L E Desjardin

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (19)88.98 Total impact

  • A Van Stelten, T M Kreman, N Hall, L E Desjardin
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    ABSTRACT: Although norovirus has been identified as the most common cause of gastroenteritis, the majority of cases have no etiologic agent identified. In this study, we describe the optimization of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the improved detection of genogroup I norovirus in patient specimens based upon sequence data from a collection of representative clinical norovirus sequences. The redesigned assay demonstrated a 64 fold increase in sensitivity, a 2 log decrease in the limit of detection, and an 18% increase in amplification efficiency, when compared to the standard assay. The optimized test also detected GI norovirus in clinical specimens that were initially negative by the standard assay. Use of the optimized assay increased the annual positivity of GI norovirus in Iowa from 1.2% to 4.5%, indicating the prevalence of GI norovirus may be higher than previously identified. Laboratory confirmation of the etiologic agent involved in gasteroenteritis cases is essential for better understanding of the prevalence and transmission of noroviruses.
    Journal of virological methods 07/2011; 175(1):80-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.04.022 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall contains an important group of structurally related mannosylated lipoglycans called phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), lipomannan (LM), and mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), where the terminal alpha-[1-->2] mannosyl structures on higher order PIMs and ManLAM have been shown to engage C-type lectins such as the macrophage mannose receptor directing M.tb phagosome maturation arrest. An important gene described in the biosynthesis of these molecules is the mannosyltransferase pimB (Rv0557). Here, we disrupted pimB in a virulent strain of M.tb. We demonstrate that the inactivation of pimB in M.tb does not abolish the production of any of its cell wall mannosylated lipoglycans; however, it results in a quantitative decrease in the ManLAM and LM content without affecting higher order PIMs. This finding indicates gene redundancy or the possibility of an alternative biosynthetic pathway that may compensate for the PimB deficiency. Furthermore, infection of human macrophages by the pimB mutant leads to an alteration in macrophage phenotype concomitant with a significant increase in the rate of macrophage death.
    Glycobiology 04/2009; 19(7):743-55. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwp042 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine how long people shed virus after the onset of mumps, we used logistic regression modeling to analyze data from the 2006 outbreak of mumps in Iowa. Our model establishes that the probability of mumps virus shedding decreases rapidly after the onset of symptoms. However, we estimate that 8%-15% of patients will still be shedding the virus 5 days after the onset of symptoms and, thus, may still be contagious during this period.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2008; 46(9):1447-9. DOI:10.1086/587104 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mumps virus is a negative-strand RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. Laboratory confirmation of mumps infection can be made by the detection of immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to mumps virus in acute-phase serum samples, the isolation of mumps virus in cell culture, or by detection of the RNA of the mumps virus by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. We developed and validated a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid mumps diagnosis in a clinical setting. This assay used oligonucleotide primers and a TaqMan probe targeting the mumps SH gene, as well as primers and a probe that targeted the human RNase P gene to assess the presence of PCR inhibitors and as a measure of specimen quality. The test was specific, since it did not amplify a product from near-neighbor viruses, as well as sensitive and accurate. Real-time RT-PCR results showed 100% correlation with results from viral culture, the gold standard for mumps diagnostic testing. Assay efficiency was over 90% and displayed good precision after performing inter- and intraassay replicates. Thus, we have developed and validated a molecular method for rapidly diagnosing mumps infection that may be used to complement existing techniques.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2007; 45(9):2902-8. DOI:10.1128/JCM.00614-07 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) pathogenesis involves the interaction between the mycobacterial cell envelope and host macrophage, a process mediated, in part, by binding of the mannose caps of M. tb lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) to the macrophage mannose receptor (MR). A presumed critical step in the biosynthesis of ManLAM, and other mannose-containing glycoconjugates, is the conversion of mannose-6-phosphate to mannose-1-phosphate, by a phosphomannomutase (PMM), to produce GDP-mannose, the primary mannose-donor in mycobacteria. We have identified four M. tb H37Rv genes with similarity to known PMMs. Using in vivo complementation of PMM and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) deficient strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and an in vitro enzyme assay, we have identified both PMM and PGM activity from one of these genes, Rv3257c (MtmanB). MtmanB overexpression in M. smegmatis produced increased levels of LAM, lipomannan, and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) compared with control strains and led to a 13.3 +/- 3.9-fold greater association of mycobacteria with human macrophages, in a mannan-inhibitable fashion. This increased association was mediated by the overproduction of higher order PIMs that possess mannose cap structures. We conclude that MtmanB encodes a functional PMM involved in the biosynthesis of mannosylated lipoglycans that participate in the association of mycobacteria with macrophage phagocytic receptors.
