John Karaian

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Maryland, United States

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Publications (7)21.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of normal saline, hypertonic saline, and Ringer's lactate solution followed by blood infusion in ameliorating the physiological, biochemical, and organ functions following hemorrhagic shock (HS) in rats. Anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent computer-controlled HS, and were randomly divided into five groups consisting of (1) sham, (2) HS without resuscitation, (3) resuscitation with normal saline, (4) resuscitation with hypertonic saline, and (5) resuscitation with Ringer's lactate solution. All resuscitated animals were infused with subsequent infusion of shed blood. Animals were continuously monitored for physiological, hemodynamic, biochemical parameters, and organ dysfunctions. Non-resuscitated animals were unable to survive due to hypotension, poor oxygen metabolism, and lactic acidosis. Although these HS related parameters were corrected by all the fluids used in this study, additional blood infusion was more effective than fluid resuscitation alone. Also, hypertonic saline was more effective than Ringer's lactate solution, and normal saline was the least effective in preserving the liver and kidney functions and muscle damage. All crystalloid fluids were significantly more effective in reversing the HS outcome when used with blood infusion, but hypertonic salinewith blood was more effective in preventing the organ damage than Lactated Ringers solutions or normal saline in the treatment of HS.
    Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock 10/2012; 5(4):309-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle fibers from malignant hyperthermia (MH)-susceptible humans and swine are markedly more sensitive to ryanodine receptor (RyR1) agonists than those from normal individuals. Reproducible shifts in the dose-response of skeletal muscle to caffeine and halothane are the basis of the current in vitro diagnostic caffeine-halothane contracture test. In an attempt to develop a less invasive MH diagnostic test, the authors determined the effects of RyR1 agonists (caffeine, 4-chloro-m-cresol [4CmC], and halothane) on the adductor muscle with respect to the lactate-pyruvate (L/P) system that was percutaneously dialyzed using a microdialysis technique in homozygous MH-susceptible compared with normal swine. Animals were anesthetized (ketamine-propofol) and artificially ventilated. Sets of six CMA/20 microdialysis catheters were implanted; each catheter was perfused with different RyR1 agonist concentrations. After a 30-min equilibration after implantation, one of the catheters was perfused (2 microl/min) with vehicle (0.9% saline or lipid emulsion), and the other five were perfused with caffeine (1-64 mM), 4CmC (0.1-8 mM), or halothane (prepared in lipid emulsion; 10-500 mM). Outflow dialysate fractions collected at 10-min intervals and L/P parameters were measured enzymatically. Only in the MH-susceptible group did all RyR1 agonists increase dialysate L/P in a dose-dependent manner. The dose-effect relations were most prominent with 4CmC. With the halothane lipid emulsion, data scatter was high compared with that of the caffeine group and especially the 4CmC group. There were no signs of global muscle rigidity, systemic hypermetabolism, or a clinical MH episode during microdialysis RyR1 perfusion. The authors data demonstrate that the in vivo muscle microdialysis of the porcine L/P system reveals distinct differences between MH-susceptible and MH-normal muscle, especially in response to highly specific RyR1 agonists such as 4CmC. The microdialysis L/P technique seems to have an MH diagnostic potential in the clinical setting.
    Anesthesiology 02/2006; 104(1):90-100. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional mitochondria have been widely accepted as one of the key targets and a mediator of secondary cell injury and organ failure during hemorrhagic shock (HS). The liver is known to be the first organ to display the signs of injury during HS. This report describes experiments to determine whether modulation of hepatic mitochondrial dysfunctions by pharmacologic agents could prevent liver injury in rats subjected to HS. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were either treated as controls or subjected to computer-controlled arterial hemorrhage (40 mmHg) for 60 min followed by resuscitation with hypertonic saline, hypertonic beta-hydroxybutyrate, or hypertonic sodium pyruvate for the next 60 min before death. During the course of the experiment, animals were continuously monitored for hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. At the end of the experiment, the liver was excised and examined for oxidative injury, mitochondrial functions, expression of nitric oxide synthase, and indicators of apoptosis. In comparison to hypertonic saline and hypertonic beta-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate significantly protected the liver from oxidative injury, prevented the up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase, inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase deactivation, and improved cellular energy charge and mitochondrial functions. In addition, pyruvate also reduced cleavage of poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase by preventing leakage of mitochondrial cytochrome c in the liver of HS animals. These data suggest that modulation of mitochondrial metabolic functions is likely to be one of the important mechanisms by which pyruvate exerts its protective effects on the liver during HS and resuscitation in rats.
