Nelson N Teng

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States

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Publications (46)153.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure in the clinic. Drugs that were once effective against naïve disease subsequently prove ineffective against recurrent disease, which often exhibits an MDR phenotype. MDR can be attributed to many factors; often dominating among these is the ability of a cell to suppress or block drug entry through upregulation of membrane-bound drug efflux pumps. Efflux pumps exhibit poly-specificity, recognizing and exporting many different types of drugs, especially those whose lipophilic nature contributes to residence in the membrane. We have developed a general strategy to overcome efflux-based resistance. This strategy involves conjugating a known drug that succumbs to efflux-mediated resistance to a cell-penetrating molecular transporter, specifically, the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), D-octaarginine. The resultant conjugates are discrete single entities (not particle mixtures) and highly water-soluble. They rapidly enter cells, are not substrates for efflux pumps, and release the free drug only after cellular entry at a rate controlled by linker design and favored by target cell chemistry. This general strategy can be applied to many classes of drugs and allows for an exceptionally rapid advance to clinical testing, especially of drugs that succumb to resistance. The efficacy of this strategy has been successfully demonstrated with Taxol in cellular and animal models of resistant cancer and with ex vivo samples from patients with ovarian cancer. Next generation efforts in this area will involve the extension of this strategy to other chemotherapeutics and other MDR-susceptible diseases.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 05/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Yi Chen, Marcia M Bieber, Nelson N H Teng
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    ABSTRACT: A major challenge of successful chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is overcoming intrinsic or acquired multi-drug resistance caused by active drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Regulation of these transporters in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. We have found that abnormal expression of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway transcription factor Gli1 is involved in the regulation of ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in ovarian cancer. Hh is a known regulator of cancer cell proliferation and differentiation in several other types of invasive and metastatic malignancies. Our work has demonstrated that Gli1 is abnormally activated in a portion of ovarian cancers. Inhibition of Gli1 expression decreases ABCB1 and ABCG2 gene expression levels and enhances the response of ovarian cancer cells to certain chemotherapeutic drugs. The underlying mechanism is a direct association of Gli1 with a specific consensus sequence located in the promoter region of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. This study provides new understanding of ABC gene regulation by Hh signaling pathway, which may lead to the identification of new markers to detect and to anticipate ovarian cancer chemotherapy drug sensitivity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 02/2013; · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance is the major cause of failure of many chemotherapeutic agents. While resistance can arise from several factors, it is often dominated by drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane-bound polysubstrate export pump expressed at high levels in resistant cells. While co-administration of pump inhibitors and a drug could suppress efflux, this two-drug strategy has not yet advanced to therapy. We recently demonstrated that the reversible attachment of a guanidinium-rich molecular transporter, polyarginine, to a drug provides a conjugate that overcomes efflux-based resistance in cells and animals. This study is to determine whether this strategy for overcoming resistance is effective against human disease. Tumor samples from ovarian cancer patients, both malignant ascites cells and dissociated solid tumor cells, were exposed to Taxol-oligoarginine conjugates designed to release free drug only after cell entry. Cell viability was determined via propidium-iodide uptake by flow cytometry. To analyze bystander effect, toxicity of the drug conjugates was also tested on peripheral blood leucocytes. Human ovarian carcinoma specimens resistant to Taxol in vitro demonstrated increased sensitivity to killing by all Taxol-transporter conjugates tested. These studies also show that the drug conjugates were not significantly more toxic to normal human peripheral blood leukocytes than Taxol. These studies with human tumor indicate that oligoarginine conjugates of known drugs can be used to overcome the efflux-based resistance to the drug, providing a strategy that could improve the treatment outcomes of patients with efflux-based drug-resistance.