    Molecular Microbiology 12/2005; 58(3):774-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04862.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) survives in macrophages in part by limiting phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion. M.tb mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) blocks phagosome maturation. The pattern recognition mannose receptor (MR) binds to the ManLAM mannose caps and mediates phagocytosis of bacilli by human macrophages. Using quantitative electron and confocal microscopy, we report that engagement of the MR by ManLAM during the phagocytic process is a key step in limiting P-L fusion. P-L fusion of ManLAM microspheres was significantly reduced in human macrophages and an MR-expressing cell line but not in monocytes that lack the receptor. Moreover, reversal of P-L fusion inhibition occurred with MR blockade. Inhibition of P-L fusion did not occur with entry via Fcgamma receptors or dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin, or with phosphatidylinositol-capped lipoarabinomannan. The ManLAM mannose cap structures were necessary in limiting P-L fusion, and the intact molecule was required to maintain this phenotype. Finally, MR blockade during phagocytosis of virulent M.tb led to a reversal of P-L fusion inhibition in human macrophages (84.0 +/- 5.1% vs. 38.6 +/- 0.6%). Thus, engagement of the MR by ManLAM during the phagocytic process directs M.tb to its initial phagosomal niche, thereby enhancing survival in human macrophages.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2005; 202(7):987-99. DOI:10.1084/jem.20051239 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) into the host macrophage and its survival in this environment are key components of tuberculosis pathogenesis. Following intracellular replication of the bacterium within alveolar macrophages, there is spread of bacilli to regional lymph nodes in the lungs and subsequent presentation of antigens to the host immune system. How this process occurs remains poorly understood, but one mechanism may involve the migration of macrophages containing Mtb across the alveoli to lymph nodes, where there is development of a protective host response with formation of granulomas composed in part of aggregated and fused, apoptotic, infected macrophages. Leukocyte integrins, including lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and complement receptors CR3 and CR4, and their counter receptors play a major role in macrophage adhesion processes and phagocytosis. In this study, the appearance of Mtb-infected macrophages over time was examined, using inverted-phase microscopy and an in vitro culture model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Prior to and immediately following infection of the MDMs with Mtb, the macrophages appeared as individual cells in monolayer culture; however, within 24 h of infection with Mtb, the MDMs began to migrate and adhere to each other. The kinetics of this response were dependent on both the m.o.i. and the length of infection. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that macrophage adhesion was accompanied by increases in levels of LFA-1 and its counter receptor (ICAM-1), decreases in surface levels of the phagocytic receptors CR3, CR4 and FcgammaRII, and an increase in major histocompatibility complex Class II (MHC-II) molecules at 72 h post-infection. Decreases in surface levels of CR3 and CR4 had a functional correlate, with macrophages containing live bacilli showing a diminished phagocytic capacity for complement-opsonized sheep erythrocytes; macrophages containing heat-killed bacilli did not show this diminished capacity. The modulation of macrophage adhesion and phagocytic proteins may influence the trafficking of Mtb-infected macrophages within the host, with increases in levels of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 enhancing the adhesive properties of the macrophage and decreases in phagocytic receptors diminishing the phagocytic capacity of an already-infected cell, potentially allowing for maintenance of the intracellular niche of Mtb.
