[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemic diets are associated with oxidative stress that may contribute to hypercholesterolemia by adversely affecting enzymatically-generated oxysterols involved in cholesterol homeostasis. An experiment was conducted to examine whether the cholesterol-lowering effects of the antioxidants selenium and α-tocopherol were related to hepatic oxysterol concentrations. Four groups of male Syrian hamsters (n = 7-8) were fed high cholesterol and saturated fat (0.46% cholesterol, 14.3% fat) hypercholesterolemic semi-purified diets: 1) Control; 2) Control + α-tocopherol (67 IU all-racemic-α-tocopheryl-acetate/kg diet); 3) Control + selenium (3.4 mg selenate/kg diet); and 4) Control + α-tocopherol + selenium. Antioxidant supplementation was associated with lowered plasma cholesterol concentrations, decreased tissue lipid peroxidation and higher hepatic oxysterol concentrations. A second experiment examined the effect of graded selenium doses (0.15, 0.85, 1.7 and 3.4 mg selenate/kg diet) on mRNA expression of the oxysterol-generating enzyme, hepatic 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1, EC 126.96.36.199), in hamsters (n = 8-9) fed the hypercholesterolemic diets. Supplementation of selenium at 3.4 mg selenate/kg diet was not associated with increased hepatic 27-hydroxylase mRNA. In conclusion, the cholesterol lowering effects of selenium and α-tocopherol were associated with increased hepatic enzymatically generated oxysterol concentrations, which appears to be mediated via improved antioxidant status rather than increased enzymatic production.
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 02/2010; 3:1-14. DOI:10.4137/NMI.S3911
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the hepatotoxicity that develops after the induction of oxidative stress (induced by d-galactosamine [GalN]) can be ameliorated by alpha-tocopherol (ATC) and the soy isoflavone daidzein. To test this, we ranked and assigned male Wistar rats into 6 groups, which involved pretreatment (ATC or daidzein) for 1 hour followed by treatment (GalN) for 23 hours. Histopathologic analysis showed that GalN administration induced marked necrosis (P < .001), steatosis (P < .001), both lobular and portal inflammations (P < .001), overall histopathologic score (P < .001), and activation of caspase-3 in the liver (P < .001). Immunohistochemical staining of malondialdehyde-protein adducts, a measure of oxidative stress, was increased in response to GalN (P < .001). Paradoxically, there were increases in total (P < .05) and cytosolic superoxide dismutase (P < .001) activities after GalN administration, indicative of an up-regulation of antioxidant defenses. The concentration of total protein (P < .001), albumin (P < .01), and globulin fractions (P < .001) in the plasma, as well as the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (P < .001), was significantly perturbed after GalN treatment, reflective of overall acute hepatic injury. Administration of daidzein showed a significant amelioration of the Ga1N-induced increase in malondialdehyde-protein adducts (P < .01) and cytosolic superoxide dismutase activities (P < .01) in the liver. However, all other variables were not significantly altered in response to daidzein. In response to ATC pretreatment, the total histopathologic score (P < .05), degree of necrosis (P < .05), and both lobular (P < .05) and portal (P = .05) inflammations were significantly ameliorated. To conclude, both daidzein and ATC protect the liver against oxidative damage possibly via different pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se), vitamin C and vitamin E function as antioxidants within the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced dietary Se and L-ascorbic acid (AA) on vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol (AT) status in guinea pig tissues.
Male Hartley guinea pigs were orally dosed with a marginal amount of AA and fed a diet deficient (Se-D/MC), marginal (Se-M/MC) or normal (Se-N/MC) in Se. An additional diet group (Se-N/NC) was fed normal Se and dosed with a normal amount of AA. Guinea pigs were killed after 5 or 12 weeks on the experimental diets at 24 and 48 hours post AA dosing.
Liver Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased (P < 0.05) in guinea pigs fed Se or AA restricted diets. Plasma total glutathione concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) by reduction in dietary Se or AA. All tissues examined showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in AA content in Se-N/MC compared to Se-N/NC guinea pigs. Kidney, testis, muscle and spleen showed a decreasing trend (P < 0.05) in AA content with decreasing Se in the diet. Dehydroascorbic acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) in several tissues with reduction in dietary Se (heart and spleen) or AA (liver, heart, kidney, muscle and spleen). At week 12, combined dietary restriction of Se and AA decreased AT concentrations in most tissues. In addition, restriction of Se (liver, heart and spleen) and AA (liver, kidney and spleen) separately also reduced AT in tissues.