    Gynecologic Oncology 04/2012; 126(1):118-23. · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Histopathology 12/2011; 59(6):1274-7. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer has very heterogeneous histological classification, and response to therapy of the same grade and type varies. We studied genes in the Wnt and hedgehog (Hh) pathways, which are essential for embryonic development and which play critical roles in proliferation in a variety of human cancers. Variations in these pathway genes causing proliferation could play a role in the variation in tumor progression and response to therapy. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we studied 16 primary grade 3 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III serous ovarian cancer samples for expression of the Wnt pathway gene AXIN2, fibroblast growth factor 9, and Hh pathway gene expressions of glioma-associated oncogene 1, glioma-associated oncogene 2, patched homolog 1, patched homolog 2, Indian Hedgehog (HH), sonic HH, and Smoothened, a G protein-coupled receptor protein. Normal ovary epithelial cell line was used as control. We found wide variation of up-regulation of pathway component and target genes in the primary tumor samples and apparent cross talk between the pathways. AXIN2, a Wnt target gene, showed increased expression in all serous ovarian cancer samples. Fibroblast growth factor 9 was also overexpressed in all tumors with greater than 1000-fold increase in gene expression in 4 tumors. Expression of Hh pathway genes varied greatly. More than half of the tumor samples showed involvement of Hh signaling or pathway activation either by expression of transcription factors and Hh ligands or by overexpression of Indian HH/sonic HH and the receptor-encoding patched homolog 1/patched homolog 2. We found a wide variation in fold expression of genes involved in the Wnt and Hh pathway between patient samples.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 06/2011; 21(6):975-80. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignant transformation in mature cystic teratoma (MCT) of the ovary. The SCC is difficult to preoperatively diagnose. We conducted a retrospective study to seek the possible risk/prognostic factors and treatments for SCC arising from MCT of the ovary. Using an institutional database, we identified 3 women treated for SCC arising from an MCT of the ovary at the Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital. A retrospective chart review was conducted, with information obtained from radiographs, operative reports, pathology reports, and radiation oncology records. A total of 1551 cases of MCT were diagnosed at Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital from 1990 to 2009, of which, malignant teratoma SCC type was noted in 3 cases (0.19%). The median age of the subjects was 39 years. Abdominal fullness was the most common symptom (3/3 cases). The mean diameter of the ovarian tumor was 17.3 cm, ranging from 16 to 18 cm. All 3 patients received simple right salpingo-oophorectomy or debulking surgery. Two of the patients reached stage IIIC and died. : With our review as basis, we recommend being cautious of the following risk factors: patient age, tumor size, ultrasound characteristics, sonar tumor vessel wave form, computed tomography, and levels of SCC and CA125 tumor markers. We suggest that patients have regular ovarian ultrasound examination. Based on our literature review, stage IA patients who undergo standardized operational procedures do well without adjuvant treatment, but such patients must be confirmed accurately with complete surgical staging to be in stage IA before undergoing conservative management. The optimal approach to the management of patients with advanced stage and recurrent disease is unclear. Surgical cytoreduction with proper staging, adjuvant therapy with platinum-based or paclitaxel-based chemotherapy, and concurrent whole pelvic radiation have been recommended as possible methods of treatment.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 04/2011; 21(3):466-74. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Renata R Urban, Nelson N H Teng, Daniel S Kapp
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of uterine cancer and invasive cervical cancer, detected incidentally during the female-to-male sex reassignment surgery. The management of these patients is presented. Such individuals may not be receiving regular gynecologic care appropriate to their remaining genital organs; symptoms of malignant disease may be missed.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 02/2011; 204(5):e9-e12. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    Joseph M Bay, Bruce K Patterson, Nelson N H Teng
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    ABSTRACT: The constitutive proliferation and resistance to differentiation and apoptosis of neoplastic cervical cells depend on sustained expression of human papillomavirus oncogenes. Inhibition of these oncogenes is a goal for the prevention of progression of HPV-induced neoplasias to cervical cancer. SiHa cervical cancer cells were transfected with an HPV-16 promoter reporter construct and treated with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a human cytokine of the interleukin 6 superfamily. SiHa and CaSki cervical cancer cells were also assessed for proliferation by MTT precipitation, programmed cell death by flow cytometry, and HPV E6 and E7 expression by real-time PCR. LIF-treated cervical cancer cells showed significantly reduced HPV LCR activation, reduced levels of E6 and E7 mRNA, and reduced proliferation. We report the novel use of LIF to inhibit viral oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells, with concomitant reduction in proliferation suggesting re-engagement of cell-cycle regulation.
    Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2011; 2011:463081.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe and review the incidence of para-aortic (PA) nodal metastasis in completely staged endometrial cancer patients who are negative for pelvic nodal metastasis. Using an institutionally maintained database, we identified all patients with endometrial cancer from 2002 to 2006 who had both pelvic and aortic nodal dissections and determined the rate of isolated para-aortic nodal metastasis in non-malignant (i.e. negative) pelvic nodes. 201 endometrial cancer patients were surgically treated at our institution from 2002 to 2006. 171 patients had both pelvic and PA nodes removed during surgery, and specimens examined by a pathologist. Only 2 (1.2%) had PA nodes that tested positive for malignance (i.e. positive PA nodes) with pelvic nodes that tested negative for malignance (i.e. negative pelvic nodes). The final International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grade for the endometrial tumor cells in the two patients was "G1" with endometrioid adenocarcinoma and "G3" with endometrioid adenocarcinoma and mucinous differentiation, respectively. Based on the very low incidence of patients inflicted with endometrial cancer that have positive para-aortic lymph nodes (PALNs) with negative pelvic nodes found both in our literature review (1.5%) and in our own study (1.2%), the addition of PA lymphadenectomy in all patients was found to have minimal diagnostic and therapeutic value. At the present, the role of complete PA lymphadenectomy in all patients with endometrial cancer should be re-examined. Individualized algorithms should be developed based on risk factors and status of pelvic nodes.
    Gynecologic Oncology 12/2010; 121(1):122-5. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine factors responsible for the increasing number of deaths from corpus cancer over three time periods. Data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database from 1988-2001. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Of 48,510 women with corpus cancer, there was an increase in the proportion of patients dying from advanced cancers (52.1% to 56.0% to 68.8%; P < .001), grade 3 disease (47.5% to 53.3% to 60.6%; P < .001), serous tumors (14.3% to 18.4% to 16.6%; P < .001), and sarcomas (19.1% to 20.4% to 27.2%; P < .001) over time. On multivariate analysis, older age, African American race, lack of primary staging procedures, advanced-stage, high-grade, and non-endometrioid histology were independent prognostic factors for worse survival. Our data suggest that the increase in mortality in women with corpus cancer over the last 14 years may be related to an increased rate of advanced-stage cancers and high-risk histologies.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 03/2008; 198(2):218.e1-6. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The differential diagnostic problems usually associated with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary have been well characterized and include primitive germ cell tumor, sex cord stromal tumor, and metastasis. Distinction from other types of surface epithelial carcinoma may also pose a diagnostic challenge, but the potential for misdiagnosis of serous tumor of low malignant potential (S-LMP) is not well recognized. We report 13 cases of ovarian CCC with prominent papillary architecture that were initially misdiagnosed as S-LMP or low-grade serous carcinoma either on frozen section or at final diagnosis. The ages of the patients ranged from 39 to 65 years (mean, 52.2 y). All patients presented with a pelvic mass; 1 was undergoing evaluation for infertility. Macroscopically, most were described as unilateral, multilocular cysts with internal papillary structures. On microscopic examination, each tumor had a papillary architecture that accounted for 30% to 95% of the tumor; in 6 cases, the cores of the papillae were hyalinized. The neoplastic cells covering the papillae had clear to granular and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Hobnail cells were focal and often subtle. Most had a low mitotic index (9/13) and/or deceptively bland cytology (8/13); only careful attention to the cytologic features and/or mitotic index allowed correct identification of the tumor type in 5 cases. Six were associated with pelvic/ovarian endometriosis. Ten were Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I (8 IA, 2 IC), 2 were stage II (1 IIB, 1 IIC), and 1 stage IIIC. CCC with prominent papillary