Ethnicity & disease 02/2005; 15(1):151. · 0.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Recruitment and retention of African Americans in cancer research studies has become increasingly important. However, little is known about factors bearing on recruitment and retention in etiologic observational studies of cancer. We assessed perceptions and attitudes of African Americans towards participation in an observational epidemiologic study of cancer, and attitudes toward the data collection process.
Five focus groups, each lasting approximately 2 hours, were conducted. Participants were comprised of men and women between 41-65 years of age. A total of 35 adults from three rural and two urban counties in North Carolina participated. Data were analyzed using NVivo software.
Four key themes emerged on the perception of participation and retention in an epidemiologic study of cancer: (1) fear of cancer prognosis; (2) conflicts between mistrust and trust in researchers; (3) comprehension of prospective study purpose, structure, and participation strategies; and (4) the necessity for and obligation to provide feedback.
Results indicate that African Americans would be willing to participate in epidemiologic studies to identify etiologic risk factors for cancer. However, culturally appropriate efforts to thoroughly inform them of study process and progress are deemed essential for successful recruitment and retention.
Ethnicity & disease 02/2005; 15(1):68-75. · 0.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The U.S. obesity epidemic is escalating, particularly among communities of color. Obesity control efforts have shifted away from individual-level approaches toward population-based approaches that address socio-cultural, political, economic, and physical environmental factors. Few data exist for ethnic minority groups. This article reviews studies of population-based interventions targeting communities of color or including sufficient samples to permit ethnic-specific analyses.
Inclusion criteria were established, an electronic database search conducted, and non-electronically catalogued studies retrieved. Findings were aggregated for earlier (early 1970s to early 1990s) and later (mid-1990s to present) interventions.
The search yielded 23 ethnically inclusive intervention studies published between January 1970 and May 2003. Several characteristics of inclusive interventions were consistent with characteristics of community-level interventions among predominantly white European-American samples: use of non-interpersonal channels for information dissemination directed at broad spheres of influence (e.g., mass media), promotion of physical activity, and incorporation of social marketing principles. Ethnically inclusive studies, however, also placed greater emphasis on involving communities and building coalitions from study inception; targeting captive audiences; mobilizing social networks; and tailoring culturally specific messages and messengers. Inclusive studies also focused more on community than individual norms. Later studies used "upstream" approaches more than earlier studies. Fewer than half of the inclusive studies presented outcome evaluation data. Statistically significant effects were few and modest, but several studies demonstrated better outcomes among ethnic minority than white participants sampled.
The best data available speak more about how to engage and retain people of color in these interventions than about how to create and sustain weight loss, regular engagement in physical activity, or improved diet. Advocacy should be directed at increasing the visibility and budget priority of interventions, particularly at the state and local levels.
Preventing chronic disease 02/2004; 1(1):A09. · 1.82 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To review the various biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty adds in human populations, their measurement, limitations and analytical considerations.
Review of the literature.
Although there is no good biomarker of intake of total fat, a number of alternatives exist for assessing the intakes of exogenously produced fatty acids that are consumed. Adipose tissue, erythrocyte membrane concentrations and serum or plasma levels can reflect prior intakes over the past few hours to the past few years. The concentrations of individual fatty acids in these media generally reflect relative levels, and are influenced by a number of factors. Although relatively expensive to analyse, a single analysis by gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography provides information on multiple fatty acids, and is superior to attempting to measure specific fatty acids using traditional dietary assessment methods.
Biomarkers of fatty acids that reflect long-term intake are available for nutritional epidemiology purposes. Analytical methods have become very accurate and able to detect and quantify smaller families, such as trans-fatty acids.
Public Health Nutrition 01/2003; 5(6A):865-71. · 2.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine primary care pediatricians' level of awareness in the diagnosis and management of rickets. The information will be useful in assessing the need for provider education related to appropriate advice regarding vitamin D supplementation for infants.
A one-page questionnaire was sent to a sample of 510 pediatricians in states surrounding the Great Lakes. These physicians were chosen depending based on practice listings from local telephone directories. Results were analyzed using the Chi-squared (chi2) test.
Of the 248 respondents, 43% (n = 105) had encountered at least one actual or suspected case of rickets in the past five years. Sixty-nine percent of respondents chose vitamin D deficiency rickets-specific diagnostic tests, 24% chose rickets-specific tests, and 7% chose tests that are not specific to diagnosing rickets. Ninety-four percent of respondents chose treatments specific to vitamin D deficiency rickets, while 6% chose treatments not specific to rickets.
Most primary care pediatricians from major metropolitan areas in the Great Lakes region are aware of the appropriate methods to diagnose and treat vitamin D-deficiency rickets. However, educational interventions are still necessary for both physicians and parents to promote widespread use of vitamin D supplementation in all breastfed infants.
Journal of the National Medical Association 12/2002; 94(11):971-8. · 1.16 Impact Factor