    Microbiology 11/2002; 148(Pt 10):3161-71. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several recent publications have suggested that oligo(dT) can prime reverse transcription of several mycobacterial mRNAs. To determine if this is the case for most Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA species, reverse transcription reactions of M. tuberculosis RNA were primed with oligo(dT) or with other primers that did not target polyadenylylated sequences, and the resultant cDNA product was evaluated. Priming with oligo(dT) yielded more cDNA than priming with an arbitrary primer for only 1 of 12 unrelated M. tuberculosis genes, as measured by competitive PCR. Priming with oligo(dT) yielded cDNA for only 30% of the genes primed for by 37 M. tuberculosis genome-directed oligonucleotides, as assessed by hybridization of cDNA with an M. tuberculosis microarray. These data demonstrate that priming of reverse transcription of mycobacterial mRNA with oligo(dT) does not yield representative samples of cDNA.
    Microbiology 09/2002; 148(Pt 8):2567-72. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among the products that are expressed when Mycobacterium tuberculosis undergoes hypoxic shiftdown to nonreplicating persistence (NRP) is the alpha-crystallin chaperone protein homologue (Acr). This expression coincides with the previously reported appearance of a respiratory type of nitrate reductase activity, the increase in glycine dehydrogenase activity, and the production of a unique antigen, URB-1. In a timed sampling study, using a slowly stirred oxygen depletion culture model, we have demonstrated that the hspX mRNA that codes for Acr protein as well as the protein itself is induced just as the bacilli enter the microaerophilic NRP stage 1 (NRP-1). In contrast to the induction observed for hspX mRNA, levels of 16S rRNA, fbpB mRNA (encoding the 85B alpha antigen), and aroB mRNA (encoding dehydroquinate synthase) demonstrate relatively small to no change upon entering NRP-1. Acr protein was shown to be identical to URB-1 by Western analysis with anti-URB-1 antibody. The fact that antibody to Acr is found in a high percentage of tuberculosis patients suggests that the hypoxic shiftdown of tubercle bacilli to the NRP state that occurs in vitro, resulting in production of the alpha-crystallin protein, occurs in vivo as well. Simultaneous abrupt increases in hspX mRNA and Acr protein suggest that Acr protein expression is controlled at the level of transcription.
    Journal of Bacteriology 10/2001; 183(18):5311-6. DOI:10.1128/JB.183.18.5311-5316.2001 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in the mRNA levels of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes (fbpB known as antigen 85B, and hspX known as Acr) were studied in infected human monocytes. Antigen 85B is an enzyme involved in cell wall biosynthesis and is also a major target of the immune response. Acr is a stress protein believed to be involved in the bacillary response to adverse conditions and in non-replicating persistence. During the first 24 h of intracellular infection, the intramonocyte 85B mRNA level increased 54-fold (P = 0.00001) and 14.6 times in comparison with the 16S ribosomal rRNA. In contrast, the Acr mRNA fell 14.3 times. Although monocyte cytokine production was very variable, the 24 h secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha correlated with the 85B-16S RNA ratio at 24 h (r = 0.77, Pcorr < 0.01). Furthermore, the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha to cultures was associated with a twofold increase in the 85B-16S ratio and, conversely, neutralization of endogenous TNF-alpha reduced the ratio. As antigen 85B also induces TNF-alpha, the positive feedback implied by our findings suggests a previously unsuspected role for this protein in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis.
    Molecular Microbiology 02/2001; 39(3):813-21. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02280.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • L E Desjardin
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of RNA has many applications and has become increasingly important both in basic research and clinical application. The type and number of particular mRNA transcripts expressed in M. tuberculosis (MTB) bacilli under various conditions can provide insight into models of pathogenesis. MTB mRNA has also been demonstrated to correspond to viability in drug-treated MTB culture systems (1), thus providing an alternative to the lengthy and often difficult bacterial viability assays used in determining drug susceptibility. Isolation of MTB RNA has an immediate application in evaluation of treatment efficacy in patients. Recent studies on smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment with an optimal chemotherapeutic.