architecture is uncommon, but may pose a challenging differential diagnosis with S-LMP, resulting in inadequate staging and delayed treatment. Features most helpful in distinguishing papillary CCC are unilaterality, nonhierarchical branching, monomorphous cell population, and the presence of more typical CCC patterns elsewhere in the tumor. The presence of endometriosis, although not specific, should also prompt consideration for papillary CCC. Increased numbers of mitotic figures may not be present and high-grade cytologic atypia may be focal, requiring careful examination of multiple tumor sections for detection. As CCC and S-LMP exhibit significantly different immunoreactivity for Wilms' Tumor 1 and estrogen receptor, these markers may also be useful adjunctive tests in problematic cases.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 03/2008; 32(2):269-74. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of surgical staging in patients with grade 1 endometrioid uterine cancer. Data were extracted from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1988 to 2001. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine predictors for disease-specific survival. Twelve thousand seven hundred and twelve women were reported with endometrioid carcinoma, including 3867 with grade 1 disease, of which 25.5% had stage IC or more advanced disease, 15.4% with disease extending beyond the uterine corpus, 7.3% with extrauterine metastases, and 3.3% with lymph node metastases. On multivariate analysis, younger age and earlier stage remained as significant prognostic factors for improved survival. Since grade 1 endometrioid uterine cancers have a 15.4% risk of extrauterine spread, a complete surgical staging procedure is recommended when clinically feasible. Younger age and earlier stage are significant prognostic factors for improved survival.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 03/2008; 198(2):216.e1-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary cancer cells that are extracted from ovarian tumors can serve as an optimal substrate to study the biologic characteristics of ovarian cancer. We describe an efficient and effective method of enriching ovarian tumor cells from ascitic fluid using an immunomagnetic-based method. Mononuclear cells were isolated from ascites specimens by Ficoll gradient separation. Epithelial ovarian cancer cells were labeled magnetically with monoclonal human epithelial antigen-125 that is conjugated to microbeads. After immunomagnetic separation, the purity of tumor cells before and after purification was quantified by cytologic analysis and confirmed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. Peritoneal ascites specimens were obtained from 6 patients with ovarian cancer. The median age of our patients was 61.5 years (range, 46-79 years). Three patients had papillary serous carcinoma; 2 patients had clear cell carcinoma, and 1 patient had an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The mean tumor purity was only 22.8% +/- 10% (range, 1%-60%) before separation. After enrichment, the purity improved to 82.3% +/- 4.0% (range, 70%-90%). Our enrichment technique increased the tumor purity by 59.5% +/- 8.4%. The mean percent yield after positive enrichment was 30.1% +/- 14.5%. The immunomagnetic cell separation technique is an efficient and effective method for isolating and purifying ovarian tumor cells from ascites. Results from experiments with fresh tumor cells rather than cancer cell lines may be more relevant for clinical application.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 12/2007; 197(5):507.e1-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in the acute postoperative setting is a recently recognized syndrome that, similar to classic or idiopathic TTP, presents variably with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever, renal failure, and mental status changes. Though most reports of postoperative TTP are in conjunction with cardiac or vascular surgery, it has also been reported following orthopedic and abdominal surgeries. We present a case of a 53 year-old female diagnosed with metastatic poorly differentiated endometrial cancer who developed TTP the day following her cytoreductive cancer surgery. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case of postoperative TTP following gynecologic cancer surgery. Because the presentation can be confused with other early postoperative complications, awareness of this syndrome is essential as initiation of plasmapheresis can be life-saving.
