[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The internalized stigma of mental illness impedes recovery and is associated with increased depression, reduced self-esteem, reduced recovery orientation, reduced empowerment, and increased perceived devaluation and discrimination. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item self-report questionnaire developed with consumer input that includes the following subscales: Alienation, Discrimination Experience, Social Withdrawal, Stereotype Endorsement, and Stigma Resistance. Here we present a 10-item version of the ISMI containing the two strongest items from each subscale.
Participants were all outpatient veterans with serious mental illness. Following the rigorous scale-reduction methods set forth by Stanton and colleagues (2002), we selected the 10 items, tested the psychometrics of the shortened scale in the original validation sample (N = 127), and cross-checked the results in a second dataset (N = 760).
As expected, the ISMI-10 retained the essential properties of the ISMI-29, including adequate internal consistency reliability and external validity in relation to depression, self-esteem, recovery orientation, perceived devaluation and discrimination, and empowerment. The ISMI-10 scores are normally distributed and have similar descriptive statistics to the ISMI-29. The reliability and depression findings were replicated in a cross-validation sample.
Conclusions and implications for practice:
We conclude that the ISMI-10 has strong psychometric properties and is a practical, reliable, and valid alternative to the original ISMI-29. Future work should test the ISMI-10 in more diverse samples. This shorter version should reduce respondent burden in program evaluation projects that seek to determine whether participation in psychosocial rehabilitation programming reduces internalized stigma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrating information on voice hearing from multiple disciplines and perspectives, we review current explanatory models and their implications for intervention strategies. Far from always signifying a mental illness, voice hearing may result from other causes, including drug side effects, brain lesions, and culturally-sanctioned phenomena. Accordingly, a wide range of assessment, intervention, and self-management strategies are available and appropriate. We conclude that by offering a diversity of treatment options, eliciting patients' causal theories, and incorporating these into an individualized treatment strategy, clinicians are likely to help clients control the distressing aspects of the voices, minimize stigma and discrimination, and make meaning of the experience.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study evaluated the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale, designed to measure the subjective experience of stigma, with subscales measuring Alienation, Stereotype Endorsement, Perceived Discrimination, Social Withdrawal and Stigma Resistance. The ISMI was developed in collaboration with people with mental illnesses and contains 29 Likert items. The validation sample included 127 mental health outpatients. Results showed that the ISMI had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was supported by comparisons against scales measuring related constructs with the same methodology. As expected, the ISMI had positive correlations with measures of stigma beliefs and depressive symptoms, and it had negative correlations with measures of self-esteem, empowerment and recovery orientation. Factor analyses of the joint set of items from the ISMI and each scale supported the distinction between constructs. Having a validated measure of internalized stigma may encourage clinicians to include stigma reduction as a verifiable treatment goal in addition to symptom reduction.
Psychiatry Research 12/2003; 121(1):31-49. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2003.08.008 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a cohort of 2,595 male patients in VA intensive treatment programs for substance use disorders (SUD), we tested whether psychiatric comorbidity, outpatient care and mutual help group attendance during the first two follow-up years predicted remission status at Year 5, controlling for covariates.
Logistic regression modeling of longitudinal data was used to test the hypotheses.
Dual diagnosis patients were less likely to be in remission at Year 5 than SUD-only patients. Outpatient care was at best only weakly related to Year 5 remission status. By contrast, mutual help involvement substantially improved the chances of substance use remission at Year 5 for both SUD-only and dual diagnosis patients. Mutual help involvement did not, however, offset the poorer prognosis for dual diagnosis patients.
Because mutual help groups specifically targeted to individuals with comorbid substance use and psychiatric disorders are currently rare, further research is recommended to investigate whether they are more effective than standard SUD mutual help groups in facilitating the recovery of persons with dual diagnoses.
Journal of studies on alcohol 12/2002; 63(6):709-15. DOI:10.15288/jsa.2002.63.709