[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fourth genus of Mesozoic water measurers (Gerromorpha: Hydrometridae) is discovered and described from the remains of an individual preserved in mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber from northern Myanmar. Burmametra macrocarinata gen. et sp. nov. is compared with other Recent and extinct hydrometrid genera and shares apomorphies with the subfamily Hydrometrinae. Based on the distribution of characters states and a preliminary cladistic analysis, the genus is putatively basal among this subfamily. Together with those previous records in Burmese amber and the Crato Limestones of Brazil, Burmametra confirms the early diversification of the Hydrometridae by the Early Cretaceous.
Cretaceous Research 01/2015; 52:118-126. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoxys is a very common Cambrian bivalved arthropod, specimens of which are normally preserved only as valves. The discovery of the soft anatomy of Isoxys may greatly assist understanding affinities and functional morphology. Isoxys minor Luo and Hu in Luo et al., 2008 is the most common representative of all animal species known from the lower Cambrian Guanshan fauna (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) at the Shitangshan Section, near Kunming, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Here we describe and reconstruct the morphology of I. minor on the basis of newly illustrated fossils and a few new specimens that bear soft-parts including new discovery of frontal grasping appendages. Like the soft anatomy of other known Isoxys, it bears a pair of large stalked eyes, a pair of specialized frontal grasping appendages, approximately 12–14 paired biramous limbs, and a helm-like tail exposed outside the valves.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reconstruction and timing of the early stages of social evolution, such as parental care, in the fossil record is a challenge, as these behaviors often do not leave concrete traces. One of the intensely investigated examples of modern parental care are the modern burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus), a lineage that includes no-table endangered species. Here we report diverse transitional silphids from the Mesozoic of China and Myanmar that provide insights into the origins of parental care. Jurassic silphids from Daohugou, sharing many defining characters of Nicrophorinae, primitively lack stridulatory files significant for parental care com-munications; although morphologically similar, Early Cretaceous nicrophorines from the Jehol biota possess such files, indicating that a system of parental care had evolved by this early date. More importantly, burying beetles of the genus Nicrophorus have their earliest first record in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, and docu-ment early evolution of elaborate biparental care and defense of small vertebrate carcasses for their larvae. Parental care in the Early Cretaceous may have originated from competition between silphids and their predators. The rise of the Cretaceous Nicrophorinae implies a biology similar to modern counterparts that typically feed on carcasses of small birds and mammals. sociobiology | paleoethology | paleoecology U nderstanding the early evolution of many complex or ephemeral behaviors is severely hampered by the frequent lack of fossilized traces. Among these behaviors, parental care represents a significant behavioral adaptation in life history traits and, as one of the core levels of arthropod sociality, has a wealth of sociobiological and behavioral ecological theory behind it (1). Parental care has evolved independently numerous times among animals, including various lineages of insects (1, 2), for which one of the notable examples is the famous burying beetle, otherwise so critical to forensic entomology. With fewer than 200 extant spe-cies, the family Silphidae are among the largest and most con-spicuous of the staphylinoid Coleoptera (3) and comprise two well-defined subfamilies: the Silphinae and the Nicrophorinae, with the latter characterized by the presence of an epistomal sulcus and paired stridulatory files and the former by the absence of such features. Silphid parental care has been intensively studied (4, 5), with several attempts to explain its origin and subsequent evolution (6, 7). Fossil evidence that elucidates the origin and evolutionary history of this phenomenon is, not surprisingly, lacking, although modern-looking silphids have been discovered in the Tertiary (8–10). Recent discoveries in the Middle Jurassic and Early Cre-taceous of northeastern China together provide a unique suite of evidence for the timing of origin of parental care in these beetles, and suggest an ancient and long history to this behavioral adap-tation among silphids. Furthermore, evidence from olfactory struc-tures preserved in minute detail on the antennae of these fossils reveals them to have already adapted to feeding on carrion, perhaps being important recyclers of small-bodied vertebrates during the Age of Dinosaurs. The material studied herein includes 44 well-preserved speci-mens belonging to three distinct groups. The first group, charac-terized by the absence of abdominal stridulatory files, comprises 37 specimens from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou beds (∼165 Mya) at Daohugou, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia of China. The second group, with distinct abdominal stridulatory files as in crown-group nicrophorine silphids, includes five specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (∼125 Mya) at Huangbanjigou, Beipiao City, Liaoning Province and Liutiaogou, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia. The third group, with lamellate apical antennomeres, comprises six individuals preserved in two mid-Cretaceous ambers (∼99 Mya) from northern Myanmar.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The staphylinid subfamily Micropeplinae includes small strongly sclerotized beetles with truncate elytra leaving the most part of abdomen exposed. Fossil micropeplines are rare and confined to Cenozoic representatives of extant gen-era. Here, we describe the oldest micropepline, Protopeplus cretaceus gen. and sp. n., from the Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. Fluorescence microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were both used to reveal diagnostic features of Micropeplinae and some primitive traits that place Protopeplus very basally within Micropeplinae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juraheterophlebia sinica, a new species of damsel-dragonfly, is described from the Middle Jurassic of China. Its fore- and hind wings in connection to the body allows comparison of the type genera of the families Erichschmidtiidae and Juraheterophlebiidae, respectively based on a forewing and a hind wing. Juraheterophlebiidae is a junior synonym of the Erichschmidtiidae. The new fossil confirms the previous attributions of Erichschmidtia and Juraheterophlebia to the clade Heterophlebioptera.