    Methods in molecular medicine 01/2001; 48:133-9. DOI:10.1385/1-59259-077-2:133
  • L E Desjardin, G L Hehman
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    ABSTRACT: The most common laboratory measures of response to therapy for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are conversion of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear to negative, or culture positive sputum to negative. AFB enumeration lacks sensitivity and specificity and the culture of M. tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria can take weeks. Quantitative estimates of MTB DNA in sputum have been shown to correlate with numbers of viable bacilli before the onset of chemotherapy (1-3). Once effective treatment has been initiated, DNA levels remain high in comparison to viable MTB counts in a majority of smear-positive patients and thus do not serve as a marker for the bactericidal response observed in sputa.
    Methods in molecular medicine 01/2001; 48:121-31. DOI:10.1385/1-59259-077-2:121
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    ABSTRACT: Effective treatment regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis are difficult to assess because of the slow growth rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture and its protracted clearance from sputum. A rapid method that reflects effective antimicrobial activity would markedly advance evaluation of treatment and promote the assessment of new antituberculosis drugs. Conventional methods measure the progressive reduction of numbers of acid-fast bacilli in the sputum smear and the clearance of organisms in sputum culture. In this study, we measured levels of M. tuberculosis 85B (alpha antigen) messenger RNA (mRNA), 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and IS6110 DNA in patients' sputa to ascertain whether they could serve as potential surrogate markers of response to chemotherapy. Sputum specimens were sequentially collected for up to a year from 19 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients receiving an optimal drug treatment regimen. Nucleic acids were isolated from these specimens, and two M. tuberculosis molecular targets (mRNA, DNA) were quantified, using the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System. The Mycobacterium genus-specific 16S rRNA was quantified with a limiting dilution RT-PCR assay. Results show that levels of 85B mRNA declined after initiation of therapy, as did viable M. tuberculosis colony counts, with 90% of patients becoming negative for both markers after 2 mo of treatment. The rapid disappearance of M. tuberculosis mRNA from sputum suggests that it is a good indicator of microbial viability and a useful marker for rapid assessment of response to chemotherapy.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/1999; 160(1):203-10. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.160.1.9811006 · 11.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous assays have been described for the detection of DNA and rRNA sequences that are specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although beneficial to initial diagnosis, such assays have proven unsuitable for monitoring therapeutic efficacy owing to the persistence of these nucleic acid targets long after conversion of smears and cultures to negative. However, prokaryotic mRNA has a typical half-life of only a few minutes and we have previously shown that the presence of mRNA is a good indicator of bacterial viability. The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel reverse transcriptase-strand displacement amplification system for the detection of M. tuberculosis alpha-antigen (85B protein) mRNA and to demonstrate the use of this assay in assessing chemotherapeutic efficacy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The assay was applied to sequential, noninduced sputum specimens collected from four patients: 10 of 11 samples (91%) collected prior to the start of therapy were positive for alpha-antigen mRNA, compared with 1 of 8 (13%), 2 of 8 (25%), 2 of 8 (25%), and 0 of 8 collected on days 2, 4, 7, and 14 of treatment, respectively. In contrast, 39 of 44 samples (89%) collected on or before day 14 were positive for alpha-antigen DNA. The loss of detectable mRNA corresponded to a rapid drop over the first 4 days of treatment in the number of viable organisms present in each sputum sample, equivalent to a mean fall of 0.43 log10 CFU/ml/day. Analysis of mRNA is a potentially useful method for monitoring therapeutic efficacy and for rapid in vitro determination of drug susceptibility.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1999; 37(3):518-23. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous assays which use conserved DNA or rRNA sequences as targets for amplification have been described for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, these techniques have not been applied successfully to the monitoring of therapeutic efficacy owing to the persistence of amplifiable nucleic acid beyond the point at which smears and cultures become negative. Semiquantitative analysis of rRNA has been used to reduce the time required for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although growth for up to 5 days in the presence of some drugs is still required to discriminate resistant strains. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether quantitative analysis of M. tuberculosis mRNA could be used to assess bacterial viability and to illustrate the application of this technique to rapid determination of drug susceptibility. Levels of mRNA encoding the 85B protein (alpha-antigen), IS6110 DNA, and 16S rRNA were compared in parallel cultures of M. tuberculosis that were treated with either no drug, 0. 2 microg of isoniazid per ml, or 1 microg of rifampin per ml. Exposure of sensitive strains to isoniazid or rifampin for 24 h reduced the levels of 85B mRNA to <4 and <0.01%, respectively, of those present in control cultures without drug. In contrast, the levels of IS6110 DNA and 16S rRNA did not diminish over the same period. Strains which were resistant to either isoniazid or rifampin demonstrated no reduction in 85B mRNA in the presence of the drug to which they were nonresponsive. Quantitative analysis of 85B mRNA offers a potentially useful tool for the rapid determination of M. tuberculosis drug susceptibility and for the monitoring of therapeutic efficacy.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 02/1999; 37(2):290-5. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist in sputum for long periods of time after the initiation of antituberculosis chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative estimates of M. tuberculosis DNA in sputum correlate with the numbers of viable bacilli and thus measure the therapeutic response of patients during treatment. Two methods of M. tuberculosis DNA quantification were examined by using DNA isolated from sputum specimens serially collected during the course of chemotherapy. A competitive PCR assay was compared to an automated system of real-time quantification with the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System (TaqMan). The ABI 7700 system uses standard PCR in conjunction with a fluorogenic probe in which the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of target DNA present. The results showed that both PCR systems are reproducible and accurate. The amounts of M. tuberculosis DNA quantified in sputum corresponded well with the numbers of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) counted by microscopy. Before initiation of antituberculosis therapy, measures of AFB, M. tuberculosis DNA, and cultivable bacilli were similar, suggesting that quantification of DNA is a good method for measuring the initial bacillary load. However, the rate of disappearance of both AFB and M. tuberculosis DNA did not correlate with the decline in cultivable bacilli in the specimen; therefore, these tests are not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/1998; 36(7):1964-8. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/1998; 36(3):853-4. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The specificity of IS6110 for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has recently been questioned. We observed no cross-reaction with 27 nontuberculous mycobacteria using strand displacement- and PCR-based amplification of the nucleotide 970 to 1026 and 762 to 865 regions of IS6110. These data support use of selected regions of IS6110 as M. tuberculosis complex-specific targets.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/1996; 34(11):2843-6. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is an important tool for Mycobacterium tuberculosis research and diagnostics. A standard procedure using N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and NaOH has been widely adopted for digestion and decontamination of sputum specimens for mycobacterial culture. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility of this method with the recovery of RNA for RT-PCR assays. Nineteen sputum specimens were collected from smear-positive, pretreatment tuberculosis patients. After homogenization with NALC and glass beads, specimens were further processed by the addition of either NaOH, as per the standard decontamination protocol, or phosphate buffer. RNA was prepared by using a modified guanidine-phenol extraction method developed specifically for sputum sediments. DNA was isolated from the same specimens. Reverse transcriptions of alpha antigen (85B protein) mRNA and 16S rRNA were performed together, and aliquots were removed for separate PCRs. In all specimens, the 85B mRNA target was greatly diminished by treatment with NaOH; however, the 16S rRNA target remained unaffected. Storing sputum specimens for 48 h at 4 degrees C before processing did not seem to affect the integrity or yield of RNA; however, some degradation occurred by 72 h. Data suggest that the NaOH-NALC method for processing sputum samples is not suitable for detecting mRNA targets in RT-PCR assays.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/1996; 34(10):2435-9. · 4.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

831 Citations
88.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2011
    • University of Iowa
      • State Hygienic Laboratory
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
    • Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1996–2001
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 1998
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States