Sofía Sánchez-Román

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Tlalpam, The Federal District, Mexico

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Publications (11)14.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Delirium in palliative care patients is common and its diagnosis and treatment is a major challenge. Our objective was to perform a literature analysis in two phases on the recent scientific evidence (2007-2012) on the diagnosis and treatment of delirium in adults receiving palliative care. In phase1 (descriptive studies and narrative reviews) 133relevant articles were identified: 73addressed the issue of delirium secondarily, and 60articles as the main topic. However, only 4prospective observational studies in which delirium was central were identified. Of 135articles analysed in phase2 (clinical trials or descriptive studies on treatment of delirium in palliative care patients), only 3 were about prevention or treatment: 2retrospective studies and one clinical trial on multicomponent prevention in cancer patients. Much of the recent literature is related to reviews on studies conducted more than a decade ago and on patients different to those receiving palliative care. In conclusion, recent scientific evidence on delirium in palliative care is limited and suboptimal. Prospective studies are urgently needed that focus specifically on this highly vulnerable population.
    Revista de psiquiatria y salud mental. 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Delirium in palliative care patients is common and its diagnosis and treatment is a major challenge. Our objective was to perform a literature analysis in two phases on the recent scientific evidence (2007-2012) on the diagnosis and treatment of delirium in adults receiving palliative care. In phase 1 (descriptive studies and narrative reviews) 133 relevant articles were identified: 73 addressed the issue of delirium secondarily, and 60 articles as the main topic. However, only 4 prospective observational studies in which delirium was central were identified. Of 135 articles analysed in phase 2 (clinical trials or descriptive studies on treatment of delirium in palliative care patients), only 3 were about prevention or treatment: 2 retrospective studies and one clinical trial on multicomponent prevention in cancer patients. Much of the recent literature is related to reviews on studies conducted more than a decade ago and on patients different to those receiving palliative care. In conclusion, recent scientific evidence on delirium in palliative care is limited and suboptimal. Prospective studies are urgently needed that focus specifically on this highly vulnerable population.
    Revista de Psiquiatría Biológica y Salud Mental 01/2013; · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common and debilitating illness that impacts neurocognitive function. However, the majority of previous studies varied in methodologic design and rigor, thus minimizing definitive conclusions. The present study was designed to determine the impact of CKD on neurocognitive function through specific examination of CKD factors and therapeutic interventions. We evaluated 120 CKD outpatients and 41 healthy donors (controls) in terms of neurocognitive function, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology, and somnolence. Information regarding medical and treatment history was recorded. Twenty-three percent of CKD patients presented with cognitive impairment. Stage 5 patients had lower scores (p < .05) compared with controls and patients in stage 3 and 4 on measures of global cognitive function. No differences in global cognitive function were found between stage 3 and 4 patients and controls. A greater proportion of patients undergoing hemodialysis relative to those treated with peritoneal dialysis showed impairment on measures of memory functions. Results suggest that stage 5 CKD patients may present with impaired cognitive functions. Anemia appeared to be a key variable that may explain the memory impairment in this sample. Future longitudinal investigations of CKD are warranted to determine the trajectory of cognitive impairment.
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 11/2010; 17(1):80-90. · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the personality profile of a sample of Mexican patients with migraine using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). A cross-sectional study was performed including adult migraine patients identified from the outpatient neurology clinics of two large teaching hospitals in Mexico City. Patients were asked to voluntarily participate in the study. A physician conducted a standardised diagnostic interview adhering to the criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS). Patients were interviewed and administered the TCI. We used two healthy controls groups and a third group of non-migraine pain controls. One hundred and fortytwo subjects with migraine, 108 healthy blood donors, 269 young healthy controls and 30 patients with non-migraine pain (NMP) were included in the study. Patients with migraine had higher scores in the dimension harm avoidance (HA) and all its sub-dimensions (p<0.05) than healthy patients. Patients with non-migraine pain had high scores in HA and low scores in novelty seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness. Blood donors had high scores in the following subdimensions: HA1, HA4 and C3 (Cooperativeness). Personality features consistent with migraine are avoidance, rigidity, reserve and obsessivity. Our study shows that patients with chronic pain share some of the personality features of patients with migraine but their TCI profile could be indicative of cluster C avoidant personality. Blood donors were shown to have more energy, with a tendency to help other people and be more optimistic. The results support serotoninergic involvement as explaining the physiopathology of migraine.