    Anesthesiology 08/2005; 103(1):65-73. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of nitric oxide and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) vascular channels in vascular decompensation during controlled hemorrhagic shock in swine. Thirty instrumented, anesthetized adolescent Yorkshire swine were subjected to controlled isobaric hemorrhage to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg for 2 h (n = 6) or 4 h (n = 10) or 50 mmHg for 4 h (n = 8). An additional six animals were used as anesthetized instrumented time controls. During controlled hemorrhage, plasma and tissue samples were obtained every 30 to 60 min. Before euthanasia, tissue (carotid artery, lung, liver, and aorta) was obtained for analysis of nitrate concentrations and nitric oxide synthase activity. Isolated carotid artery ring reactivity to norepinephrine was also determined with and without glibenclamide. Animals hemorrhaged to 40 mmHg decompensated earlier than animals hemorrhaged to 50 mmHg. Plasma nitrate concentrations and nitric oxide synthase activity rose consistently throughout hemorrhage in both groups. However, they were substantially higher in the mean arterial pressure 40 group. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity was the major contributor to total nitric oxide synthase activity throughout the protocol with only the animals maintained at 40 mmHg for 4 h showing evidence of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. Profound KATP channel activation and hyporeactivity of isolated vessel rings to norepinephrine was not observed until 4 h after the initiation of hemorrhagic shock. Only those animals with inducible nitric oxide synthase activity showed a decreased response to norepinephrine, and this hyporeactivity was reversed with the KATP channel inhibitor, glibenclamide. The data indicate that profound KATP activation associated with increased nitric oxide concentrations and inducible nitric oxide synthase induction is a key factor in vascular smooth muscle hyporeactivity characteristic of the late decompensatory phase of hemorrhagic shock in swine.
    Anesthesiology 09/2004; 101(2):399-408. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inadequate availability of fuel substrates and sharp decline in cellular ATP have been implicated in a cascade of events associated with cell death and organ failure during hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this in vivo swine model of severe prolonged HS, the effect of exogenous pyruvate administration on various markers of cell damage in brain and liver was examined. Thirty minutes after the start of controlled arterial hemorrhage, 30% sodium pyruvate, 10% saline, or 0.9% saline was administered via jugular vein. Four hours after the initiation of hemorrhage, tissue samples from brain and liver were obtained and examined for the cellular and molecular markers of cellular damage. Results of our study suggest that pyruvate prevents loss of total NAD content, cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), and inhibits lipid peroxidation in both the brain and liver of swine during prolonged severe HS. We conclude that there are multiple mechanisms by which pyruvate can possibly prevent cell damage caused during HS.
    Journal of Surgical Research 07/2003; 112(2):180-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inadequate availability of fuel substrates and sharp decline in cellular ATP have been implicated in a cascade of events associated with cell death and organ failure during hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this in vivo swine model of severe prolonged HS, the effect of exogenous pyruvate administration on various markers of cell damage in brain and liver was examined. Thirty minutes after the start of controlled arterial hemorrhage, 30% sodium pyruvate, 10% saline, or 0.9% saline was administered via jugular vein. Four hours after the initiation of hemorrhage, tissue samples from brain and liver were obtained and examined for the cellular and molecular markers of cellular damage. Results of our study suggest that pyruvate prevents loss of total NAD content, cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), and inhibits lipid peroxidation in both the brain and liver of swine during prolonged severe HS. We conclude that there are multiple mechanisms by which pyruvate can possibly prevent cell damage caused during HS.
    Journal of Surgical Research - J SURG RES. 01/2003; 112(2):180-188.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the liver is the first organ to display signs of injury during hemorrhagic shock. We examined the mechanism by which pyruvate can prevent liver damage during hemorrhagic shock in swine anesthetized with halothane. Thirty minutes after the induction of a 240-min controlled arterial hemorrhage targeted at 40 mmHg, hypertonic sodium pyruvate (0.5 g. kg(-1). h(-1)) was infused to achieve an arterial concentration of 5 mM. The volume and osmolality effects of pyruvate were matched with 10% saline (HTS) and 0.9% saline (NS). Although the peak hemorrhage volume increased significantly in both the pyruvate and HTS group, only the pyruvate treatment was effective in delaying cardiovascular decompensation. In addition, pyruvate effectively maintained the NADH/NAD redox state, as evidenced by increased microdialysate pyruvate levels and a significantly lower lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. Pyruvate also prevented the loss of intracellular antioxidants (GSH) and a reduction in the GSH-to-GSSG ratio. These beneficial effects on the redox environment decreased hepatic cellular death by apoptosis. Pyruvate significantly increased the ratio of Bcl-Xl (antiapoptotic molecule)/Bax (proapoptotic molecule), prevented the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and decreased the fragmentation of caspase 3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (DNA repair enzyme). These beneficial findings indicate that pyruvate infused 30 min after the onset of severe hemorrhagic shock is effective in maintaining the redox environment, preventing the loss of the key antioxidant GSH, and decreasing early apoptosis indicators.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 11/2002; 283(4):H1634-44. · 4.01 Impact Factor