Irving Shen

Metropolitan Heart and Vascular Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (37)99.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The most prominent long-term complication after the Ross procedure is the risk of autograft dilatation, and therefore its application in patients at increased perceived risk of autograft dilatation (those with bicuspid aortic valve disease, aortic insufficiency [AI] with dilated aorta, collagen vascular diseases such as Marfan syndrome) has been discouraged. We reported a modified Ross procedure in 2005 in which the autograft was completely encased in a polyester graft before implantation to prevent further dilatation of the autograft. This case report describes follow-up of a patient with Marfan syndrome who underwent this modified Ross procedure in July 2005.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery. 06/2014; 97(6):2186-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The most prominent, long-term complication after the Ross procedure is autograft dilatation that can present within 1 to 2 years after the Ross operation. We describe a modified Ross procedure in which the autograft is completely encased in a Dacron graft (Hemashield; Maquet Cardiovascular, Wayne, NJ) prior to implantation. We have performed 30 modified Ross procedures since October 2004. There has been no mortality, and at follow-up none of the patients showed autograft dilatation. This article describes our current technique, which we believe is consistently reproducible and may be especially applicable to adults who are at risk for autograft dilatation after the Ross procedure.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2010; 90(3):1035-7; discussion 1037. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval. The MultiSocietal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the renal system. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases. Although renal dysfunction and renal failure are known risks of congenital heart surgery, accurate estimates of the incidences of these complications are limited. This lack of knowledge is in part due to the lack of uniform definitions of these postoperative complications. The purpose of this effort is to propose consensus definitions for renal complications following congenital cardiac surgery so that collection of such data can be standardized. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital heart disease will be able to use this list for databases, quality improvement initiatives, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies for treatment.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:222-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A complication is an event or occurrence that is associated with a disease or a healthcare intervention, is a departure from the desired course of events, and may cause, or be associated with, suboptimal outcome. A complication does not necessarily represent a breech in the standard of care that constitutes medical negligence or medical malpractice. An operative or procedural complication is any complication, regardless of cause, occurring (1) within 30 days after surgery or intervention in or out of the hospital, or (2) after 30 days during the same hospitalization subsequent to the operation or intervention. Operative and procedural complications include both intraoperative/intraprocedural complications and postoperative/postprocedural complications in this time interval. The Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has set forth a comprehensive list of complications associated with the treatment of patients with congenital cardiac disease, related to cardiac, pulmonary, renal, haematological, infectious, neurological, gastrointestinal, and endocrinal systems, as well as those related to the management of anaesthesia and perfusion, and the transplantation of thoracic organs. The objective of this manuscript is to examine the definitions of operative morbidity as they relate specifically to the gastrointestinal system. These specific definitions and terms will be used to track morbidity associated with surgical and transcatheter interventions and other forms of therapy in a common language across many separate databases. Although serious gastrointestinal complications are relatively uncommon after congenital cardiac surgery, accurate estimates of the incidences of these complications are limited, in part due to lack of standardized reporting and the absence of universal nomenclature that defines organ-specific complications. The Multi-Societal Database Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease has prepared and defined a list of gastrointestinal complications that may be temporally associated with congenital cardiac surgery. Clinicians caring for patients with congenital cardiac disease will be able to use this list for databases, initiatives to improve quality, reporting of complications, and comparing strategies of treatment.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2008; 18 Suppl 2:240-4. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information showing the use of microporous polypropylene hollow fiber oxygenators during extra-corporeal life support (ECLS). Recent surveys have shown increasing use of these hollow fibers amongst ECLS centers in the United States. We performed a retrospective analysis comparing the Terumo BabyRx hollow fiber oxygenator to the Medtronic 800 silicone membrane oxygenator on 14 neonatal patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences when comparing pressure drops, prime volumes, oxygenator endurance, and gas transfer capabilities between the two groups.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 07/2007; 39(2):71-4.
