[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation is an important component of therapy for a wide range of malignant conditions. However, it triggers DNA damage and cell death in normal cells and results in adverse side-effects. Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris), a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces the bioactive compound, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) and has multiple pharmacological activities, such as antitumor, antimetastatic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether CM-AE, an extract obtained from C. militaris exerts protective effects against radiation-induced DNA damage. The protective effects of CM-AE were compared with those of cordycepin. CM-AE effectively increased free radical scavenging activity and decreased radiation-induced plasmid DNA strand breaks in in vitro assays. CM-AE significantly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular DNA damage in 2 Gy irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. Moreover, treatment with CM-AE induced similar levels of phosphorylated H2AX in the cells, which reflects the initial DNA double-strand breaks in the irradiated cells compared with the non-irradiated CHO-K1 cells. However, cordycepin did not show free radical scavenging activity and did not protect against radiation-induced plasmid DNA or cellular DNA damage. These results suggest that the free radical scavenging activity of CM-AE contributes towards its DNA radioprotective effects and that the protective effects of CM-AE are much more potent to those of cordycepin. The data presented in this study may provide useful information for the screening of potent radioprotective materials.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2014; 34(5). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1901 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) and its main functional component, cordycepin, has been shown to possess a number of pharmacological activities including immunological stimulation and antitumor effects. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of C. militaris on tumor immunity underlying its antitumor effect have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of C. militaris on FM3A tumor-bearing C3H/He mice, comparing wild-type C. militaris and cordycepin-enriched C. militaris (JLM 0636). The concentration of cordycepin produced by crossbred JLM 0636 was 7.42 mg/g dry weight, which was 7-fold higher than that of wild-type C. militaris. Dietary administration of C. militaris revealed retardation of tumor growth as well as elongation of survival rates of tumor-bearing mice. This effect was more pronounced in JLM 0636. There was a cordycepin-dependent decrease in IL-2 and TGF-β secretion and an increase in IL-4 secretion without changes in the proliferative responses of concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes, which suggested that C. militaris feeding might induce changes in the subpopulations of tumor-derived T lymphocytes. CD4+CD25+ cell population was significantly reduced in the total splenocytes from JLM 0636-administered mice, while CD4+ T cell population remained unchanged. FoxP3+-expressing Treg cells among CD4+CD25+ population showed a similar pattern. On the contrary, CD8+ T cells as well as the IFN-γ expressing CD8+ T cells from tumor-bearing mice were significantly upregulated by the administration of JLM 0636. These results demonstrated the suppressive role of JLM 0636 on the function of Treg cells contributing to tumor specific IFN-γ-expressing CD8+ T cell responses in tumor-bearing mice, which explained the underlying mechanism of the antitumor immunity of cordycepin. Therefore, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris is a promising candidate for an adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of melanogenesis is an important strategy in the treatment of abnormal skin pigmentation for cosmetic purposes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of Asterina pectinifera (A. pectinifera) extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay, cellular tyrosinase assay, melanin content assay and the analysis of related protein expression in melan-a cells. A. pectinifera was extracted with 80% methanol (80-MAP) and further fractionated with hexane (He-AP) and ethyl acetate (EA-AP). In addition, the enzyme extract (En-AP) of A. pectinifera, to which protease was added, was processed. EA-AP and En-AP among A. pectinifera extracts showed strong inhibitory activity against the cell-free mushroom tyrosinase activity. EA-AP and En-AP induced significant inhibition of melanin production and cellular tyrosinase activity. In the action of EA-AP and En-AP on melanogenesis, they reduced the expression of melanogenic genes and proteins including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct). These results showed that EA-AP and En-AP inhibited melanogenesis by reducing tyrosinase activity and melanin production via subsequent downregulation of tyrosinase-related proteins. The overall results suggest that EA-AP and En-AP among A. pectinifera extracts may be promising candidates for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorder and useful for self-tanning cosmetic products.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2012; 31(1). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1181 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (3,4',5 tri-hydroxystilbene), a natural plant polyphenol, has gained interest as a non-toxic chemopreventive agent capable of inducing tumor cell death in a variety of cancer types. Several studies were undertaken to obtain synthetic analogues of resveratrol with potent anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HS-1793 as a new resveratrol analog on apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in murine breast cancer cells. A pharmacological dose (1.3-20 µM) of HS-1793 exerted a cytotoxic effect on murine breast cancer cells resulting in apoptosis. HS-1793-mediated cytotoxicity in FM3A cells by several apoptotic events including mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and PARP occurred. In addition, HS-1793 induced collapse of ∆Ψm and enhanced AIF and Endo G release from mitochondria while undergoing apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity by HS-1793 in FM3A cells can mainly be attributed to apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway by caspase activation or contributions of AIF and Endo G.
