Brian P Smith

Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (7)29.93 Total impact

  • Brian P. Smith
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    ABSTRACT: Statistical inference involves taking the results of models and knowledge about probability to make decisions about the relationship in question. This commentary explains the usefulness of statistical inference to the drug development process, as well as some common pitfalls. It also examines reasons why statistical inference does not seem to be fully integrated into pharmacometric modeling. An example is shown that demonstrates the inferential advantages of mechanistic models. Both statisticians and pharmacometricians ought to take note of these advantages and integrate their efforts in order to maximize the decision-making potential of clinical research.
    The AAPS Journal 08/2005; 7(3):E655-E658. · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2005; 45(7):851-5. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    Article: It's time.
    Brian P Smith
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    ABSTRACT: Statistical inference involves taking the results of models and knowledge about probability to make decisions about the relationship in question. This commentary explains the usefulness of statistical inference to the drug development process, as well as some common pitfalls. It also examines reasons why statistical inference does not seem to be fully integrated into pharmacometric modeling. An example is shown that demonstrates the inferential advantages of mechanistic models. Both statisticians and pharmacometricians ought to take note of these advantages and integrate their efforts in order to maximize the decision-making potential of clinical research.
    The AAPS Journal 02/2005; 7(3):E655-8. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the studies reported here, the ability of atomoxetine hydrochloride (Strattera) to inhibit or induce the metabolic capabilities of selected human isoforms of cytochrome P450 was evaluated. Initially, the potential of atomoxetine and its two metabolites, N-desmethylatomoxetine and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, to inhibit the metabolism of probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A was evaluated in human hepatic microsomes. Although little inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 activity was observed, inhibition was predicted for CYP3A (56% predicted inhibition) and CYP2D6 (60% predicted inhibition) at concentrations representative of high therapeutic doses of atomoxetine. The ability of atomoxetine to induce the catalytic activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A in human hepatocytes was also evaluated; however, atomoxetine did not induce either isoenzyme. Based on the potential of interaction from the in vitro experiments, drug interaction studies in healthy subjects were conducted using probe substrates for CYP2D6 (desipramine) in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects and CYP3A (midazolam) in CYP2D6 poor metabolizer subjects. Single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of desipramine (single dose of 50 mg) were not altered when coadministered with atomoxetine (40 or 60 mg b.i.d. for 13 days). Only modest changes (approximately 16%) were observed in the plasma pharmacokinetics of midazolam (single dose of 5 mg) when coadministered with atomoxetine (60 mg b.i.d. for 12 days). Although at high therapeutic doses of atomoxetine inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A was predicted, definitive in vivo studies clearly indicate that atomoxetine administration with substrates of CYP2D6 and CYP3A does not result in clinically significant drug interactions.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2004; 308(2):410-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atomoxetine is a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and is primarily eliminated via cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6). The pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine and its primary metabolites were investigated in 10 adults with hepatic impairment (6 moderate, 4 severe) and 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects, all being genotyped as CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. A single oral 20-mg dose of atomoxetine was given. Multiple blood samples were collected for 48 hours in healthy subjects and for 120 hours in patients. Urine was collected up to 24 hours. Before atomoxetine administration (10-20 days), sorbitol clearance and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine) metabolic ratio were determined as markers of hepatic blood flow and CYP2D6 activity, respectively. The systemic clearance of atomoxetine was significantly reduced in those with hepatic impairment compared with controls, thereby resulting in increased exposure (area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, 1.58 versus 0.85 microg. h(-1). mL(-1); P =.035) but no change in maximum concentration. Mean 4-hydroxyatomoxetine area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to time t and maximum concentration were increased approximately 7-fold and 2-fold, respectively (P =.0001 and P =.0056, respectively). For the glucuronide conjugate of 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, the mean half-life was longer and the mean area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and the maximum concentration were lower (P =.0028, P =.003, and P =.0001, respectively). The sorbitol clearance was lower and the debrisoquin metabolic ratio was higher, reflecting reduced hepatic blood flow and decreased CYP2D6 activity, respectively. Decreased atomoxetine clearance in patients with hepatic impairment was clearly correlated with decreased CYP2D6 activity and decreased hepatic blood flow. Mean atomoxetine plasma protein binding was lower in patients with hepatic impairment compared with controls (96.5% versus 98.7%, P =.0008). Atomoxetine was well tolerated in the 2 populations. For patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who have hepatic impairment, dosage adjustment is recommended. Initial target doses should be reduced to 25% and 50% of the normal dose for patients with severe and moderate hepatic impairment, respectively.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 04/2003; 73(3):178-91. · 6.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of potent CYP2D6 inhibition byparoxetine on atomoxetine disposition in extensive metabolizers. This was a single-blind, two-period, sequential studyin 22 healthy individuals. In period 1, 20 mg atomoxetine bid was administered to steady state. In period 2, 20 mg paroxetine was administered qd for 17 days. On days 12 through 17, 20 mg atomoxetine bid were coadministered. Plasma pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, and N-desmethylatomoxetine was determined at steady state in each treatment period. Plasma pharmacokinetics of paroxetine were determined after the 11th and 17th doses. Paroxetine increased C(ss,max), AUC0-12, and t1/2 of atomoxetine by approximately 3.5-, 6.5-, and 2.5-fold, respectively. After coadministration with paroxetine, increases in N-desmethylatomoxetine and decreases in 4-hydroxyatomoxetine concentrations were observed. No changes in paroxetine pharmacokinetics were observed after coadministration with atomoxetine. It was concluded that inhibition of CYP2D6 by paroxetine markedly affected atomoxetine disposition, resulting in pharmacokinetics similar to poor metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2002; 42(11):1219-27. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. The aim of this work was a pragmatic, statistically sound and clinically relevant approach to dose-proportionality analyses that is compatible with common study designs. Methods. Statistical estimation is used to derive a (1-)% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of dose-normalized, geometric mean values (Rdnm) of a pharmacokinetic variable (PK). An acceptance interval for Rdnm defining the clinically relevant, dose-proportional region is established a priori. Proportionality is declared if the CI for Rdnm is completely contained within the critical region. The approach is illustrated with mixed-effects models based on a power function of the form PK = 0 Dose1; however, the logic holds for other functional forms. Results. It was observed that the dose-proportional region delineated by a power model depends only on the dose ratio. Furthermore, a dose ratio (1) can be calculated such that the CI lies entirely within the pre-specified critical region. A larger ratio (2) may exist such that the CI lies completely outside that region. The approach supports inferences about the PK response that are not constrained to the exact dose levels studied. Conclusion. The proposed method enhances the information from a clinical dose-proportionality study and helps to standardize decision rules.
    Pharmaceutical Research 01/2000; 17(10):1278-1283. · 4.74 Impact Factor