Zhao-qing Guo

Peking University Third Hospital, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (16)2.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the long-term surgical outcome of thoracic myelopathy caused by the ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and evaluate the related risk factors. Forty-four patients who underwent decompressive laminectomy with thoracic OLF between January 1990 and December 2005 and got more than 5 years follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Among these 44 cases, there were 29 male and 15 female whose ages at operation were 52 years averagely (27-68 years). The 2-year follow-up results and long-term outcomes were classified according to the modified Epstein's standard, and then the rates of excellent or good (REG) were calculated. The correlation between the long-term REG and the patients' ages, durations of symptoms, decompressed levels, and dural leak were analyzed. The mean follow-up period of these 44 cases was 8.5 years (5-19 years). The REG at 2 years after laminectomy was 77.3% (34/44), while the long-term REG was 65.9% (29/44). There was one case who had suffered from an acute spinal cord injury got a poor post-operative outcome. The other 43 cases had chronic durations, including 22 cases whose pre-operative durations of symptoms were less than 12 months and 21 cases whose durations were equal to or more than 12 months. And the long-term REG of these two groups were 77.3% (17/22) and 57.1% (12/21) respectively (P>0.05). The REG of those cases whose decompression levels were limited in T1-T9 was 78.9% (15/19), while that of those cases whose laminectomy was relevant to thoracolumbar segment (T10-L2) was 58.3% (14/24) (P>0.05). There were 7 cases who had excellent or good short-term results and poor long-term outcomes. The reasons of these changes included coexistence of lumbar spinal stenosis in three cases and the growth of the OLF at the adjacent levels in four cases. Although the short-term results of the decompressive surgery for thoracic OLF is good, the regular long-term follow-up is necessary because the symptoms may reoccur or deteriorate secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis or the growth of OLF at the adjacent levels near former decompressive levels; the duration of symptoms which is more than one year and the decompression levels that is involved to T10-L2 segments are possibly related to the poor long-term outcomes.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 05/2012; 50(5):426-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To observe the results of posterior osteotomy and correction in the surgical treatment of old tuberculous kyphosis. From June 2004 to December 2008, 31 cases of old tuberculous kyphosis with posterior osteotomy and correction technique were treated. There were 12 cases of male and 19 cases of female. The average age was 33.4 years. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy or vertebral column resection were applied in surgery. The kyphosis angle, lumbar lordosis angle and sagittal balance condition of the spine were measured before and after surgery, as well as follow-up. The Frankel grading system for neurological function of lower extremities, the Oswestry disability index (ODI) for life quality, and patient satisfactory index (PSI) for satisfaction of surgery were applied before surgery and at follow-up. The average kyphosis angle was 94° ± 27°, the average lumbar lordosis angle was 71° ± 20°, and the average sagittal C(7) plumb line was (-15 ± 44) mm away from the balance region before surgery. The average kyphosis angle decreased to 26° ± 11° in one week after surgery, with an improvement rate of 71.4%. The average follow-up time was 22.5 months. The average kyphosis angle was 28° ± 12° at the final follow-up, with an improvement rate of 70.0%. The average lumbar lordosis angle was 46° ± 11°, with an improvement rate of 35.1%. The postoperative kyphosis angle and lumbar lordosis angle were significantly different with that of pre-operation (for kyphosis angle: t = 16.3, P < 0.05; for lumbar lordosis angle: t = 8.1, P < 0.05). The average sagittal C(7) plumb line was (-4 ± 22) mm away from the balance region at the final follow-up, with an improvement rate of 73.4%. The Frankel grading were E in 13 cases, D in 13 cases, and C in 5 cases before surgery, and were E in 20 cases, D in 8 cases, and C in 3 cases at the final follow-up. The average ODI was 13 ± 12 before surgery, and was 7 ± 8 at the final follow-up, with an improvement rate of 45.2%. The PSI results showed a satisfied rate of 90.3%. Good results can be achieved by applying proper posterior osteotomy and correction technique according to the severity of old tuberculous kyphosis.