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    ABSTRACT: We noted a dicrotic pulse in several patients following a Ross operation. Although the etiology of this unique arterial waveform is not completely understood, it has been reported as a sign of low cardiac output and a poor prognosis. We reviewed preoperative echocardiograms and postoperative radial arterial pressure tracings in 33 patients who underwent a Ross procedure between 2000 and 2004. We found a dicrotic pulse to occur commonly (20/33; 61%) following a Ross operation. Moderate to severe preoperative aortic insufficiency was present in 19/20 patients (95%) in whom a dicrotic pulse was noted and in only 3/13 (23%) who did not exhibit a postoperative dicrotic pulse (p<0.001). A dicrotic pulse was not associated with an increased use of vasoactive infusions or longer hospitalization following the Ross operation. The dicrotic pulse should be recognized as a common postoperative finding in Ross patients that does not herald a delayed postoperative convalescence. The mechanism for a dicrotic pulse in these patients is speculative but may result from changes in vascular compliance secondary to chronic aortic insufficiency.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2007; 28(4):247-9. · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Andrew Zigman, Irving Shen
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    ABSTRACT: Clear cell sarcoma is one of the rarely occurring renal tumors during childhood, and transvenous tumor extension into the right atrium is even more unusual. In this report, we describe the presentation, treatment, technique of complete resection, and outcome of a 23-month-old girl with clear cell sarcoma of the right kidney with cavo-atrial tumor thrombus.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 09/2006; 41(8):1464-6. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether published and widely quoted mortality rates for pediatric cardiac surgery accurately reflect current expectations. Our hypotheses are that (1) mortality rates at high-quality pediatric cardiac programs are lower than published national results despite (2) a change in case mix with a shift away from low complexity operations. We requested data for all pediatric cardiac surgical procedures performed between 2001 and 2004 at 29 Congenital Heart Surgeon's Society (CHSS) member institutions (using CHSS as a surrogate for recognized high quality). Procedures were categorized by Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery, version 1 (RACHS-1) category. In-hospital mortality rates for each category were calculated and compared with those in the 2002 manuscript of Jenkins and colleagues. We received data for 16,805 procedures from 11 institutions. In all, 12,672 operations (76%) could be placed into RACHS-1 categories. Overall in-hospital mortality for categorized operations was 2.9% and was most related to case mix. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of category 1 operations, and there were significant increases in category 2, 4, and 6 operations. There were significant decreases in category 2, 3, 4, and 6 mortality rates (Jenkins 2002 [CHSS]): (1) 0.4% [0.7%], (2) 3.8% [0.9%], (3) 8.5% [2.7%], (4) 19.4% [7.7%], (5) not applicable, and (6) 47.7% [17.2%]. There was no significant association between hospital surgical volume and mortality. This outcomes "footprint" suggests that we could hold ourselves accountable to higher benchmarks than those reflected by some published standards. Mortality rates declined, despite an increase in case mix complexity. The lack of association between hospital surgical volume and mortality suggests that other factors determine outcomes at high-quality institutions. In addition to continually validating our expectations for treatment, future research needs to identify these factors by understanding the system of care and identifying process measures that influence outcomes.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2006; 82(1):164-70; discussion 170-1. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated exposure to unfractionated heparin is the rule in many congenital heart disease patients. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia occurs in 1% to 3% of adult cardiac surgeries, and carries high thrombotic morbidity (38% to 81%) and mortality (approximately 28%). Although heparin-induced thrombocytopenia appears to be infrequent in pediatric patients, particularly neonates, our evolving experience suggests postcardiopulmonary bypass congenital heart disease patients may be at increased risk. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges include frequency of thrombocytopenia after cardiopulmonary bypass, imperfect laboratory testing, lack of established dosing of alternative anticoagulants (such as argatroban and lepirudin), and increased anticoagulant-related bleeding in young children.