Together, these data demonstrate sparing effects of Se and AA on vitamin C and AT in guinea pig tissues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small increases in zinc (Zn) consumption above recommended amounts have been shown to reduce copper (Cu) status in experimental animals and humans. Recently, we have reported that copper chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein level is increased in tissues of overtly Cu-deficient rats and proposed CCS as a novel biomarker of Cu status.
Weanling male Wistar rats were fed one of four diets normal in Cu and containing normal (30 mg Zn/kg diet) or moderately high (60, 120 or 240 mg Zn/kg diet) amounts of Zn for 5 weeks. To begin to examine the clinical relevance of CCS, we compared the sensitivity of CCS to mild Cu deficiency, induced by moderately high intakes of Zn, with conventional indices of Cu status.
Liver and erythrocyte CCS expression was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in rats fed the Zn-60 and/or Zn-120 diet compared to rats fed normal levels of Zn (Zn-30). Erythrocyte CCS expression was the most sensitive measure of reduced Cu status and was able to detect a decrease in Cu nutriture in rats fed only twice the recommended amount of Zn. Liver, erythrocyte and white blood cell CCS expression showed a significant (P < 0.05) inverse correlation with plasma and liver Cu concentrations and caeruloplasmin activity. Unexpectedly, rats fed the highest level of Zn (Zn-240) showed overall better Cu status than rats fed a lower level of elevated Zn (Zn-120). Improved Cu status in these rats correlated with increased duodenal mRNA expression of several Zn-trafficking proteins (i.e. MT-1, ZnT-1, ZnT-2 and ZnT-4).
Collectively, these data show that CCS is a sensitive measure of Zn-induced mild Cu deficiency and demonstrate a dose-dependent biphasic response for reduced Cu status by moderately high intakes of Zn.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increased acceptance of fortifying habitual foods with plant sterols and their saturated derivatives, stanols, at levels that are considered safe. These sterols and stanols are recognized as potentially effective dietary components for lowering plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Our previous studies have shown that daily consumption of plant sterols promotes strokes and shortens the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats. These studies question the safety of plant sterol additives. The present study was performed to determine whether a large intake of plant stanols would cause nutritional effects similar to those seen with plant sterols in SHRSP rats. Young SHRSP rats (aged 26-29 d) were fed semipurified diets containing commercial margarines fortified with either plant stanols (1.1 g/100 g diet) or plant sterols (1.4 g/100 g diet). A reference group of SHRSP rats was fed a soybean oil diet (0.02 g plant sterols/100 g diet and no plant stanols). Compared to soybean oil, both plant stanol and plant sterol margarines significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the life span of SHRSP rats. At the initial stages of feeding, there was no difference in the survival rates between the two margarine groups, but after approximately 50 d of feeding, the plant stanol group had a slightly, but significantly (P < 0.05), lower survival rate. Blood and tissue (plasma, red blood cells, liver, and kidney) concentrations of plant sterols in the plant sterol margarine group were three to four times higher than the corresponding tissue concentrations of plant stanols in the plant stanol group. The deformability of red blood cells and the platelet count of SHRSP rats fed the plant sterol margarine were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the plant stanol margarine and soybean oil groups at the end of the study. These parameters did not differ between the soybean oil and plant stanol margarine groups. These results suggest that, at the levels tested in the present study, plant stanols provoke hemorrhagic stroke in SHRSP rats to a slightly greater extent than plant sterols. The results also suggest that the mechanism by which plant stanols shorten the life span of SHRSP rats might differ from that of plant sterols.