Alcheringa An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 01/2014; 38(1). · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new rove beetle, Sinanthobium daohugouense, new genus, new species, is described and illustrated on the basis of a tiny impression fossil from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation at Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new genus is placed in the subfamily Omaliinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), tentatively in the Recent tribe Anthophagini. The first find of a definitive omaliine beetle from the Middle Jurassic of China provides direct evidence on the origin and early evolution of Omaliinae.
The Canadian Entomologist 10/2013; 145(05). · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first two rove beetle fossils discovered from the Late Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in New South Wales, Australia are described and illustrated. Juroglypholoma talbragarense n. sp. is the second fossil record for one of the smallest and latest recognized staphylinid subfamily Glypholomatinae. The other staphylinid, Protachinus minor n. gen. n. sp., is an unusual member of extant subfamily Tachyporinae (tribe Tachyporini). It significantly retains several distinct features, including entire epistomal suture, and abdominal tergites III–VI each with a pair of basolateral ridges. The discovery of a new glypholomatine in Australia, together with recently reported one from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou biota of China, suggests the subfamily Glypholomatinae was probably much more widespread in the Jurassic than previously thought. INTRODUCTION
Journal of Paleontology 08/2013; · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platydracus breviantennatus n. sp., is described and figured based on an impression fossil from the upper Eocene Florissant beds of Colorado, the United States. Based on the large and densely setose body, relatively small eyes, and robust mandibles (right mandible seemingly with one simple preapical tooth), tibiae and antennae, the new species is placed in the modern genus Platydracus Thomson, 1858. It differs from other species of Platydracus by its large body, small head, and distinctly short antennae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A remarkable new rove beetle, Protodeleaster glaber gen. et sp. nov, is described and illustrated based on two well-preserved specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. The new genus is placed in the extant staphylinid subfamily Oxytelinae, and recent tribe Euphaniini, based on several characteristic features (e.g. a single pair of wide paratergites on abdominal segments; open procoxal fissures; contiguous mesocoxae; abdominal sternite II short and poorly sclerotized). This find from the Early Cretaceous documents the oldest fossil representative of the tribe Euphaniini. Morphologically, it resembles most closely the recent genus Platydeleaster Schülke, 2003, an unusual member of the extant Oxytelinae. According to the currently accepted hypothesis of the phylogenetic position of Euphaniini and the prior discovery of other taxa from the Late Jurassic, we suggest the tribe might have first appeared at least as early as the Late Jurassic.RésuméProtodeleaster glaber gen. et sp. nov, un nouveau staphylin remarquable, est décrit et illustré sur la base de deux spécimens très bien préservés de la formation Yixian (Crétacé inférieur, province du Liaoning, Chine). Le nouveau genre appartient à la sous-famille Oxytelinae et à la tribu moderne des Euphaniini, sur la base de plusieurs structures caractéristiques (par exemple, une seule paire de grands paratergites sur les segments abdominaux, des fissures procoxales ouvertes, mesocoxae contiguës, sternite II court et faiblement sclérifié). Cette découverte dans le début du Crétacé représente le plus ancien représentant fossile de la tribu Euphaniini. Morphologiquement, il ressemble étroitement au genre récent Platydeleaster Schülke, 2003, un membre inhabituel chez les Oxytelinae. D’après l’hypothèse couramment acceptée sur la position phylogénétique des Euphaniini et les découvertes antérieures de taxons du Jurassique supérieur, nous suggérons que cette tribu a pu apparaître au moins à cette dernière époque.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two different patterns of wing venation are currently supposed to be present in each of the three orders of Paraneoptera. This is unlikely compared with the situation in other insects where only one pattern exists per order. We propose for all Paraneoptera a new and unique interpretation of wing venation pattern, assuming that the convex cubitus anterior gets fused with the common stem of median and radial veins at or very near to wing base, after separation from concave cubitus posterior, and re-emerges more distally from R + M stem. Thereafter, the vein between concave cubitus posterior and CuA is a specialized crossvein called "cua-cup," proximally concave and distally convex. We show that despite some variations, that is, cua-cup can vary from absent to hypertrophic; CuA can re-emerge together with M or not, or even completely disappear, this new interpretation explains all situations among all fossil and recent paraneopteran lineages. We propose that the characters "CuA fused in a common stem with R and M"and "presence of specialized crossvein cua-cup" are venation apomorphies that support the monophyly of the Paraneoptera. In the light of these characters, we reinterpret several Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic fossils that were ascribed to Paraneoptera, and confirm the attribution of several to this superorder as well as possible attribution of Zygopsocidae (Zygopsocus permianus Tillyard, 1935) as oldest Psocodea. We discuss the situation in extinct Hypoperlida and Miomoptera, suggesting that both orders could well be polyphyletic, with taxa related to Archaeorthoptera, Paraneoptera, or even Holometabola. The Carboniferous Protoprosbolidae is resurrected and retransferred into the Paraneoptera. The genus Lithoscytina is restored. The miomopteran Eodelopterum priscum Schmidt, 1962 is newly revised and considered as a fern pinnule. In addition, the new paraneopteran Bruayaphis oudardi gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described fromthe Upper Carboniferous of France (see Supporting Information).
