Rosaria Viglietti

AORN Ospedali dei Colli, Napoli, Campania, Italy

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Publications (15)36.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abiotrophia defectiva or nutritionally variant Streptococcus (NVS) are a rare but important cause of infectious endocarditis, with high rates of bacteriological failure and mortality. We report the case of a 74-year-old man admitted for fever, fatigue and general malaise in the absence of any underlying cardiac, immunosuppressive illness and previous dental manipulations. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed bacterial vegetation and significant aortic stenosis and regurgitation. Initial blood culture reported gram-positive cocci in chains, subsequently identified as A. defectiva. The patient completed 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy with ampicillin, with a significant decrease of serum inflammatory markers. He refused cardiac surgery and had relapsing endocarditis with positive blood culture for the same pathogen. The patient was then submitted to double-valve cardiac surgery, obtaining a prompt resolution of clinical signs and symptoms, without other relapse or any complications. Conclusion: Infectious diseases caused by A. defectiva are extremely rare illnesses. Due to the difficult isolation of the pathogen and the slow clinical progression, clinicians should be aware of this bacterium when dealing with blood culturenegative infective endocarditis.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 09/2015; 29(5):515-518. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently increasing emphasis is placed on preventive health and management of chronic comorbidities avoiding long-term toxicities of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Drawing from this background we decided to use the Saos-2, osteosarcoma cell line, as a cellular model, to evaluate the effects of some antiretroviral drugs such as abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TDF), efavirenz (EFV), etravirine (ETR) and darunavir (DRV), on bone differentiation related pathways. According to our observation, treatment with TDF and ABC affects the ability of the cells to produce calcium deposits with a reduced expression of type I collagen gene and p21 mRNA, also increasing the activity of Wnt3a related pathway. On the other hand treatment with EFV and DRV was not related to any significant reduction of calcium deposits but displayed a decrease in the expression of Wnt3a at day 14 and Type I Collagen at day 7 compared with untreated cells, even if this last down regulation was not confirmed at day 14. Instead ETR administration to Saos-2 cells increases the calcium deposits collagen type I production, as a result of Wnt3a mRNA overexpression, and of an upregulation of collagen type I expression, being also the only drug able to increase the expression of p21 cdk inhibitor as further marker of terminal differentiation. In summary these data suggest the potential negative interference of TDF and ABC on bone differentiation. DRV and EFV partially affect collagen type I production, instead ETR facilitates a positive bone balance as a result of an increased osteoblasts terminal differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2015; 116(10). DOI:10.1002/jcb.25169 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-related malignancy, has dramatically decreased in the Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART) era. However, KS remains the second most frequent tumor in HIV-infected patients worldwide and has become the most common cancer in the sub-Saharan Africa. Experimental studies have demonstrated a direct anti-neoplastic effect of HAART, and overall of protease inhibitors (PIs), on KS. Case Report: We describe five cases of KS in HIV-infected patients on HAART regimen, containing PIs as atazanavir/r (ATV/r), darunavir/r (DRV/r), lopinavir/r (LPV/r) and fosamprenavir (fAMP/r). Conclusion: Clinical and experimental observations support the hypothesis that PIs may play an important role in prevention and treatment of KS. In our study, the treatment with PIs of recent generation was not protective against the development of KS. Therefore, it could be necessary to re-evaluate the therapeutic effects of PIs and their role in the development and treatment of KS in HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 01/2015; 29(1):133-136. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: HIV infection is a risk factor for re-activation of latent tubercolosis infection (LTBI). In recent years new blood tests for the detection of TB infection have been developed: Quantiferon TB Gold in Tube and TSPOT TB, which are interferon-γ releasing assays (IGRAs), have improved the identification of LTBI. In our study we have compared IGRAs and TST in HIV-positive patients with different settings of immunodeficiency. Patients and Methods: 98 consecutive HIV patients were recruited. They underwent a blood draw, a chest radiography and a tuberculin skin test. The HIV infection setting was detected and IGRAs were carried-out. Five patients showed a complete correspondence of TST, TSPOT-TB and QFT-IT. Discordant results were observed in patients testing positive to IGRAs but negative to TST. Only 2 patients showed positive TST and negative IGRAs. Conclusion: Our study showed a poor concordance between tuberculin skin test and IGRAs, mainly in patients with a low CD4 cell count. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 01/2015; 29(1):137-140. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction PREVALEAT II (PREmature VAscular LEsions and Antiretroviral Therapy II) is an ongoing multicenter, longitudinal cohort study aimed to the evaluation of cardiovascular (CV) risk in advanced HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV) naïve patients starting their first antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients and methods All consecutive naïve patients with CD4 cell count<200/mL starting any PI/r-based or NNRTI-based + 2 NRTIs regimen from January 2010 to January 2013 in the participant centres were enrolled. At baseline and after 3 (T1), 6 (T2) and 12 (T3) months patients were subjected to epi-aortic vessels ultrasonography and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD). Viral load, CD4+ cell count, serum lipid values, serum glucose, endothelial activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and inflammatory markers (IL-6 and hsCRP) values were recorded at the same time. Data about independent risk factors for HIV infection and CV disease are taken at time 0. We enrolled 94 patients: 81% males, 87% caucasians, 40% smokers, 8.2% HCV co-infected and 3.5% with lipodystrophy; 33% of them were homosexuals, 12% drug addicts; 23% were AIDS at presentation. Statistical data analysis has been conducted by the χ2 nonparametric method. Results In Table 1 it is reported the percentage of patients with pathologic values, moreover, at T3, 60.46% showed undetectable viraemia and 69.77% had CD4 + > 200. Conclusions Our data evidence at baseline has a relevant deterioration of CV conditions in terms of ultrasonographic data, FMD, inflammation and cytokine markers among advanced naïves. During follow-up epi-aortic lesions tend to worsen but not significantly, percentage of pathologic FMD remains stable. Regarding markers of endothelial activation ICAM-1 significantly worsens during the period of observation; also VCAM-1 has a trend towards the worsening while not significantly. Conversely, a significant improvement was observed for the markers of inflammation D-dimers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). IL-6 improved but not significantly. Serum lipid profile shows an increase of HDLc and total cholesterol, but not of LDLc. In conclusion, after a twelve-month follow-up period, CV risk of the patients remains high. ARV therapy seems in fact to improve only non-specific and poor sensitive inflammation biomarkers and HDLc; markers of endothelial activations tend to worsen, intima-media ultrasonography and FMD do not show relevant modifications. Further data are warranted to better understand the role of the different ARV regimens.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19545. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19545 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of HAART (highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy) has resulted in extended survival of HIV positive patients. Conversely, due to the prolonged expectancy of life and the ageing of the HIV positive population, tumors are now one of the major cause of death, and among them hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a growing concern in these patients. Considering the potential anti-tumoral effects of HIV protease inhibitors, we decided to evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of Amprenavir on liver carcinoma and to evaluate its potential synergistic effects in combination with standard chemoterapic drugs, such as Doxorubicin. Our results indicate that Amprenavir had direct inhibitory effects on invasion of Huh-7 hepatocarcinoma cell lines, inhibiting MMP proteolytic activation. Amprenavir was able to delay the growth of hepatocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice and had a synergistic effect with Doxorubicin. Furthermore, Amprenavir was able to promote regression of hepatocarcinoma growth in vivo by anti-angiogenetic and overall anti-tumor activities, independently by PI3K/AKT related pathways that at today is one of the more suggestive hypothesis to explain the anti-tumor effects of the different protease inhibitors. In summary these findings suggest novel anti-neoplastic action of Amprenavir on liver cancer showing the possibility of novel combination therapies. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2013; 228(3). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24173 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PREVALEAT II (PREmature VAscular LEsions and Antiretroviral Therapy II) is an ongoing multicenter, longitudinal cohort study aimed to the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in advanced naïve HIV-infected patients starting their first HAART. It includes all consecutive naïve pts with <200 CD4 cells/ml who start any PI/r-based or NNRTI-based+2 NRTIs regimen. Pts are subjected to epi-aortic vessels ultrasonography, brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), endothelial cytokine inflammatory markers value at time 0 and after 3, 6 and 12 months. Data about independent risk factors for CV disease are taken at time 0. Viral load, CD4+ counts, serum lipid values, glucose, body mass index (BMI) are recorded at every control. We enrolled 47 pts: 76,6% males, 87,2% caucasians, 40,4% cigarette smokers, 10,6% HCV co-infected, 6,4% had lipodystrophy. 