    The Journal of Headache and Pain 05/2007; 8(2):94-104. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic condition, in which different systems of the body are affected. There are some previous studies in which the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in extreme obese patients has been reported, but there are some methodological problems. As far as we know this is the first report of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in obese patients that need to have a surgical treatment for this disorder in Mexico. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in extreme obese patients candidates to bariatric surgery. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) axis I disorders, were performed in 70 obese patients that will undergo for bariatric surgery. Also the medical files were reviewed in order to obtain the main medical conditions related to obesity. There were 25 men and 35 women in this study (average age +/- s.d = 39.0 +/- 10.4). The Body Mass Index (BMI) was 53.8 +/- 11.9. Sixty percent of the patients had some psychiatric disorder in the axis I of DSM-IV. The most frequent psychiatric problem that was observed was anxiety disorders. The main medical problems observed were: arterial hypertension (59%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (29%) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (29%). The BMI and diabetes mellitus were associated with a lower risk for presenting a psychiatric disorder (for a BMI of 65.5 +/- 10.3 kg/m2: OR 0.26, CI 0.05-1.15, p = 0.04; for diabetes mellitus: OR 0.20, CI 0.03-1.05, p = 0.02). More than half of the patients had at least one psychiatric disorder in axis 1 of DSM-IV, related mostly to anxiety and mood disorders. Our findings point out the importance of psychiatric and psychological intervention in this group of patients, in which a follow up and adherence of medical, nutritional and psychological problems could be the difference, between a good or bad prognosis. Follow-up studies with obese patients after bariatric surgery, will be important to support our findings.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 01/2003; 55(4):400-6. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe and compare anxiety and depression symptoms between two group patients with neuropathic and nociceptive pain those arrive for first time to a clinic of pain. Non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive design. Seventy-eight patients that arrive the first time to a clinic of pain were evaluated; those patients were divided in two groups: neuropathic pain with 44 patients and nociceptive pain with 34 patients. To evaluate anxiety and depression we use the Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), this scale is adapted and validated in Mexico. From the 78 patients in the study, the 76.9% were female and 23.1% were male. The age average was (56.9 +/- 16.8 year-old for neuropathic pain and 63.1 +/- 17.2 year-old for nociceptive pain). The reliability of the scale HAD was evaluated by the Chronbach's alpha analysis with an r = 0.826. There was no significance difference in anxiety and depression between types of pain, but after analyzing all of the patients we found that anxiety was more frequent than depression p < 0.0001. Independently of the algological diagnosis, patients presented almost the same affective symptoms.
    Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 46(5):479-84.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to evaluate four programs to reduce anxiety in medically ill patients: psicoeducative, cognitive, behavioural or control. One hundred and seventy seven patients from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán were assigned randomly to one of this programs and were evaluated before and after them with the Anxiety Hamilton Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Program effectiveness was evaluated with descriptive and a Pre-post difference mean analysis. Results show that the program that obtained the best results in reducing anxiety levels was the Psicoeducative Program, reducing significantly the anxiety levels evaluated with both measures. This indicates that in patients that assist to a general hospital, the combination of different psychological techniques such as providing information to the patient, relaxation training and other cognitive strategies are effective in reducing tension, worries, nervousness and levels of anxiety related with their illness.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 58(6):540-6. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Mexico there are few studies about the psychological characteristics of the person that voluntary and in a complete sense assumes the role of responsible of a patient. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the levels of burden, anxiety and depression of 56 caregivers of patients with chronic pain with the ones of 35 caregivers of terminally ill patients. The study was conduced at the Chronic Pain and Palliative Medicine Department of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán". We used the Spanish version of the Burden Interview and the Informal Primary Caregiver Health Survey. Both groups went over the cut off point of the Burden Scale even though no significative differences between groups were found nor in burden or in anxiety. The caregivers of terminal patients had more depression symptoms and a greater perception of the impact of the care activity in their mood. Positive correlations between burden and depression, depression and anxiety and burden and anxiety were found. All caregivers reported multiple depression symptoms--greater if they cared terminally ill patients--so, it may suggest that the patient's illness directly influences the depression symptoms of their caregivers. This study can help to develop intervention programs directed to help this population that is the principal support of the patient's treatment.
    Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 46(5):485-94.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the presence of emotional distress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the effect of kidney transplant on these symptoms. This was a two-part study. Part one was cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive, where 75 patients with CKD were evaluated for emotional distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). In part two, we longitudinally followed 19% of the study cohort to examine symptomatological changes after their kidney transplantation. The results of the HAD indicated that 30.7% of the study cohort with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) showed anxious symptoms, and 25.3% showed depressive symptoms. The change in the HAD total score before and after kidney transplant was not significant. However, a significant decrease in total score on the SCL-90 was observed before and after transplantation. Improvement on emotional distress was found after kidney transplantation.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 63(6):558-63. · 0.31 Impact Factor