ABSTRACT: Existing data suggest that immune function is compromised by negative psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that high psychological well being and quality relationships would be associated with vigorous cytokine responses to vaccination. Lymphocytes from 18 individuals were studied for their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) with influenza or hepatitis A immunization. Psychological well being and relationship quality were measured using standardized scales. Significant positive correlations were made between psychological well being and quality relationships and IFN-gamma and IL-10 production to influenza and hepatitis A on day 28 (Pearson correlations: 0.6-0.7; P<0.05). This preliminary study represents one of the first to show positive physiological health is associated with positive psychosocial factors.
Vaccine 06/2003; 21(19-20):2428-32. · 3.77 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess helper T cell function by measuring cytokine production over time after hepatitis A immunization.
Open-label, single-dose study.
General clinical research center of a university hospital.
Twenty-five healthy adults.
Each subject was immunized with inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; blood was drawn on day 0 (the day of immunization) and days 2, 5, 7, 10, and 28 after immunization.
Production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in culture with hepatitis A virus was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of hepatitis A antibody were measured on day 28. Both IFN-gamma and IL-10 production peaked on day 10 after immunization (IFN-gamma day 0 median = 7.35 pg/ml, interquartile ratio [IQR] = 20.8 vs day 10 median = 22.35 pg/ml, IQR = 42.4, p < 0.05; IL-10 day 0 median = 1.00, IQR = 7.4 vs day 10 median = 11.75 pg/ml, IQR = 92.3, p < 0.02, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The IL-10:IFN-gamma ratio on day 10 correlated with antibody production (Pearson product moment correlation 0.46, p < 0.05). This ratio was used as a measure of helper T cell phenotype.
Both IFN-gamma and IL-10 are produced in response to hepatitis A vaccine. The parallel production after immunization may contribute to the high efficacy of these vaccine preparations in inducing both cell-mediated immune response and a protective antibody response.
Pharmacotherapy 04/2003; 23(4):431-5. · 2.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Farmers are at increased risk of contracting tetanus. However, no difference in immunity to tetanus has been reported between rural and urban dwellers in large epidemiological studies. We hypothesized that tetanus antibody concentrations would be lower in farmers than in nonfarmers within the rural population.
We recruited 102 adult subjects attending an agribusiness trade show who identified themselves as farmers in Wisconsin. The nonfarmer group (n = 120) was composed of adults attending the agribusiness show who were not engaged in farming or were participating in another research study. Concentrations of antibody to tetanus toxin (antiTT) in sera were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IBL, Hamburg). AntiTT levels of >0.15 IU/mL were considered protective.
The antiTT concentrations for the farmer population (median = 2.74 IU/mL) were much higher than those for the nonfarmer group (median = 1.82 IU/mL) (P<.008). As in other studies, being male, being younger, and having a history of military service were positively correlated with protective antiTT concentrations. However, only farming, age, and the farming-sex interaction term were significantly associated with antiTT concentrations in the multiple-regression model.
The farmers we studied had high antiTT concentrations and a high tetanus seroprevalence rate. Occupation may be an important consideration in the development of immunization policies. A broader seroepidemiological study of farmers must be undertaken before any such considerations can be made.
The Journal of Rural Health 01/2003; 19(2):109-12. · 1.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To measure age- or sex-related changes in cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity secondary to influenza vaccination.
Open-label, single-dose study.
General clinical research center at a university hospital.
Fifteen healthy volunteers aged 22-51 years.
Each subject was given an erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) to measure CYP3A4 activity before influenza immunization and again on day 7 after immunization. Blood was drawn before immunization and on day 28 after immunization to measure influenza antibody concentrations.
Age of subject and change in ERMBT results after influenza immunization were correlated (correlation coefficient -0.624, p < 0.015). However, no correlations could be made between antibody concentrations after influenza immunization or change in antibody concentrations from baseline and age.
Decreases in CYP3A4 activity after influenza immunization are associated with increasing age. The decreases in CYP3A4 activity, however, are not associated with influenza antibody concentrations. This study bears repeating in an older cohort since the study sample did not include elderly individuals.
Pharmacotherapy 10/2002; 22(10):1235-8. · 2.90 Impact Factor