    Gynecologic Oncology 09/2007; 106(2):423-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the influence of gynecologic oncologists on the treatment and outcome of patients with ovarian cancer. Data were obtained from California Cancer Registry from 1994 to 1996. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard methods were used for analyses. Of 1,491 patients, the median age was 65 years (range: 13-100). Only 34.1% received care by gynecologic oncologists (group A) while 65.9% were treated by others (group B). Women in group A were more affluent (P<.001), were more educated (P=.036), were classified as white-collar employees (P=.128), and lived in urban regions (P<.001) compared with group B. Patients who saw gynecologic oncologists were more likely to have surgery as their initial treatment (91.9% versus 69.1%; P<.001), present with advanced (stage III-IV) cancers (78.2% versus 70.5%; P<.001), have more grade 3 tumors (61.7% versus 39.9%; P=.048), and receive chemotherapy (90.0% versus 70.1%; P<.001). Women in group B had a fourfold higher risk of having unstaged cancers (8.0% versus 2.1%; P<.001). The 5-year disease-specific survival of group A patients was 38.6% compared with 30.3% in group B (P<.001). On multivariable analysis, early stage, lower grade, and treatment by gynecologic oncologists were independent prognostic factors for improved survival. After adjusting for surgery and chemotherapy, there was no improvement in survival associated with care by gynecologic oncologists (hazard ratio=0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.03; P=.133). In this study of 1,491 women, those who were treated by gynecologic oncologists were more likely to undergo primary staging surgery and receive chemotherapy. Stage, grade of disease, and treatment by gynecologic oncologists were important prognosticators.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/2007; 109(6):1342-50. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was investigate the association between the number of lymph nodes examined and the probability of detecting at least a single lymph node involved by metastatic disease in patients with endometrioid corpus cancer. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and surgical information were obtained from the National Cancer Institute between 1990 and 2001. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relation between the number of lymph nodes identified and the probability of detecting at least a single positive lymph node. Of 11,443 patients, the median age was 64 years (range, 22-74 years). In all, 78.7% had stage I disease, 10.3% had stage II disease, and 11.0% had stage III disease; 31.5% had grade 1 histology, 40.6% had grade 2 histology, and 24.3% had grade 3 histology. The median number of lymph nodes reported was 9 (range, 1-90 lymph nodes). The median number of lymph nodes and the percent of patients with positive lymph nodes have increased from 1988 to 2001. An increasing number of lymph nodes removed was associated with a higher likelihood of identifying those with lymph node metastases. Based on the logistic regression model, the largest increase in probability of detecting at least a single positive lymph node was observed when 21 to 25 lymph nodes were resected (odds ratio [OR] of 1.45; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08-1.94 [P < .01]). Removing greater than 25 lymph nodes did not improve the statistical probability (OR of 1.23; 95% CI, 0.94-1.61 [P = .13]). The current study data suggest that the removal of 21 to 25 lymph nodes significantly increases the probability of detecting at least 1 positive lymph node in endometrioid uterine cancer. The definition of an adequate lymphadenectomy deserves further investigation.
    Cancer 06/2007; 109(12):2454-60. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human monoclonal antibody (mAb) 216 is a naturally occurring IgM cytotoxic mAb that binds to a glycosylated epitope on the surface of B-lymphocytes. This study investigated if this mAb could bind and kill acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) B-progenitor lymphoblasts in vitro. ALL cell lines were used to determine if combining mAb 216 with chemotherapeutic drugs would enhance killing and cell lines were used to measure cytotoxicity by mAb 216 with human complement. Expression of cell surface markers and mAb 216 epitope on fresh and banked ALL bone marrow samples was determined by flow cytometry. Fresh lymphoblasts were incubated for 20 hr with mAb 216 without complement to measure cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity of ALL cell lines incubated with mAb 216 and vincristine (VCR) or human complement was determined using flow cytometry. Pre-B-ALL cells but not T-ALL cells are bound and killed by mAb 216. The combination of mAb 216 and VCR at sub-therapeutic levels demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity beyond that observed for either agent alone. Incubation of mAb 216 with human complement increased cytotoxicity of ALL cell lines. This increased cytotoxicity with chemotherapy and the functional ability of mAb 216 to use multiple pathways to induce cell death identify mAb 216 as a potentially novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of B-progenitor ALL. Based on the results from this preclinical study, a Phase I clinical trial with mAb 216 for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory B-lineage ALL is ongoing.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2007; 48(4):380-6. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a phase I trial to determine the safety and toxicity profile of a novel immunomodulatory drug, lenalidomide, in recurrent ovarian and primary peritoneal cancer. The secondary objective is to evaluate the efficacy profile and quality of life (QOL) parameters in patients receiving this treatment. Patients with recurrent ovarian or peritoneal cancer who received standard staging surgery and at least one prior platinum-based chemotherapy regimen were treated with single-agent oral lenalidomide 25 mg daily for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. Toxicities were monitored by patient report, physical exam, and laboratories. Response was assessed by imaging, physical exam, and CA-125. Therapy was discontinued with disease progression and/or unacceptable toxicity. 20 patients with recurrent ovarian or peritoneal cancer were enrolled and received 70 completed 28-day cycles and 10 partial cycles of lenalidomide therapy. The majority of adverse events were grades 1-2, including fatigue (25/80 cycles), nausea/vomiting (23/80), constipation (13/80), abdominal pain (17/80), rash (12/80), neutropenia (12/80), and anemia (12/80). Grade 3 toxicities occurred in 12 of 80 cycles (14%) and no grade IV toxicities were observed. Eleven patients completed > or = 2 cycles and were evaluable for response. Nine achieved stable disease (SD) of at least 3 months, with four patients maintaining SD for > 6 months. The mean time to progression was 5.8 months (range 2-12 months). Overall, oral lenalidomide was well tolerated and may have some activity as a single agent in this heavily pre-treated population. Further studies combining lenalidomide with cytotoxic treatments may be warranted in this disease setting.