Journal of Morphology 05/2012; 273(5):480-506. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mongoliaeshna sinica gen. et sp. n., third record of the Mesozoic aeshnopteran family Progobiaeshnidae is described from the Lower Cretaceous of Yixian Formation in Liutiaogou (Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, China).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sinocalopteryx shangyongensis nov. gen., nov. sp., the first fossil calopterygoid from eastern Asia, is described from the earliest Eocene of Southwest China. Although the new genus has the principle synapomorphies of Calopterygoidea, it possesses a unique structure (possible reversal) in the pattern of vein RP1/2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first Chinese and English representatives of the Mesozoic gomphid family Proterogomphidae are described, respectively Lingomphus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., and Cordulagomphus europaeus sp. nov. A phylogenetic analysis of the most ‘basal’ gomphid lineages is proposed, showing the monophyly of the Proterogomphidae and the position of Lingomphus as sister group of all other representatives of this family. C. europaeus is the first Eurasiatic representative of the subfamily Cordulagomphinae that was previously restricted to the Lower Cretaceous of Crato Formation (South America). The Proterogomphidae has a known distribution very similar to those of several other Lower Cretaceous insect groups, viz. Asia, Europe, and South America, showing that the distribution of the climates and land masses at that time was not a ‘serious’ impediment for the displacements of these organisms.
Cretaceous Research 02/2010; 31(1):94-100. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent times many authors have regarded the Protomeropidae and Microptysmatidae - two essentially Permian groups - as either early trichopteran lineages or members of the stem-group of the Amphiesmenoptera (basically: Trichoptera+Lepidoptera). Actually none of these families possesses, in its ground plan, the most significant derived trait of the amphiesmenopteran forewing, namely a true ‘double-Y loop’ arrangement of the anal veins. Since ‘Carpenter’s organs’, small rounded structures in the costal area of the hindwing, are only known to occur in certain members of the Permochoristidae, Kaltanidae and Protomeropidae, these three families should belong to a fossil clade, which we ascribe to the Mecoptera, suborder Pistillifera sensu lato, mainly on account of a few venational features. Although we maintain the Microptysmatidae in the Mecopterida (=Panorpida, i.e. Amphiesmenoptera, Mecoptera, Diptera, and relatives), we propose to place this family in a separate order: the Permotrichoptera, n. status. Indeed, apparently, Microptysmatidae can be ascribed neither to the Amphiesmenoptera nor to the Antliophora (=Mecoptera-Diptera complex).
Annales- Societe Entomologique de France 01/2010; 46(1-2):262-270. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huang, D.-Y. & Nel, A., December, 2008. New ‘Grylloblattida’ related to the genus Prosepididontus Handlirsch, 1920 in the Middle Jurassic of China (Insecta: Geinitziidae). Alcheringa 32, 395–403. ISSN 0311-5518.On the basis of well-preserved nearly complete specimens, two new genera and species Sinosepididontus chifengensis and Megasepididontus grandis, both closely related to the Early Jurassic geinitziid genus Prosepididontus, are described. The new material was collected from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation near the Daohugou Village, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia, northeast China. New body and leg structures are described for these Chinese taxa. They were previously unknown in other Geinitziidae. The new data indicate that the extinct ‘Grylloblattida’ contained heterogenous groups.
Alcheringa An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 12/2008; 32(4):395-403. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Middle Jurassic Archipsylla sinica sp. n. is the first record of the enigmatic Mesozoic family Archipsyllidae from China. This well-preserved Chinese material bears several apomorphies allowing an attribution of this family to the Psocodea. The presence of four-segmented tarsi in Archipsyllidae suggests that the reduction in number of tarsomeres occurred independently at least two times in the modern paraneopteran lineages Psocodea (“Psocoptera” + Phthiraptera) and Condylognatha (Thysanoptera + Hemiptera).RésuméArchipsylla sinica nov. sp. du Jurassique moyen est le premier fossile chinois connu de la famille énigmatique mésozoïque Archipsyllidae. Ce matériel chinois, très bien conservé, montre plusieurs apomorphies qui permettent l’attribution de cette famille aux Psocodea. La présence de tarses avec quatre articles chez les Archipsyllidae suggère que la réduction du nombre de tarsomères s’est produite indépendamment chez les deux lignées modernes de Paranéoptères (Psocodea et Condylognatha).