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 01/2012; 50(1):23-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Various surgical approaches have been successfully used in the treatment of thoracolumbar disc herniation (TLDH). Although the anterior transthoracic approach has a reputation for better visualization than the posterolateral and lateral approaches, it involves the manipulation of the thoracic and pulmonary structures. Thus, this approach is technically demanding and prone to compromising the respiratory system. An ideal approach would involve adequate visualization and be accomplished through the posterior midline approach that is familiar to spine surgeons. The objective of this retrospective preliminary clinical study was to introduce a new surgical procedure, circumspinal decompression through a single posterior incision, for the treatment of TLDH (T10/11-L1/2) and to evaluate the surgical outcome of this procedure by comparing it to the conventional anterior transthoracic approach. In this study, 15 patients (10 males, 5 females; mean age 51 years) with symptomatic TLDH underwent the circumspinal decompression through a single posterior incision procedure between January 2008 and December 2009. Altogether, 17 herniated discs were excised, with 2 discs at T10/11, 4 discs at T11/12, 5 discs at T12/L1 and 6 discs at L1/2. Of these patients, 13 were followed up with a mean follow-up period of 23.5 months. Clinical outcomes, including operative time, blood loss, perioperative complications, postoperative time of hospitalization, neurologic status improvement, back pain and correction of local kyphosis, were investigated by comparing these data with the results from patients who underwent the anterior transthoracic approach for TLDH during the same period. The patients' neurologic status was evaluated by a modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system of 11 points. Neurologic status improvement after the surgery was assessed by calculating the recovery rate, which was equal to the (postoperative JOA score-preoperative JOA score)/(11-preoperative JOA score)×100%. The rates of patients who improved at the final follow-up were also assessed. The mean operative time was 183 minutes, the mean blood loss was 1067 ml, and the mean postoperative hospitalization time was 8.4 days. Three patients suffered perioperative complications, but none of these complications involved the respiratory system. Local kyphotic angles at the fusion levels were reduced. Of the 13 patients that were followed up, 12 improved at the final follow-up, with a mean recovery rate of 52.8%. Patients who underwent the circumspinal decompression procedure showed a higher percentage of improvement at the final follow-up, a higher degree of local kyphosis correction and a lower percentage of complications (especially respiratory complications) compared to patients who underwent the anterior transthoracic decompression procedure. The circumspinal decompression through a single posterior incision procedure is an effective and safe technique that is comparable to anterior tranthoracic approach for the surgical treatment of TLDH patients. It could be an attractive choice in certain circumstances.
    Chinese medical journal 12/2011; 124(23):3852-7. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the authors aimed to summarize the clinical characteristics of ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) associated with dural ossification (DO) and to identify improved methods for preoperative diagnosis. Thirty-six patients who had undergone OLF surgery between February 2005 and September 2009 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: one that included patients with intraoperative evidence of DO and a second group that included patients without DO. The clinical features of DO were summarized and the neurological status of the patients was evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The incidence rate of DO associated with OLF was 39% (14/36). The sensitivity and specificity of the tram track sign were found to be 93% and 59%, respectively. Dural ossification was found among 86% of the patients with tuberous type Sato classification. The postoperative neurological status of patients was generally improved relative to that observed prior to surgery, although neurological recovery did not differ between the 2 groups. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was the main complication, occurring predominantly in the patients with DO, and all leaks resolved in all patients after comprehensive treatments. The tram track sign and Sato classification were found to be useful for preoperative diagnosis of DO and for determining the surgical procedure to be performed. Dural ossification had no effect on postoperative neurological recovery.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 07/2011; 15(4):386-92. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the impact of thoracic and thoracolumbar angular kyphosis on pelvic shape and sagittal alignment. From May 2002 to June 2010, the sagittal spinopelvic parameters were analyzed in lateral standing radiographs of 32 patients (mean age 29.6 years) with thoracolumbar angular kyphosis. The parameters included Cobb angle of kyphosis, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacrum slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). All pelvic parameters in the patients were compared with those reported in historical normal subjects. All patients were treated by using kyphotic correction and fusion. The preoperative and postoperative parameters were compared. The pelvic parameters were also compared between the patients with kyphotic apex located at T(1-8) and those located at T(9-12) and thoracolumbar junction. The linear regression analysis was used to investigate the independent factors of PI. The mean kyphosis was 90.1° (31° - 138°). The mean age of kyphosis occurrence was 6.1 years. The mean PI, SS and PT were 34.8°, 35.8° and -0.7° respectively. The PI and PT were significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in the patients than those in normal subjects while the SS was similar. The kyphosis was improved to 27.9° post-operatively. There was no difference in PI values between preoperation and postoperation (P > 0.05). The PI and SS in patients whose kyphosis located at thoracic spine (T(1-8)) were significantly higher than those at T(9)-L(2). Instead of patients' age and LL, the preoperative Cobb angle of kyphosis and the levels where kyphosis located were two independent impact factors of PI. The kyphosis occurred at childhood may influence pelvic shape and alignment significantly. The lower kyphotic apex located and the bigger kyphosis, the greater impact on the pelvic morphology. The surgery can improve the kyphosis, but can not change the sagittal pelvic morphology. Early treatment of thoracolumbar angular kyphosis is beneficial not only to reconstruction of spine alignment but also to the formation of sagittal pelvic morphology.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 02/2011; 49(2):135-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of posterior surgical corrective methods for ankylosing spondylitic kyphosis. From June 2003 to June 2008, 21 cases of ankylosing spondylitic kyphosis received posterior surgical correction. There were 17 male and 4 female, and the average age was 39.5 years (range, 20 to 57 years). The total spine X-ray and CT were used to evaluate sagittal balance and thoracolumbar spine kyphosis angle, and chin brow-vertical angle was obtained from clinical lateral photograph. The surgical goal was to correct sagittal imbalance and chin brow-vertical angle. The simulated osteotomy was performed in computer before surgery to determine the correction methods. The surgical methods included: 16 cases of monosegmental closing osteotomy correction, 3 cases of anterior opening-posterior closing osteotomy correction, and 2 cases of combined pedicle subtraction osteotomy in thoracolumbar spine and Smith-Peterson osteotomy in lumbar spine. All patients were followed up after surgery, and the improvement of sagittal imbalance, chin brow-vertical angle and thoracolumbar spine kyphosis angle were assessed. The symptoms relief and satisfied rate were also evaluated. The average operation time was 4.4 hours, and the average blood loss was 1770 ml. Before surgery, the average thoracolumbar kyphosis angle was 62.1°, the average anterior shift of C(7) plumb line was 172.9 mm, and the average chin brow-vertical angle was 34.9°. The average follow-up was 28.8 months after surgery. The average correction rate of thoracolumbar kyphosis angle was 60%, the average improvement rate of anterior shift of C(7) plumb line was 64%, and the average correction rate of chin brow-vertical angle was 98%. The improvement rate of back pain was 64% during follow-up. The total surgical satisfactory rate was 95%. Based on the simulated osteotomy in computer before surgery, according to the characteristics of ankylosing spondylitic kyphosis, different posterior osteotomy and correction methods can achieve good results.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 08/2010; 48(16):1234-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To design a new surgical correction and fixation technique for the treatment of severe angular kyphosis, observe the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of the technique. From May 2004 to February 2007, 16 cases with severe kyphosis (average 90.8 degrees, range 50 degrees-130 degrees) were treated with segmental resection osteotomy, section distraction, dual axial rotation correction and instrumentation fusion technique. The patients were inspected by local and total spine anteroposterior and lateral radiography pre-and postoperatively. The kyphotic Cobb angle was measured and 7 cases combined scoliosis Cobb angle was also measured. The Frankel Grading for neurological function, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Patients Satisfactory Index (PSI) were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively and at follow-up. The back pain relief was also observed. The average surgical duration was 6.9 hours. The average blood loss was 4000 ml. The complications include 1 shifting of artificial vertebrae, 3 nerve root injury, 3 dural tear and 1 transitory dysfunction