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2006; 81(6):S2355-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) impairs cerebral oxygen delivery (CDO2) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2), which are further reduced by perioperative hypoxemia. This study investigates if continuous hypothermic low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (HLF) or intermittent hypothermic low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (IHLF) can prevent reductions in CDO2 and CMRO2 during hypoxemia. Eighteen neonatal piglets, cooled to 16 degrees to 18 degrees C with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were randomly assigned into three groups: HCA, HLF (50 cc.kg(-1).min(-1)), or IHLF (1 minute of HLF for every 15 minutes of HCA). After 60 minutes of hypothermia, normothermic CPB (100 cc.kg(-1).min(-1)) was established and cerebral perfusion data measured at hyperoxemia (PaO2 150 to 250 mm Hg), hypoxemia (PaO2 50 to 60 mm Hg), and severe hypoxemia (PaO2 30 to 40 mm Hg), and with increased CPB flow (200 cc.kg(-1).min(-1)) during severe hypoxemia. The CMRO2 (in mL O2.100 g(-1).min(-1)) was lower after HCA (2.5 +/- 0.3), compared with HLF (4.1 +/- 0.5, p = 0.02) and IHLF (6.2 +/- 0.8, p = 0.002). Within groups, the change from hyperoxemia to severe hypoxemia resulted in decreased CMRO2: HCA (1.3 +/- 0.2, p = 0.004), HLF (3.0 +/- 0.5, p = 0.01), and IHLF (2.9 +/- 0.5, p = 0.01). During severe hypoxemia, increasing CPB flow (from 100 cc.kg(-1).min(-1) to 200 cc.kg(-1).min(-1)) improved CMRO2: HCA (1.9 +/- 0.5, p = 0.05), HLF (4.2 +/- 0.5, p = 0.05), and IHLF (7.4 +/- 0.5, p = 0.04). Hypoxemia reduces CDO2 and CMRO2 despite the method of hypothermic CPB. Increased CPB flow during hypoxemia can restore both CDO2 and CMRO2 to values found with hyperoxemia and slower CPB flows. Augmenting cardiac output during periods of perioperative hypoxemia may prevent cerebral injury after exposure to hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2006; 81(2):625-32; discussion 632-3. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is used during surgical treatment of certain congenital heart defects. The possibility of ischemic neurologic injury associated with HCA has led some surgeons to use low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during the hypothermic interval (hypothermic low flow [HLF]). This study investigates the inflammatory response to HCA and HLF, and reports the consequences of this response on pulmonary and right ventricular function. Piglets (3.1 to 6.6 kg) were cooled to 16 degrees to 18 degrees C using CPB, and randomized: HCA for 60 minutes (n = 7), or HLF (50 cc.kg(-1).min(-1)) for 60 minutes (n = 6). The piglets were rewarmed to 36 degrees C and weaned from CPB. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentration, percent lung water, and pulmonary and cardiac function were measured before and after CPB. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was higher after HLF (2,990.5 +/- 884.5 pg/mL), compared with HCA (347.6 +/- 89.2 pg/mL; p = 0.03). The percent lung water was higher after HLF (84.8% +/- 0.3%) than HCA (82.0% +/- 0.4%; p < 0.001). The alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient was worse after HLF (457 +/- 42 mm Hg) than HCA (285.8 +/- 45 mm Hg; p = 0.02). Pulmonary vascular resistance was greater after HLF (36.08 +/- 8.28 mm Hg.mL(-1).m(-2).min(-1)) than HCA (14.55 +/- 3.46 mm Hg. mL(-1).m(-2).min(-1); p = 0.049). The right ventricular pressure waveform peak derivative, corrected for systolic pulmonary artery pressure, was lower after HLF (14.1 +/- 1.4 sec(-1)), than HCA (23.8 +/- 2.7 sec(-1); p = 0.01). Hypothermic low flow extends exposure to CPB, and is associated with an increased inflammatory response compared with HCA. The greater inflammatory response after HLF may result in substantial nonneurologic morbidity in the postoperative period, demonstrated by pulmonary and right ventricular dysfunction. Interventions that attenuate the inflammatory response to CPB may prevent pulmonary and right ventricular dysfunction after HLF.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2006; 81(2):474-80; discussion 480. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an established risk factor for diminished postoperative survival. Results from a VA population were reviewed in order to determine factors influencing early and late survival. Between 1993 and 2003, a total of 401 patients underwent AVR at the authors' institution. Of these patients, 249 (62%; mean age 70.6 years) had combined AVR and CABG. Surgical indications were primarily aortic valve pathology (group A: n = 168; 68%), primarily coronary artery disease (CAD) (group B: n = 55; 22%), and both severe aortic and coronary disease (group C: n = 26; 10%). In total, 177 patients (71%) received a bioprosthesis, and 72 (29%) received a mechanical valve. Short- and long-term outcomes were explored using univariate and multivariable hazard analyses. Overall operative mortality was 6.4%; mortality for groups A, B and C was 4.8%, 9.1% and 11.5%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, significant factors associated with early-phase mortality were NYHA class IV, diabetes, bioprosthetic valve and combined severe aortic and coronary disease. Survival at one and five years was 86% and 62%, respectively. Five-year survival for groups A, B and C was 71%, 63% and 54%, respectively. Significant associated factors for late-phase mortality were the presence of preoperative peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Factors such as age, prior cardiac surgery, number of grafted coronary arteries, and/or effective orifice area index (EOAI) had no significant effect on outcome. Combined AVR/CABG is a marker for decreased survival. Pre-existing factors such as diabetes, PVD and CVD, as well as poor preoperative NYHA functional status, affected survival. Further investigation is needed to assess the influence of the severity of CAD and EOAI on survival. Thoughtful consideration of all these factors is essential for an accurate prediction of survival, and to determine the appropriate type of aortic prosthesis to be used.