Publications (3)11.95 Total impact
Article: Genetic distance in housekeeping genes between Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium reichenowi and within P. falciparum.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The time to the most recent common ancestor of the extant populations of Plasmodium falciparum is controversial. The controversy primarily stems from the limited availability of sequences from Plasmodium reichenowi, a chimpanzee malaria parasite closely related to P. falciparum. Since the rate of nucleotide substitution differs in different loci and DNA regions, the estimation of genetic distance between P. falciparum and P. reichenowi should be performed using orthologous sequences that are evolving neutrally. Here, we obtained full-length sequences of two housekeeping genes, sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (serca) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), from 11 isolates of P. falciparum and 1 isolate of P. reichenowi and estimate the interspecific genetic distance (divergence) between the two species and intraspecific genetic distance (polymorphism) within P. falciparum. Interspecific distance and intraspecific distance at synonymous sites of interspecies-conserved regions of serca and ldh were 0.0672 +/- 0.0088 and 0.0011 +/- 0.0007, respectively, using the Nei and Gojobori method. Based on the ratio of interspecific distance to intraspecific distance, the time to the most recent common ancestor of P. falciparum was estimated to be (8.30 +/- 5.40) x 10(4) and (11.62 +/- 7.56) x 10(4) years ago, assuming the divergence time of the two parasite species to be 5 and 7 million years ago, respectively.Journal of Molecular Evolution 12/2004; 59(5):687-94. · 2.27 Impact Factor
Article: Mosaic organization and heterogeneity in frequency of allelic recombination of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 locus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The organization and allelic recombination of the merozoite surface protein-1 gene of Plasmodium vivax (PvMsp-1), the most widely prevalent human malaria parasite, were evaluated in complete nucleotide sequences of 40 isolates from various geographic areas. Alignment of 31 distinct alleles revealed the mosaic organization of PvMsp-1, consisting of seven interallele conserved blocks flanked by six variable blocks. The variable blocks showed extensive variation in repeats and nonrepeat unique sequences. Numerous recombination sites were distributed throughout PvMsp-1, in both conserved blocks and variable block unique sequences, and the distribution was not uniform. Heterozygosity of PvMsp-1 alleles was higher in Asia (0.953 +/- 0.009) than in Brazil (0.813 +/- 0.047). No identical alleles were shared between Asia and Brazil, whereas all but one variable block nonrepeat sequence found in Brazil occurred in Asia. These observations suggest that P. vivax populations in Asia are ancestral to Brazilian populations, and that PvMsp-1 has heterogeneity in frequency of allelic recombination events. Recurrent origins of new PvMsp-1 alleles by repeated recombination events were supported by a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium between pairs of synonymous sites with increasing nucleotide distance, with little linkage disequilibrium at a distance of over 3 kb in a P. vivax population from Thailand, evidence for an effectively high recombination rate of the parasite. Meanwhile, highly reduced nucleotide diversity was noted in a region encoding the 19-kDa C-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domain of merozoite surface protein-1, a vaccine candidate.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2003; 99(25):16348-53. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Limited recombination events in merozoite surface protein-1 alleles of Plasmodium falciparum on islands[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intragenic recombination is a principal mechanism for the generation of allelic variation in the merozoite surface protein-1 gene (Msp-1) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In the present study, linkage disequilibrium between the 5′- and 3′-polymorphic sites was analyzed to determine the frequency of recombination events in Msp-1 in parasite populations on four islands in Vanuatu, the southwestern Pacific, where malaria transmission is moderate and comparable to other mesoendemic areas. Of 141 isolates, whose 5′-haplotypes (Msp-1 blocks 2–6) were determined by PCR-based typing, 138 were successfully sequenced for the 3′-polymorphism (block 17). A total of four distinct 5′-haplotypes and three distinct 3′-sequence types were identified with apparently different frequency distribution among islands. The number of 5′-haplotypes in each island was one to four, far smaller than in other previously studied geographic areas (ten to 21). Associations between the 5′- and 3′-polymorphisms (here termed Msp-1 gene types) were subjected to the R2 linkage disequilibrium test. The test revealed complete or very strong linkage disequilibrium in all four islands. Mixed infection was unusually rare (2.1%) and the mean number of Msp-1 alleles per person was nearly 1.0. The heterozygosity of the Msp-1 gene type calculated for each island (h=0.41–0.65) was significantly lower than that in other areas of comparable endemicity (h=0.81–0.89) (P<0.01). These results indicate that recombination events in Msp-1 would be extremely limited in Vanuatu, and stress that the frequency of recombination in Msp-1 is determined by not only the intensity of malaria transmission but the frequency of mixed clone infections, the mean number of clones per person and a repertoire of clones in a local area.Gene.