of lower extremity. All of these complications were relieved greatly after feasible treatment. The average follow-up time was 25 months. The average kyphotic angle was 90.8 degrees preoperatively, which was improved to 26.9 degrees immediately after surgery, and got an average correction rate of 72.5%. At follow-up, the average kyphotic angle was 28.9 degrees, and correction rate was 70.1%. The 7 cases who combined with scoliosis had an average Cobb angle of 35.9 degrees preoperatively, which decreased to 4.4 degrees immediately after surgery, and the correction rate was 87.2%. The correction rate was kept until follow-up (78.6%). Some patients got an improved neurological function. The Frankel Grading were E in 5 cases, D in 5 cases, C in 5 cases, and B in 1 case preoperatively. There were 10 cases of E grade, 3 cases of D grade, and 3 cases of C grade at follow-up. Except 3 cases who had no symptoms before surgery, the average ODI was 18.9 preoperatively, and 10.8 postoperatively. The average improvement of ODI was 52.7%. The PSI result showed a satisfied rate of 93.8%. The back pain of 3 cases were totally relieved after surgery. Segmental resection osteotomy with dual axial rotation correction and fusion technique is an effective way to treat severe angular kyphosis. It is a safe technique and has high correction rate. The long-term results is acceptable.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 02/2008; 46(2):104-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the osteogenic capacity of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-calcium phosphate ceramic composites in vitro and implanted as a bone graft substitute for lumbar anterior interbody fusion in rhesus monkeys. From March 2003 to April 2005, 9 adult rhesus monkeys underwent lumbar L(3 - 4) and L(5 - 6) discectomy and interbody fusion via an anterior retroperitoneal approach. Two fusion sites in each animal were randomly assigned to two of three treatments: autogenous tricortical iliac crest bone graft (autograft group, n = 6) or cell-free ceramic graft (ceramic group, n = 6) or BMSCs-ceramic composite graft (BMSCs group, n = 6). Autologous BMSCs were culture-expanded and stimulated with osteogenic supplement. The cell-ceramic composites were constructed in a rotary dynamic cell culture system. The spinal fusion segments were evaluated by radiography, biomechanical testing, histologic analysis and histomorphometric analysis at 3 months post-surgery. Biomechanical testing showed that spinal segments from the autograft group and the BMSCs-ceramic group were statistically and significantly stiffer than the cell-free ceramic group. The BMSCs-ceramic group and the autograft group showed equivalent biomechanical stiffness by statistical analysis. Histologically, both the autograft group and the BMSCs-ceramic group achieved osseous union, but the cell-free ceramic group had a fibrous union. Quantitative histologic analysis showed that the amount of bone formation was significantly greater in the autograft group and the BMSCs-ceramic group compared with the cell-free ceramic group. However, the amount of ceramic residue was significantly greater in the cell-free ceramic group versus the BMSCs-ceramic group. The results indicate that BMSC-ceramic composites can enhance bone regeneration and achieve osseous spinal fusion 3 months after the implantation in rhesus monkey interbody fusion model. Cell-free ceramics has an unsatisfactory efficacy in spinal fusion due to its tense fibrous fusion.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 07/2006; 44(12):843-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of surgical correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis, using the new type spinal osteotomy with cage inserting into the intervertebral gap anteriorly and closing posteriorly by a single posterior approach. Since 2003, eight consecutive patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis were treated surgically. There were 4 male and 4 female with the mean age of 35 years old (from 14 to 58 years old). There were 3 cases of congenital kyphosis with scoliosis, 1 case of old spinal tuberculosis kyphosis, 2 cases of post-traumatic kyphosis, 1 case of ankylosing spondylitic kyphosis with old stress fracture and 1 case of iatrogenic kyphosis post-op of laminectomy due to the removal of ependymoma from cauda equina. The apex level of kyphosis was T(11) in 1 case, T(12) in 2 cases, L(1) in 3 cases and L(2) in 2 cases. The average preoperative Cobb angle of kyphosis was 73 degrees (range from 42 degrees to 90 degrees), there were 3 cases associated with scoliosis, with the mean preoperative Cobb angle of scoliosis was 25.7 degrees (range from 20 degrees to 36 degrees). According to the Frankel grading system, 2 cases were classified as Grade C, 2 cases as Grading D and 4 cases as Grading E preoperatively. All the patients had severe thoracolumbar dorsum pain with difficulty of sitting. The bladder sphincter function disturbance were also found in 3 cases. The main procedures of