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to test the effects of large-dose supplementation of vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se), either singly or in combination, on fish oil (FO)-induced tissue lipid peroxidation and hyperlipidemia. The supplementation of Se has been shown to lower blood cholesterol and increase tissue concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH); however, the effects of Se supplementation, either alone or in combination with supplemental Vit E, on FO-induced oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia have not been studied. Male Syrian hamsters received FO-based diets that contained 14.3 wt% fat and 0.46 wt% cholesterol supplemented with Vit E (129 IU D-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) and/or Se (3.4 ppm as sodium selenate) or that contained basal requirements of both nutrients. The cardiac tissue of hamsters fed supplemental Se showed increased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) but decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations. The higher concentrations of LPO in the hearts of Se-supplemented hamsters were not lowered with concurrent Vit E supplementation. In the liver, Se supplementation was associated with higher Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity and an increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio, whereas a lower hepatic non-Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity was seen with Vit E supplementation. Supplemental intake of Se was associated with lower plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. In view of the pro-oxidative effects of Se supplementation on cardiac tissue, a cautionary approach needs to be taken regarding the plasma lipid-lowering properties of supplemental Se.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that canola oil (CA), compared with soybean oil (SO), shortens the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats, a widely used model for hemorrhagic stroke. SHRSP rats are highly sensitive to dietary cholesterol manipulations because a deficiency of membrane cholesterol makes their cell membranes weak and fragile. Phytosterols, abundant in CA but not in SO, can inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and also replace a part of cholesterol in cell membranes. This study was performed to determine whether the high concentration of phytosterols in CA might account for its life-shortening effect on SHRSP rats. Male, 35-d-old SHRSP rats (n = 28/group) were fed semipurified diets containing CA, SO, CA fortified with phytosterols (canola oil + phytosterols, CA + P), SO fortified with phytosterols (soybean oil + phytosterols, SO + P), corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO) or a fat blend that mimicked the fat composition of a representative Canadian diet (Canadian fat mimic, CFM; 10 g/100 g diet). These fats provided 97, 36, 207, 201, 114, 27 and 27 mg phytosterols/100 g diet, respectively. Ten rats from each group were killed after 30-32 d for blood and tissue analyses. The remaining rats (18/group) were used for determination of life span. The life span of SHRSP rats fed the high phytosterol oils (CA, CA + P, SO + P and CO) was significantly (P<0.05) shorter than that of CFM- and SO-fed rats. At 30-32 d, the groups fed the high phytosterol oils had greater levels of phytosterols and significantly (P<0.05) higher ratios of phytosterols/cholesterol in plasma, RBC, liver and kidney, and a significantly (P<0.05) lower RBC membrane deformabilty index than the groups fed oils low in phytosterols (SO, OO and CFM). The mean survival times were correlated with RBC deformability index (r(2) = 0.91, P = 0.0033) and cholesterol concentration (r(2) = 0.94, P = 0.0016), and inversely correlated with RBC phytosterol concentration (r(2) = 0.58, P = 0.0798) and phytosterols/cholesterol (r(2) = 0.65, P = 0.0579), except in the OO group. This study suggests that the high concentration of phytosterols in CA and the addition of phytosterols to other fats make the cell membrane more rigid, which might be a factor contributing to the shortened life span of SHRSP rats.