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 02/2006; 15(1):12-8; discussion 18-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the effects of biventricular (BDOO) pacing compared with conventional (CDOO) atrioventricular (AV) sequential and atrial (AOO) pacing in children and infants in the early postoperative period after open heart surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). Biventricular pacing using right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) leads can improve hemodynamics in patients with CHD, but it is unclear whether this occurs in early postoperative children with CHD. Nineteen children (age, 5 days to 5.4 years; median, 5.5 months) with a definitive biventricular repair for CHD underwent AOO, CDOO, and BDOO pacing with temporary epicardial leads for 10 min each. The AV delay was 80% of the PR interval for the CDOO and BDOO modes. Lead placement was two right atrial, two RV, and one LV. Blood samples for cardiac index (arterial and venous) and tissue Doppler (TDI) traces were obtained in each pacing mode with a Vivid 7 BT04 digital ultrasound system (GE/VingMed, Horten, Norway) from an apical four-chamber view and analyzed with EchoPac software. The QRS duration was significantly shorter for BDOO compared with CDOO, and the cardiac index was higher with BDOO compared with CDOO. Systemic blood pressure was not different between the three modes of pacing (AOO, CDOO, BDOO). The TDI-derived strain rate showed minimal dyssynchrony in AOO as seen by isovolumic tensing (IVT) and peak systolic contraction (PSC) timing differences between RV and LV. The CDOO worsened dyssynchrony with prolonged DeltaIVT and PSC. The BDOO showed improved synchrony as seen by DeltaIVT and PSC. The TDI-derived strain rate showed worsened ventricular dyssynchrony with CDOO and improvement with BDOO. Cardiac index and QRS duration were improved by BDOO compared with CDOO. This suggests that short-term pacing with BDOO may benefit children with CHD needing pacing in the postoperative period.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2006; 46(12):2284-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of gastropericardial fistula and Candida kruzei pericarditis one year after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Chest X-ray and CT revealed pneumopericardium. Barium swallow, UGI, endoscopy, and bronchoscopy were negative. Pericardial exploration was performed through a sternotomy. Intraoperative fistulogram revealed a tract into the stomach. A midline abdominal incision allowed identification of the slipped Nissen, resection of the fistula tract, and subsequent re-do fundoplication. The patient was treated with amphotericin and remains symptom-free 10 months after her operation. We recommend both sternotomy and midline abdominal incisions to explore and access the pericardium, stomach, esophagus, and diaphragm.
    The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 01/2006; 53(6):365-7. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery sarcomas are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Most patients are initially thought to have pulmonary emboli, and during embolectomy, a sarcoma is found. Given the significant morbidity and mortality of cardiac sarcomas, an aggressive strategy for resection is indicated, as this leads to benefits in disease-free and overall survival. Imaging tests and clinical signs and symptoms may assist in accurate preoperative determination of pulmonary artery sarcoma. We present an interesting case of a patient with pulmonary artery sarcoma who underwent successful re-resection, along with a brief discussion regarding preoperative imaging and the surgical resection of these tumors.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 01/2006; 21(6):587-9. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to assess the hemodynamic response to atrial, ventricular, and dual-chamber pacing in patients with Fontan physiology. Bradycardia, due to sinus node dysfunction or atrioventricular (AV) block, with need for pacing, is common after the Fontan operation. The optimal pacing mode for Fontan patients is unknown, but is critical, as hemodynamic aberrancies may cause severe clinical deterioration. We hypothesized that AV synchrony is vital for maximizing Fontan hemodynamics. A cross-over trial was conducted with 21 patients (age 2 to 18 years, median 4 years; male patients = 13) in the intensive care unit after a Fontan operation. Hemodynamic parameters, including mean left atrial pressure (LAP, in mm Hg), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP, in mm Hg), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, in mm Hg), and indexed cardiac output via Fick (Qs, in l/min/m2) were measured with atrial, ventricular, and dual-chamber pacing. Measurements were made after pacing for 10 min in each mode, and a 10-min rest was given between each pacing maneuver. Asynchronous ventricular (VOO) pacing resulted in significantly worse hemodynamics when compared to dual-chamber (DOO) and atrial (AOO) pacing with a higher LAP (9.4 VOO; 6.8 DOO; 5.4 AOO) and PAP (15.2 VOO; 13.5 DOO; 12.7 AOO) and lower Qs (3.0 VOO; 3.5 DOO; 3.9 AOO) and MAP (60.1 VOO; 66.5 DOO; 67.2 AOO). Asynchronous ventricular pacing, after the Fontan procedure, has acute, adverse hemodynamic consequences (elevated LAP and PAP and decreased Qs and MAP).