29,8% homosexuals, 12,8% drug addicts, 51,1% heterosexuals. At baseline, 23,4% of pts had pathologic BMI, 31,91% had a epi-aortic vessels lesion (IMT and/or plaque), 27,65% had pathologic FMD; ICAM1 was pathologic in 46,80%, VCAM1 in 53,19%, IL-6 in 51,06%, D-dimers in 29,79%, hsCRP in 23,40%. 27 pts completed stage T1 of the study (after 3 months); percentages and significance level of variations are the following: 44,44% had a lesion of the epi-aortic vessels (p=0,28), 48,14% had a pathologic FMD (p=0,08), ICAM1 was pathologic in 59,26% (p=0,30), VCAM1 in 70,37% (p=0,15), IL-6 in 74,07% (p=0,05), D-dimers in 14,81% (p=0,12), hsCRP in 25,92% (p=0,80). 27 pts completed stage T2 of the study (6 months). Percentages and significance level of variations in regard of baseline are the following: 51,85% had a epi-aortic vessels lesion (p=0,462); 25,92% had pathologic FMD (p=0,37). 10 pts completed stage T3 of the study (12 months): 60% had a epi-aortic vessels lesion (p=0,07); 40% had pathologic FMD (p=0,49). No significant change has been showed in the trend of variation of inflammatory cytokines at T2 and T3. Our data, at baseline, evidence that advanced naïve pts show a relevant deterioration of CV conditions in terms of US data, FMD and cytokine markers. At T1, US and FMD seem to further worsen; cytokines, except D-dimers, show a worsening trend, too. At T1 and T2, prevalence of vessel lesion and pathologic FMD is yet higher, with a p value closer to significance level. Further data deriving from the follow-up of missing pts are warranted to better understand the evolution of the CV risk profile in this setting of pts.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2012; 15(6):18153. DOI:10.7448/IAS.15.6.18153 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause a metabolic syndrome consisting of lipodystropy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increased cardiovascular risk. The pathogenetic bases of HAART-associated lipodystrophy are poorly known. A genetic screen was used to evaluate proteins that are modulated in HIV-1-infected patients with or without lipodystrophy syndrome, that are routinely treated with HAART regimens. The most significant modulation was represented by FAP48 expression. Stable over-expression of FAP48 was able to alter, in vitro, adipogenesis, acting both on calcineurin and glucocorticoid pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that FAP48 over-expression was able to influence the capacity of some HIV drugs, Saquinavir and Efavirenz, but not Stavudine, Amprenavir, and Indinavir to inhibit adipocyte formation. In conclusion, this molecule could be a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches to the HAART related lipodystrophy in HIV patients. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 3446-3454, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2012; 113(11):3446-54. DOI:10.1002/jcb.24221 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the ability of anti-HIV drugs to interfere with normal cell cycle progression and to induce oxidative stress by perturbing the redox environment. Our results provide evidence that anti-HIV drugs have a differential effect on adipocyte cell cycle and differentiation, being able to modify the response to oxidative stress through an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that compromises the induction of phase-2 and antioxidant enzymes. In detail, saquinavir, efavirenz, and stavudine exert antiadipogenic influences on the model 3T3-L1 cell line, perturbing the oxidative response and inducing of apoptosis. When considered together, the effects of anti-HIV drugs on 3T3-L1 pre adipocytes are distinct but commonly antiadipogenic, thus suggesting another additional possible mechanism by which antiretroviral therapies could contribute to lipoatrophy.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 03/2012; 26(2):287-91. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART therapy) for HIV-1 infection has significantly increased the survival and quality of life of patients with this disease. However, in several epidemiological studies the onset of metabolic syndrome is a phenomenon reported to be extremely frequent. In the present study, genes involved in the molecular cascade responsible for the alteration of fat tissue and of lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with HIV-1 infection treated with antiretroviral therapy were identified. Towards this goal, hybridization using Atlas cDNA Expression Arrays allowed simultaneous monitoring of the expression levels of approximately 250 genes and identification of a panel of changes in relation to different therapeutic groups and in the presence of metabolic syndrome, with some genes being up-regulated, while others are down-regulated in the different subgroups of patients. The results of this analysis have shown a panel of transcriptional changes associated with oxidative stress mechanisms that provide a basis for further studies on understanding of mechanisms that, in vivo, are the foundation the metabolic disorders in patients with HIV infection.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 03/2012; 26(2):237-42. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that fosamprenavir-including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens would be associated with few metabolic and hepatic side-effects was investigated. An observational single-arm retrospective study was set up on a cohort of 139 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, followed up at A.O.R.N. Cotugno Hospital, Naples, Italy, treated with antiretroviral regimens including fosamprenavir, in order to evaluate the safety of these regimens in relationship to hepatic and metabolic side-effects, also considering co-morbidities and other risk factors. Only seven patients met the criteria to reach the primary end-point (grade ≥ 3 adverse event) and none of them discontinued HAART therapy during the follow-up period. Eighty percent of the patients reached viral load <50 cp/μl at 48 weeks of observation. At the end of follow-up, no patient with fasting serum total cholesterol and/or fasting serum triglycerides above grade 3 was found, while 1 out of 114 (0.88%) cases presented aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase ≥ grade 3 and 1 out of 114 (0.88%) cases had fasting serum glucose ≥ grade 3. One out of 137 patients developed a malignant neoplasm (0.73%) and 4 (2.92%) displayed newly diagnosed hypertension. Fosamprenavir-based regimens caused a low number of serious metabolic adverse events during a 48 week follow-up period, with a low incidence of co-morbidities and satisfying results in terms of viro-immunological response including for patients with already existing co-morbidities requiring other therapies.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 09/2011; 25(5):813-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans CNS infection frequently affects HIV-infected patients and is often lethal, despite antifungal therapy. The most recent treatment guidelines for Cryptococcal meningitis recommend therapy with lyposomal amphotericin B and possible association with flucitosine. However, clinical response rates in HIV-infected patients are not satisfactory, with a persistent high mortality rate and long term therapy is affected by a high risk of major side effects. Posaconazole, the latest broad-spectrum azole, with both in vitro- and in vivo-documented potent activity against C. neoformans, clearly showed no antagonism with amphotericin B, echinocandins or flucytosine and it has both in vitro and in vivo agonistic activity with flucytosine against C. neoformans. We report two cases of successful salvage therapy based on the addition of posaconazole to a standard treatment based on liposomal amphotericin B and Flucytosine. In addition we used posaconazole also in a maintenance therapeutic regimen with no evidence of recurrences in the follow up of these patients. Our report confirms that posaconazole has clinical activity in the CNS against C. neoformans infection. In addition posaconazole showed no antagonism with any other currently available antifungal agent, and was in fact synergistic to some of them (flucytosine); consequently, it seems to be an ideal candidate for antimicrobial combination salvage therapies. Finally posaconazole represents a good alternative to parenteral therapy and an ideal candidate for long-term maintenance therapy due to its competent toxicity profile and oral bioavailability.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 05/2009; 23(3):465-8. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenetic bases of HAART-associated lipodystrophy are still poorly known, even if it is clear that adipose tissue and its metabolism are sensitive to antiretroviral therapy alone and/or in combination with HIV infection. The NEDD8 system is essential for the regulation of protein degradation pathways involved in cell cycle progression, morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. We investigated the possible involvement of NEED8 in adipogenesis and, consequently, in HIV-related lipodystrophy. One hundred HIV-1-infected patients were included in the study. Using an in vitro model of adipogenesis we evaluated the effects on adipogenesis of the forced expression of NEDD8 together with efavirenz, stavudine, saquinavir, amprenavir and indinavir, belonging to the three main classes of anti-HIV medications. We showed that NEDD8 expression level is higher in the peripheral blood of HIV patients developing lipodystrophy. Coherently, forced expression of NEDD8 in an in vitro model of adipogenesis was able to perturb expression of some key proteins involved in adipogenesis, such as C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, possibly acting throughout the NEDD8/p27/beta-catenin pathway. Moreover, three out of five evaluated drugs were able to affect adipocyte differentiation: efavirenz, stavudine and saquinavir. Finally, we have shown that NEDD8 was expressed in the fat tissue of lipodystrophic patients, being significantly higher in the lipodystrophic patients with respect to the controls, thus further confirming the altered NEDD8 expression in the fat tissue of HIV-infected patients affected by lipodystrophy. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis of an implication of NEDD8 through p27 and beta-catenin pathways in the disruption of adipogenesis and consequent lipodystrophy in patients affected by HIV infection under HAART therapy with qualitative and quantitative differences according to diverse antiretroviral treatments. These evidences indicate the NEDD8/beta-catenin/p27 pathway as a possible molecular target for prevention of lipodystrophy development in patients under HAART therapy.
    Differentiation 03/2009; 77(2):148-53. DOI:10.1016/j.diff.2008.09.016 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    09/2006; 21(3). DOI:10.4081/mm.2006.3217
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    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 12/2002; 50(5):763-5. · 5.31 Impact Factor

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