Journal of Nutrition 05/2000; 130(5):1166-78. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of feeding alkaline (0.1 N NaOH) and heat treated (75 degrees C for 3 h) proteins (lactalbumin and soybean protein isolate, SPI) on growth, and protein and mineral status of rats have been determined. The untreated and alkaline/heat treated lactalbumin contained 0.10 and 4.42 g lysinoalanine (LAL)/100 g protein, respectively. Similarly, the untreated and treated SPI contained 0.03 and 1.94 g LAL/100 g protein, respectively. The formation of LAL in the treated proteins was accompanied with a loss of cystine (73-77%), threonine (35-45%), serine (18-30%) and lysine (19-20%). The alkaline/heat treatments caused significant (P < 0.05) reductions in protein digestibility of lactalbumin (99 vs. 73%) and SPI (96 vs. 68%). The processing treatments also caused a drastic negative effect on protein quality, as measured by rat growth methods such as relative protein efficiency ratio (RPER) and relative net protein ratio (RNPR). The RPER and RNPR values of untreated lactalbumin and SPI were 89-91 and 56-64%, respectively. But the RPER and RNPR values of the treated lactalbumin and SPI were 0%. The mineral status of rats was also compromised by feeding alkaline/heat treated proteins. Liver iron levels in male rats (165-180 micrograms/g dry weight) and female rats (306-321 micrograms/g dry weight) fed the treated proteins were about half the levels in male rats (229-257 micrograms/g dry weight) and female rats (578-697 micrograms/g dry weight) fed the untreated proteins. The kidney iron contents of rats fed the treated proteins were also lower than that of rats fed the untreated proteins. Liver copper levels of male and female rats fed the treated proteins were up to three fold higher than those found in rats fed the untreated proteins. The data suggested that LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative formed during processing of foods, may produce adverse effects on growth, protein digestibility, protein quality and mineral bioavailability and utilization. The antinutritional effects of LAL may be more pronounced in sole-source foods such as infant formulas and formulated liquid diets which have been reported to contain significant amounts (up to 2400 ppm of LAL in the protein) of LAL.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/1999; 459:161-77. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-4853-9_11 · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction of dietary selenium and iodine on the activities of the selenoenzymes, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and type I deiodinase (DI-I), and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were studied. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93G diet for 6 wk with modified selenium and iodine concentration as follows: three levels each of iodine and selenium (0.03, 0.2 added and 1.0 added mg iodine/kg diet, and 0.05, 0.18 added and 1.0 added mg selenium/kg diet) were used in a 3 x 3 factorial design. Renal, but not hepatic, DI-I activity was lower in rats with low selenium intake than in controls. Circulating T3 concentration was not affected by the dietary levels of iodine or selenium. Unlike in liver, kidney and erythrocytes, thyroidal GSH-Px activity was not lower than in controls in rats with low selenium intake, but was significantly higher when iodine intake was low. Significant interactions of iodine and selenium on serum T4 and thyroidal GSH-Px activity were observed. Serum T4 was maintained at control levels when both dietary iodine and selenium were low, but not when iodine alone, or selenium alone, was low. Activity of thyroidal GSH-Px was lowest in rats fed a diet containing high iodine and low selenium. The results suggest that high iodine intake, when selenium is deficient, may permit thyroid tissue damage as a result of low thyroidal GSH-Px activity during thyroid stimulation. A moderately low selenium intake normalized circulating T4 concentration in the presence of iodine deficiency.
Journal of Nutrition 07/1997; 127(6):1214-8. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium was determined in infant formulas sold in Canada and compared with the selenium content of Canadian breast milk samples. Formulas were purchased in the Ottawa area during 1992 (prior to selenium addition to infant formulas) and during 1993 and 1994. Samples (1–2 g) were digested with a mixture of nitric, perchloric, and sulfuric acids and selenium in the digestate determined by a diamino-napthalene (DAN) fluorometric method. All samples were analyzed in duplicate or triplicate. Samples of nonfat milk powder reference material (NIST 1549) were analyzed with each batch of infant formula or human milk and coefficients of variation for within-run determination were 3.1% and day-to-day reproducibility was 7.6%. Unsupplemented infant formulas contained 3 to 21 μg Se/liter, compared to supplemented formulas which contained 16 to 35 μg Se/liter. Human breast milk samples from women in Eastern Ontario contained 13 to 25 μg Se/liter (17.7 ± 3.3, mean ± SD,n= 10). Assuming an intake of 800 ml of formula or human milk per day, unsupplemented formulas would provide 2 to 17, supplemented formulas 13 to 28, and human milk 11 to 20 μg/Se day, respectively. Thus, we found that several infant formulas sold in Canada can provide approximately one-fifth to one-third of the infant's requirement for selenium (10 μg/day) and that some supplemented formulas can provide twice the requirement.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 06/1996; 9(2):119-126. DOI:10.1006/jfca.1996.0019 · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities were measured during the development of diabetes in diabetes-prone BB rats (BBdp) prior to insulin dependence. The pancreata from seven to eight BBdp rats of each sex were examined at ages 5, 7, 10, and 18 weeks and compared with age-matched control BB rats (BBc). At Week 18, BBdp rats had moderate to high insulitis but normal levels of blood glucose and insulin. Pancreatic CuZnSOD activity in BBdp rats was two times higher than the activity seen in BBc rats at age 5-10 weeks but then declined to the same level as seen in BBc rats at 18 weeks of age. MnSOD activity increased over time in the BBdp rats but remained very low in BBc rats. These changes in CuZnSOD and MnSOD activity resulted in BBdp rats having twice the pancreatic total SOD activity compared with BBc rats (P < 0.0001). Total GSHPx activity was significantly reduced in the pancreata from both male and female BBdp rats compared with their respective controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The lower total GSHPx activity was due to reduced selenium-dependent GSHPx (SeGSHPx) activity. Erythrocyte and plasma activity of these enzymes was not different between rats with or without insulitis, indicating that differences in enzyme activities were confined to the pancreas. Thus, changes in pancreatic antioxidant enzyme activities occur prior to the development of diabetes symptoms in BBdp rats and may be related to the destruction of the pancreatic B cells and ultimate development of diabetes.
Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 11/1994; 207(2):206-12. DOI:10.3181/00379727-207-43808
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) has been suggested as an indicator of selenium status. The purpose of this study was to measure the activity of this enzyme in a large sample of healthy, free-living Canadians to determine normal distributions and the effects of age, smoking, and drinking habits, exercise, and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) or estrogen replacement therapy. The population consisted of 386 self-selected subjects between the ages of 24 and 75. Erythrocyte SeGSHPx activity was 21.5 +or- 7 (Mean +or- SD) and 33.6 +or- 8U/g Hb and plasma activity was 226 +or- 31 and 214 +or- 38 U/L for males (n=239) and females (n=147), respectively. Erythrocyte activity was significantly higher in females and males (p0.01). The Se form of GSHPx accounted for 76% and 54% of total activity in plasma and erythrocytes, respectively. No differences due to age were seen in males, although plasma SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities were elevated in females 65 years of age and older. Cigarette smoking significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects. This elevation did not vary with the amount smoked and was not seen in ex-smokers. Drinking elevated erythrocyte non-SeGSHPx and total activity in male subjects with the highest activity seen in drinkers who also smoked. No significant differences were seen with level of exercise except for a slight elevation with vigorous exercise. Estrogen use significantly elevated erythrocyte SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total activities in both pre- and postmenopausal women. These data suggest that some lifestyle factors can have small but significant effects of GSHPx activity and must be controlled for when population-based surveys are being conducted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a 16-wk study, weanling Wistar rats (32 males and 32 females) were fed a modified AIN-76 diet containing 20% fat with various (n-3) fatty acids. All dietary fats provided the same amount of saturates, monounsaturates, and total essential fatty acids [(n-6) + (n-3)]. The control diet contained lard/corn oil (L/CO). The other diets contained (n-3) fatty acids from linseed oil (LSO), from linseed oil + menhaden oil (LSO + MO) or from menhaden oil (MO). The (n-3) diets reduced total and HDL-cholesterol, particularly in rats fed the MO diet. Platelet thromboxane levels were equally depressed by the LSO and MO diets. Dietary (n-3) fatty acids significantly elevated docosahexaenoic acid in livers and hearts of male and female rats, with females reaching higher levels. This increase was accompanied by reduced arachidonic acid, except for hearts of females in which the major decrease was in linoleic acid. Overall, enzyme activities in the MO-fed group were decreased to the following levels (relative to the activity in the control group): heart Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), 28%; liver CuZnSOD, 82%; aorta CuZnSOD, 32%. Greater reductions in these enzyme activities were seen in the female rats fed the MO diet compared with male rats. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by urinary, heart and liver thiobarbituric acid reactants, was increased by dietary (n-3) fatty acids (MO greater than LSO + MO greater than LSO greater than L/CO) and was higher in females than in males. These results indicate that enhanced lipid peroxidation occurs with the increased oxidative stress of elevated tissue (n-3) fatty acids accompanied by reduced SOD activity.
