[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deployment in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of arcelin-based bruchid resistance could help reduce post-harvest storage losses to the Mexican bean weevil [(Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman)]. Arcelin is a member of the arcelin-phytohemagglutinin-alpha-amylase inhibitor (APA) family of seed proteins, which has been extensively studied but not widely used in bean breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of arcelin-based bruchid resistance and to determine the orientation of markers and the rate of recombination around the APA locus. A total of 10 previously developed microsatellites and 22 newly developed markers based on a sequenced BAC from the APA locus were screened for polymorphism and of these 15 were mapped with an F(2) population of 157 individuals resulting from a susceptible x resistant cross of SEQ1006 x RAZ106 that segregated for both the arcelin 1 allele and resistance to the bruchid, Z. subfasciatus. Microsatellites derived from APA gene sequences were linked within 0.8 cM of each other and were placed relative to the rest of the b04 linkage group. In a comparison of genetic to physical distance on the BAC sequence, recombination was found to be moderate with a ratio of 125 kb/cM, but repressed within the APA locus itself. Several markers were predicted to be very effective for genetic studies or marker-assisted selection, based on their significant associations with bruchid resistance and on low adult insect emergence and positions flanking the arcelin and phytohemagglutinin genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tolerance as a mechanism of resistance to the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in common beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., was evaluated under field and greenhouse conditions. Seven resistant (Brunca, BH-5, BH-60, BH-130, BH-144, EMP 486, and FEB 115) and five susceptible (PVA 773, EMP 514, BAT 477, APN 18, and RAZ 136) bean genotypes were assessed according to adult and larval populations, visual damage and reproductive adaptation scores, and yield components in field trials. From these genotypes, four resistant (Brunca, BH-130, EMP 486, and FEB 115) and two susceptible (APN 18 and RAZ 136) genotypes were selected for quantification of proportional plant weight and height increase changes due to thrips infestation in greenhouse tests. Under medium to high thrips infestation in the field, most resistant genotypes tended to have higher reproductive adaptation and lower yield losses, though they did not always suffer less damage, as compared to susceptible genotypes. In the greenhouse, resistant genotypes showed less reduction in plant dry weight and height increase than did some susceptible ones under the same infestation pressure. Results from both field trials and greenhouse tests suggest the possible expression of tolerance as a mechanism of resistance to T. palmi in the resistant genotype EMP 486, and confirm the existence of antixenosis in FEB 115, whereas tolerance might be combined with other resistance mechanisms in Brunca.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antixenosis and antibiosis in the resistance of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the melon thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, were investigated under laboratory and field conditions. Experiments were conducted for four moderately resistant genotypes ('Brunca', BH-130, EMP 486, and FEB 115) in comparison with one susceptible genotype (APN 18). Multiple-choice tests recorded most thrips on EMP 486 and least on FEB 115. Dual-choice tests conducted in both laboratory and field confirmed the antixenotic effect of FEB 115 and the attractant effect of EMP 486 on thrips. These results demonstrate the significance of antixenosis in the resistance of common beans to T. palmi. Life-table studies showed significant differences in egg duration, immature and adult survivorship, female body length and longevity, daily oviposition rate, and total fecundity among the bean genotypes. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) and its associated population parameters varied significantly with the bean genotype on which T. palmi cohorts were reared. Based on mean r(m) values, the five bean genotypes can be divided into two groups, with BH-130 and 'Brunca' being less favorable for the population growth of thrips than EMP 486 and FEB 115; the latter were comparable to the susceptible genotype APN 18. These life-table results indicate the role of antibiosis in enhancing the resistance of common beans to T. palmi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance in beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., to the melon thrips Thrips palmi Karny was studied under field conditions at two sites in Colombia. Genotypes were rated for resistance on the basis of visual damage scores, bean production ratings (a visual estimate of pod and seed set), and grain yields. Of 1,138 genotypes tested, only 60 (5.3%) were rated as resistant. Repeated testing allowed us to identify potential sources of resistance in five germplasm accessions (G 02402, G 02852, G 03177, G 03569, and G 04055), one commercial variety ('Brunca'), six elite breeding lines (A 216, DOR 714, EMP 486, FEB 115, FEB 161, and FEB 162), 41 recombinant inbred lines derived from the BAT 881 x G 21212 cross, and seven recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between DOR 364 and BAT 477. Resistance was not associated with maturity, growth habit, pubescence, and seed color or seed size. In general, correlations between visual damage scores and bean production ratings and between damage scores and yield were high and significant meaning that selection on damage rating is useful to identify genotypes that may have tolerance as a mechanism of resistance. The continuous distribution of damage scores of 139 recombinant inbred lines suggested that the inheritance of resistance to the melon thrips might be quantitative. Overall, resistance levels in beans can be considered as moderate, because none of the genotypes tested received damage scores of <3 on a 1-9 scale and none was ever rated as highly resistant in terms of bean production ratings.