    Gynecologic Oncology 04/2007; 105(1):194-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prognostic factors that influence the survival of younger women diagnosed with uterine cancer. Demographic and clinico-pathologic data were collected from the National Cancer Institute database between 1988 and 2001. Data were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of the 51,471 women diagnosed with uterine cancer in the study period, 2,076 (4.0%) patients were aged 40 years or younger, and 49,395 (96.0%) were older than 40. The mean age in the younger group was 35.6 years, compared with 65.2 years of the older group. The overall distribution by stage was stage I 75.4%, II 8.1%, III 6.7%, and IV 9.8%. Younger patients were more likely to be nonwhite (42.4% versus 18.3%, P<.001) and have stage I disease (79.2% versus 75.3%, P<.001), grade 1 lesions (47.6% versus 35.6%, P<.001), and sarcomas (15.9% versus 8.2%, P<.001) compared with their older counterparts. The overall 5-year disease-specific survival for younger patients was significantly better than that of older women (93.2% versus 86.4%, P<.001). On multivariable analysis, younger age, earlier stage, lower grade, nonblack race, endometrioid histology, and surgical treatment remained as significant independent prognostic factors for improved survival. This large population-based study demonstrates that patients 40 years and younger have an overall survival advantage compared with women older than 40 years, independent of other clinico-pathologic prognosticators. III.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2007; 109(3):655-62. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the survival impact of lymphadenectomy in women diagnosed with clinical stage I ovarian cancer. Demographic and clinicopathologic information were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program between 1988 and 2001. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 6,686 women had clinical stage I ovarian cancer (median age 54 years, range 1-99). Of this total, 75.9% of patients were Caucasian, 8.3% were Hispanic, 5.8% were African American, and 7.3% were Asian. Epithelial tumors were present in 85.8% of the women, and 2,862 (42.8%) patients underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients aged 50 years or more were less likely to undergo lymphadenectomy compared with their younger cohorts (39.8% compared with 60.2%, P<.001). Only 32.7% of African-American women had lymphadenectomy compared with 42.7% of Caucasian women, 47.2% of Hispanics, and 48.8% of Asians (P<.001). Lymphadenectomy was associated with improved 5-year disease-specific survival of all patients from 87.0% to 92.6% (P<.001). More specifically, lymphadenectomy improved the survival in those with non-clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer (85.9% to 93.3%, P<.001) but not in those with clear cell carcinoma, germ cell tumors, sex cord stromal tumors, and sarcomas. Moreover, the extent of lymphadenectomy (0 nodes, less than 10 nodes, and 10 or more nodes) increased the survival rates from 87.0% to 91.9% to 93.8%, respectively (P<.001). On multivariable analysis, the extent of lymphadenectomy was a significant prognostic factor for improved survival, independently of other factors such as age, stage, histology, and grade of disease. Our data suggest that women with stage I non-clear cell ovarian cancers who underwent lymphadenectomy had a significant improvement in survival. II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 02/2007; 109(1):12-9. · 4.80 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

819 Citations
153.35 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2013
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Division of Gynecologic Oncology
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • VGHKS Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 2007–2011
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Morehouse School of Medicine
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Atlanta, GA, United States