Journal of Nutrition 10/1991; 121(9):1331-40. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine tumor activity of the radical scavenging enzymes selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx), cupro,zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and manganese dependent SOD (MnSOD) from rats fed varying amounts of selenium and to compare the effects due to diet with those due to the development of the tumor. Enzyme activities were measured in mammary tumors from DMBA-treated rats fed 0.035, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 mg Se/kg diet for 25 weeks (n = 58,33,24, and 14 tumors from 8, 8, 7, and 8 tumor-bearing rats, respectively). Increasing dietary Se had no effect on tumor SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and MnSOD activities. In contrast, tumor CuZnSOD and total SOD activities decreased with increasing dietary Se. Tumor size had a significant effect on MnSOD, SeGSHPx, non-SeGSHPx, and total GSHPx activities with increasing activity observed with increasing tumor weight. Malignant tumors were unique in two ways with respect to the activity of antioxidative protective enzymes. Tumor SeGSHPx activity was unresponsive to dietary Se while CuZnSOD and total SOD activities were significantly reduced with increasing dietary Se compared to erythrocytes, liver, and spleen from the same animals. Thus, the overall effect of high dietary Se was to decrease the ratio of total SOD to total GSHPx activity (P < 0.003). Tumor size had no effect on the ratio. This ratio of total SOD/GSHPx activity was several-fold higher in tumors than in other tissues from the same animals.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 08/1991; 2(8):430-436. DOI:10.1016/0955-2863(91)90112-I · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine selenium (Se) and antioxidant status of rats during the development of DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis and to determine whether there are differences between DMBA-treated rats that remained free of tumors (NT group, n=23), animals that developed tumors (WT group, n=7) and vehicle-treated control rats (n=20). All animals were fed the recommended amount of Se (0.1 mg/kg) in a high fat (20%) diet. The activities of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in plasma and erythrocytes every 2 wks for the 21 wk duration of the experiment. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring urinary malondialdehyde. SeGSHPx activity was lower in WT rats, before the appearance of tumors, compared to both NT and control rats. In contrast, SOD activity was reduced in DMBA-treated rats compared to control animals, but there were no differences between NT and WT rats. These changes in enzyme activity and the presence or absence of tumors did not affect lipid peroxidation.
Nutrition Research 12/1990; 10(12):1431-1439. DOI:10.1016/S0271-5317(05)80135-6 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of dietary calcium on the metabolism of iron, zinc, copper, and manganese in male and female rats was investigated. For 3 or 6 weeks the rats were fed three diets containing: (1) 0.26, (2) 0.52, or (3) 2.08% Ca. The apparent absorption of iron was depressed by the high calcium diet, and manganese absorption was highest in the low calcium groups. Generally there was a decrease in the absorption of minerals from 3 to 6 weeks. With an increase in the dietary calcium the absorption of Ca and P decreased. The liver iron concentration in the females fed diet 3 decreased from about 600 to 200 microg/g dry weight. The high calcium intake also caused a slight increase in the heart calcium levels in both sexes. However, diet 3 prevented kidney calcification in the female rats at 6 weeks and this was attributed to a dramatic decrease in the urinary phosphorus, although the calcium had increased about 40 times. In males, on the other hand, the high calcium diet caused some kidney calcification.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11/1990; 1(11):585-91. DOI:10.1016/0955-2863(90)90048-P · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the presence of mammary tumors on75Se retention was examined in DMBA-treated rats. Tumor bearing rats fed varying amounts of Se exhibited an inverse linear dose
response between dietary Se intake and tissue retention of75Se in whole body, heart, lungs, ovaries, adrenals, spleen, and muscle. Tumor75Se retention, however, was independent of the dietary intake of Se. Tumor bearing rats excreted more75Se label in the urine compared to both control rats fed the same amount of Se and DMBA-treated animals that remained tumor
free. In the short term, no significant differences were seen in tissue retention of75Se. By 7 d, the increased urinary excretion of the label resulted in significantly decreased retention of75Se in blood, spleen, liver, lungs, and kidneys of tumor-bearing rats compared to tumor-free animals. The presence of tumors,
however, did not affect the liver distribution of the label among cytosolic proteins. These results suggest that tumor bearing
animals have an accelerated urinary excretion of Se compared to animals without tumors and that tumors either have a very
slow turnover of Se or a low priority for the element.
Biological Trace Element Research 03/1989; 20(1):179-196. DOI:10.1007/BF02919110 · 1.75 Impact Factor