the new type spinal osteotomy consisted of temporary rod installation, trans-intervertebral spinal osteotomy, circumferential decompression of the spinal cord, dissection and complete cut of the anterior longitudinal ligament, spreading the intervertebral gap with the distraction forceps during the instrumentation correction maneuver and replaced by the cage filled with autograft bone inserting into the intervertebral gap, then the closing maneuver followed. The average operation time was 4.5h (range from 3.5 to 6 h), and the mean blood loss volume during the operation was 2280 ml (range from 700 to 4200 ml). All patients underwent surgery safely and there were no major complications related to the surgical procedures, apart from CSF leakage of 1 case postoperatively and transient low blood pressure of 1 case intraoperatively. Localized kyphosis, scoliosis were reduced from an average of 73 degrees to 8.3 degrees and 25.7 degrees to 18.7 degrees respectively with an average 12.8 months follow-up. Bony fusion were achieved in all patients and there was no correction loss. Neurologic improvement occurred in 1 case from Frankel Grade C to Grade D, and 1 case from Frankel Grade D to Grade E after the surgery. The bladder sphincter function were also found improved in 2 cases postoperatively. The new type spinal osteotomy with cage inserting anteriorly and closing posteriorly by a single posterior approach was a safe, reliable and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of the thoracolumbar kyphosis with the Cobb angle from 40 degrees to 90 degrees. Compared with the other common spinal wedge osteotomies, the deformation danger, such as hanging down, kinking or dural buckling could be effectively prevented, a better correction rate is also achieved significantly with this new type procedure.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 05/2006; 44(8):551-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the clinical characteristics and treatment of flexion-distraction stage I injuries in subaxial cervical spine. Twelve cases of flexion-distraction stage I injuries with delayed symptoms, admitted in our hospital between January 1995 and December 2004, were studied retrospectively. In acute phase, all of 12 cases had neck pain and limited neck movements, neurological deficits were found in 6 of 12 cases. Eight cases had a correct diagnosis, and 2 cases had a error diagnosis, 2 cases missed. All cases were satisfactory by the primary conservative treatment. After 274 days average asymptomatic intervals, all of 12 cases had recurrence of neck pain, delayed neurological deficits were found in 10. MRI showed that all of 12 cases were unstable injuries. All of the 12 patients were treated operatively. Decompression, fusion and fixation were performed by anterior approach in 9 cases, and by combined anterior and posterior approach in 3 cases. The average follow-up period was 33.1 months. Neck pain had great recovery in all cases, 10 cases with neurological deficits, 7 returned normal. Radiographic evidences of intervertebral bony fusion and good cervical alignment were observed in all of 12 cases. Flexion-distraction stage I injuries is often caused by ligament and disc injuries, and often missed with subtle symptoms and radiographic changes. Inadequate primary treatment options are often due to failure to recognize the instability, and maybe result in delayed injuries. MRI is helpful for the early accurate evaluation of spinal stability. Unstable injury require early surgical treatment. The anterior approach operation is recommended to most of these patients with acute and old injuries. Combined anterior and posterior approach operation should be considered in these patients who have old injuries with stiff kyphosis.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 03/2006; 44(4):238-41.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of surgical correction for post-traumatic kyphosis of thoracolumbar spine. From 1996 to 2003, 33 consecutive patients with post-traumatic kyphosis of thoracolumbar spine were corrected surgically. The mean age was 40.3 years (range, 13 - 65 years). The mean time between the initial injury and surgical correction was 36.0 months (range, 6 - 220 months). The kyphotic deformity averaged 40.8 degrees (range, 20 degrees - 82 degrees ). All the patients had neurological deficits. Twelve patients had obvious back pain. Seven patients lost sphincter function completely and nineteen patients lost the function partly. Twenty-three patients had ever undergone laminectomy and/or instrumentation. The treatment procedure consisted of anterior release and posterior spinal osteotomy with instrumentation (15 patients), posterior closing wedge osteotomy with instrumentation (12 patients), anterior release and instrumentation (6 patients). Kyphosis was corrected from an average of 40.8 degrees to an average of 5.7 degrees, the corrective rate was 86.0% (40.8 degrees - 5.7 degrees /40.8 degrees). There were no severe complications. The average follow-up period