Generalised and paroxysmal changes were most common recordings in the abnormal EEG. VEP examinations revealed abnormalities, primarily in the latency of the response evoked. The results of this study suggest that exposures to concentrations within MAC values, or below 1.5 of the MAC values of organic solvents mixtures used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers produce subclinical health effect in the nervous system.
    International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 02/1996; 9(3):235-44. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • J P Gromiec, B Romanowicz, W Wesołowski
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroform is one the most important pollutants, formed in the process of chlorination of water from surface intakes. The city of łódź is supplied with water mainly from surface intakes containing considerable amounts of organic material and from deep water intakes. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of selected organic compounds including chloroform in raw water, water after chlorination and on different stages of purification as well as in water introduced to the municipal water supply system. Chloroform was analysed in n-pentane extracts by gas chromatography with ECD. The detection limit of the analytical method was 1 microgram/l. Concentrations of chloroform in raw water were very low, in most cases below the limit of detection. As a result of chlorination level of chloroform in water increased reaching as high as 120 micrograms/l. It has been shown that activated charcoal was not efficient in removing chloroform from water. Concentrations of chloroform were much lower in water from the municipal water supply system serving the northern part of town, where water from surface intakes was mixed with water from deep intakes. Concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms/l were determined only in the summer season. In both investigated parts of municipal water supply systems seasonal changes of chloroform concentration were observed with maximum values in June-August. The concentration of chloroform in water samples collected in different quarters of town were strictly correlated with its concentration in treated water from the municipal water supply system serving the quarter.
    Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 02/1996; 47(1):69-76.
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    ABSTRACT: The study covered 72 persons (39 females and 33 males), engaged in the production of dyes and varnishes, and exposed to mixtures of organic solvents which contain benzene C-9 and C-10 alkyl derivatives. For females--length of employment accounted for mean = 15.9 years and cumulative exposure index for mean = 12.11, and for males - mean = 16.4 years and mean = 12.17, respectively. The study results applying to the group exposed were compared with the results of the controls matched according to gender, age and work shifts. Clinical examination indicated that among complaints the following manifestations predominated: headache, dizziness, increased emotional excitability, memory and concentration disturbances, hypersomnia during a day and mood instability. Subjective symptoms were more frequently observed in females. Neurological examination revealed no organic changes neither in the central nor in the peripheral nervous system. Certain anomalies were noted in EEG and visual evoked potential (VEP) examinations which may indicate pre-clinical changes in the nervous system.
    Medycyna pracy 02/1995; 46(5):451-8. · 0.39 Impact Factor