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2005; 46(10):1937-42. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We provide an overview of the past year's literature on congenital heart surgery. This review focuses on selected disease entities, operative techniques, perioperative management strategies, and quality of care. Congenital heart surgery is an evolving field.
    Current Opinion in Pediatrics 11/2005; 17(5):574-8. · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A patient was born with transposition of the great arteries, double-outlet right ventricle, interrupted aortic arch, and a ventricular septal defect and underwent a Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure with a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt at 14 days old. Three months later, this patient presented with hypoxia and bradycardia was found to have a thrombus present in the main pulmonary artery extending to right pulmonary artery. After initiation of thrombolytic therapy, the patient became severely hypoxic and required the institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. As the result of unknown heparin resistance independent of adequate antithrombin III levels, argatroban therapy was used to achieve desired anticoagulation. The patient was taken to the operating room and converted to conventional cardiopulmonary bypass once adequate activated clotting times were achieved using argatroban. This case report summarizes the use of argatroban as an anticoagulant for a 6.0-kg pediatric patient undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.
    The Journal of extra-corporeal technology 10/2005; 37(3):303-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal life support has assumed a very effective role in the support of patients with refractory heart failure after repair of congenital heart disease, with hospital survival between 37% and 42%. We reviewed our results of different applications of extracorporeal life support in the last 2 years. Between January 2001 and October 2003, 671 patients underwent surgery for congenital heart disease at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the hospital and clinic charts of the patients who required extracorporeal life support postoperatively, and studied the factors associated with survival. Thirty-six patients (5.36%) received extracorporeal life support after surgery, between 1 day and 8 years of age (age < 30 days, n = 34). We divided the patients into four groups. Group 1 consisted of 13 patients who were electively placed on ventricular support without an oxygenator (univentricular assist device) after repair of single-ventricle disease. Group 2 consisted of 16 patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after surgery for failed hemodynamics. Group 3 consisted of 2 patients who required left ventricle support (left ventricular assist device) after surgery for two-ventricle disease but who did not require biventricular (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) support. Group 4 consisted of 5 patients who required conversion from ventricular assist device to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Overall, 28 patients were weaned successfully (78%), and 24 survived to discharge (67%). Hospital survival in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 100%, 50%, 100%, and 20%, respectively. Univariate factors associated with survival were age, weight, ventricular assist device type, duration, single-ventricle disease, reexploration, number of complications, and specific complications such as sepsis, renal failure, and pulmonary failure. Extracorporeal life support utilization was expanded to include different applications with different outcomes. The extracorporeal life support registry should be altered to reflect those changes.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2005; 80(1):15-21; discussion 21. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary infant cardiopulmonary bypass circuits require a blood prime. Blood, especially when stored, generates an inflammatory response, and may contribute to organ dysfunction following cardiopulmonary bypass. We determined whether using a miniaturized circuit and an asanguineous prime attenuated the post-bypass inflammatory response, and improved right ventricular and pulmonary function. Sixteen infant piglets were placed into 3 groups based on prime components: group I (fresh blood), group II (stored blood), and group III (miniaturized circuit and asanguineous prime). Piglets were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (100 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), cooled to 18 degrees C, and underwent continuous perfusion (50 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) for 30 minutes. They were rewarmed and separated from bypass. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, right ventricular function, and pulmonary function were measured before and 30 minutes after bypass. Neutrophil priming activity in fresh and stored donor blood was also assessed. Animals in group III had significantly improved cardiopulmonary function than the groups receiving blood (right ventricular cardiac index [mL.kg(-1).min(-1)]: group I [18.8 +/- 4.8], group II [21.5 +/- 6.2], and group III [81.2 +/- 11.4], p < 0.001; and pulmonary vascular resistance index [dynes.mL(-1).kg(-1)]: group I [1169 +/- 409], group II [1610 +/- 486], and group III [214 +/- 63], p = 0.03). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (pg.mL(-1)) was lower in group III (1465 +/- 39) than in the groups receiving blood (3940 +/- 777), p = 0.002. Neutrophil priming activity (nmol.min(-1)) was also higher in stored blood (3.7 +/- 6) than in fresh blood (1.9 +/- 0.2), p = 0.02. We have devised a unique miniaturized circuit that allows an asanguineous prime without hemodilution in an infant swine model. The employment of this circuit attenuates the post-bypass inflammatory response and has salutary effects on cardiopulmonary function.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2005; 80(1):6-13; discussion 13-4. · 3.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

479 Citations
99.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Metropolitan Heart and Vascular Institute
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2001–2007
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2006
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2005
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • SickKids
      • Division of Cardiovascular Surgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States