was 24.6 months (range, 6 - 84 months). There was no loss of correction at follow-up. Ten of these patients showed an improvement in neural function by one or two levels according to the classification. Sphincter function recovered partly in ten patients. Back pain was relieved significantly in all of twelve patients with back pain preoperatively. Bony fusion was achieved in thirty-two patients. One patient had nonunion and achieved bony fusion after revision. Posterior closing wedge osteotomy was suitable to kyphosis less than 40 degrees. Anterior release and posterior spinal osteotomy was effective, especially to the patients with severe kyphosis deformity or with operation history. Patients with incomplete neurological deficits and/or severe back pain could get benefit from osteotomy of spine, even if their medical history was long.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 03/2005; 43(4):201-4.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the causes of failure following surgical treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis, procedures for redo surgery and the final result of reoperation. 20 patients who had a repeat operation for lumbar spondylolisthesis were studied retrospectively. On average 24.3 months following the previous surgery, all of these patients had recurrence or progression of back and leg pain. All of 20 patients were reoperated by means of three different procedures. The causes of failure were post-operative destabilization (6 cases); progressive spondylolithesis (3 cases) implants failure (10 cases) and mistake segment (one case). After reoperation, a mean 34.1 months' follow-up was made. The excellent or good rate was 90%. Incorporation of graft was found in 18 cases with fusion by inter-transverse process and 2 cases by intervertebral space. New bone formation was found in 6 out of 8 cases that had a simultaneous intervertebral cage implant. No implant failure was found in all patients. Simple laminectomy or discectomy was not indication for lumbar spondylolithesis. No bone graft or union was the main causes of implant failure. Posterior instrumented fusion with laminectomy decompression can be used in the patients who had a prior surgery of simple discectomy or anterior intervertebral bone graft. Except for posterior instrumented fusion with extensive laminectomy decompression, Intervertebral fusion should be considered in the patients who had a prior surgery of laminectomy decompression with instrument, anterior intervertebral fusion (ALIF) was recommended for these cases.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 07/2004; 42(12):716-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the treatment of spinal fractures in ankylosing spondylitis. Nineteen cases of spinal fractures complicating ankylosing spondylitis admitted in our hospital were studied retrospectively. All of 19 cases were up to the diagnosis standards of ankylosing spondylitis. Eleven patients had cervical fracture and 8 had thoracolumbar fracture. Of the patients with cervical fracture, fractures occurred at C(5 - 7) in 9 patients. Of the patients with thoracolumbar injury, stress fractures were seen in 7 patients and all of seven fractures occurred at T(10)-L(2). Sixteen of the 19 patients sustained fractures through three columns of the spine. Nine patients had spinal cord injures; eight of the 9 cases had cervical fracture. All of the 19 patients were treated operatively. Four different surgical procedures were used in patients with cervical fracture; decompression, fusion and stabilization with instrumentation by anterior approach were performed in 9 patients. Of the patients with thoracolumbar fractures, four different operations were performed; fusion by both anterior and posterior approach plus a long posterior instrument were used in 5 cases. Eighteen patients had an average follow-up period of 46.6 months. Nine patients with preoperative neurological deficits improved in 8 and was stabilized in 1. Radiographic evidence of fusion was observed in all of the 18 patients. Two patients suffered neurological deterioration during surgery. One patient died from cerebrovascular infarction. Two patients had pneumonia after the operative procedure. Spinal fractures in ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a high rate of neurological injury. Shearing fracture usually occurs at the lower cervical spine (C(5 - 7)) and stress fracture at thoracolumbar spine. Most of the fractures involve three columns of spine. Surgical intervention may be indicated in this injury. Fracture union and neurological improvement can be achieved in most patients treated by operation. We suggest that, fusion and stabilization with instrumentation by anterior approach is indicated in most cervical shearing fracture, and a combined fusion by both sides plus a long posterior instrument is probably beneficial in patients with thoracolumbar stress fracture. Complications is not rare after surgery and appropriate preventive measures are necessary for these patients.
    Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 04/2004; 42(6):334-9.
  • Xiao-xue Yin, Zhong-qiang Chen, Zhao-qing Guo
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    ABSTRACT: To study the method of inducing human marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts directionally and to identify osteogenesis characteristics. MSCs were isolated from adult marrow using density gradient separation method and were cultured in conditioned medium containing Dex 10(-8) mol/L, beta-GP 10 mmol/L, and AA 50 micrograms/ml. The MSCs attachment formed soon and passage 3 cells were chosen to check osteogenesis characteristics, including alkaline phosphatase assay with modified calcium-cobalt staining method, type I collagen assay with immunohistochemistry, osteopontin and osteonectin assay with in situ hybridization and calcium nodes assay with Von Kossa staining. Passage 3 MSCs had typical appearance of osteoblasts and could be passaged continuously till passage 10. The rate of ALP expression was 85%. The expressions of collagen type I, osteopontin and osteonectin were positive and calcium nodes were seen by Von Kossa staining. We have successfully induced human MSCs into osteoblasts; the induced cells have typical osteogenesis characteristics.
    Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery 04/2004; 18(2):88-91.
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    ABSTRACT: To establish an immortalized osteoblast cell line used for basal and clinical research of orthopaedics. Human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) had been inducted into osteoblasts directionally, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) cDNA was transferred into the osteoblasts by retroviral vector pLPChTERT. The resultant stable clones reproduced successively and the expression of hTERT as well as the osteogenesis characteristics of different eras were identified. hTERT gene has been transferred into human osteoblasts successfully. The transformed cells expressed telomerase activity and divided vigorously. p62 has been obtained so far. The expression of bone specific Alkaline phosphatase, Collagen type I and Osteopontin of p25, p55 were checked and it is proved that the immortalized cell line preserved typical osteogenesis characteristics. Osteoblasts can be immortalized by transferring exogenous hTERT gene to reconstitute telomerase activity, and the immortalized cell reserved osteogenesis characteristics.
    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 08/2003; 83(14):1251-4.
  • Chun-li Song, Geng-ting Dang, Zhao-qing Guo
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of simvastatin on the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphates (ALP) activity in the primary cultured bone marrow stromal cells, and to elucidate the mechanism of the anabolic osteogenetic effect of simvastatin. Bone marrow stromal cells in femur and tibia of adult mouse were cultured in vitro. after treated with different concentrations of simvastatin (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mumol/L) or recombinant human BMP-2 for 72 hours, ALP activity of bone marrow stromal cells was determined. BMP-2 expression of bone marrow stromal cells was analyzed by using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. After treated with simvastatin for 72 hours, BMP-2 expression increased, while little BMP-2 expression could be observed in the control group. ALP activity also increased in a dose-dependent manner; t-test showed that ALP activity in the group which concentrations of simvastatin were 0.5 mumol/L (t = 2.35, P = 0.041), 1.0 mumol/L (t = 2.348, P = 0.041) had significant difference when compared with control group. Simvastatin lead to high expression of BMP-2 in bone marrow stromal cells, via the increased auto- or para-crine of BMP-2, and ALP activity increased. These may be parts of the mechanism on the anabolic osteogenetic effect of simvastatin.
    Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery 12/2002; 16(6):384-7.