International Journal of Oncology 08/2012; 41(5):1628-34. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2012.1615 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunostimulating factor (ISTF) plays an important role in immunopathologic changes associated with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
where it is located in the outer cell membrane. We describe a novel method by which ISTF can be monitored using a protein
chip system based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The affinity of ISTF to its monoclonal antibodies and other proteins
was compared. In fabrication of an ISTF immunosensor, a calixcrown ether monolayer was anchored onto a gold surface for
use as an artificial protein linker system, and then characterized by Fourier Transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy,
atomic force microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Anti-ISTF was immobilized onto the monolayer, and the interaction between
ISTF and its antibodies was investigated by SPR. The calixcrown ether was found to assemble as a monolayer on the gold
surface. Orientation and accessibility of anti-ISTF were assessed by the selective binding of ISTF. Modification of the SPR
chip with the calixcrown monolayer provides a reliable and simple experimental platform for investigation of isolated proteins
under experimental conditions resembling those of their native environment.
FigureSchematic diagram of sensor chip configuration
KeywordsImmunostimulating factor (ISTF), Calixarene crown ether–Prolinker™–Self-assembled monolayer (SAM)–Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aims to evaluate Cordyceps militaris water extract (CMWE) with a view to develop melanogenesis inhibitors. Inhibitory activities of CMWE against tyrosinase, L-DOPA(L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) oxidation, and melanin biosynthesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated. CMWE, at , inhibited tyrosinase activity of 71% and DOPA oxidation of 40% as reacting with L-DOPA. Furthermore, B16 mouse melanoma cell survived over 50% from low to high dose on MTT assay, and CMWE markedly inhibited (> 50%) melanin synthesis at . The inhibitory effect of CMWE on melanogenesis was attributed to enhancement of tyrosinase degradation. Key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis is tyrosinase which catalyses a beginning step from tyrosine to DOPA quinine and melanin formation step, respectively. These results indicated that CMWE may be a potential source of novel whitening agents for cosmetic or therapeutic application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GABA-producing lactic acid bacteria were isolated from kimchi and salt-fermented Jot-gal, which are traditional Korean fermented foods. The strain, BJ-20, isolated from salt-fermented Jot-gal (cod gut), possessed the highest GABA-producing ability in MRS broth with 1% monosodium glutamate (MSG), as determined by thin layer chromatography. The BJ-20 strain was identified as Lactobacillus brevis and designated as L. brevis BJ20. A sea tangle solution was fermented over 5 days to produce GABA using L. brevis BJ20. During fermentation, the GABA concentration dramatically increased, while the glutamic acid concentration decreased. This result indicates that the glutamic acid was converted to GABA by L. brevis BJ20 in the fermented sea tangle solution. Furthermore, the fermented solution exhibited strong antioxidant activities, such as DPPH scavenging, superoxide scavenging, and xanthine oxidase inhibition, which were higher than those of BHA as a positive control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative, nonmotile coccobacillus bacterium that is associated with several human diseases, including endocarditis, meningitis, osteomyelitis, subcutaneous abscesses and periodontal diseases. A full-length Omp1-like protein gene from A. actinomycetemcomitans was cloned into a pQE30 vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. The protein revealed sequence homologies to Seventeen kilodalton proteins (Skp) from Pasteurella multocida and E. coli that have been characterized as periplasmic chaperones. This soluble Omp1-like protein was successfully purified to homogeneity for further folding and functional studies. The purity, identity, and conformation of the protein were determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopic, and differential scanning calorimetric studies. We showed that the protein formed an oligomer larger than a tetramer. We found, further, that it is comprised of mostly -helices and boasts high thermal stability.
Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 02/2010; 31(2):275-280. DOI:10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.02.275 · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sea tangle has long been used as Korean folk remedy to promote material health, and is one of the popular dietary supplement. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of fermented sea tangle (FST) against ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with FST (25, 250, 2500 mg/kg/day) with administration of ethanol (5 mL/kg) for 13 weeks and the single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 50% CCl(4) (5 mL/kg/day, CCl(4) in olive oil) at 12 week, and repeated i.p. dose of 20% CCl(4) (2 mL/kg/day) for 1 week. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the tissue levels of antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Ethanol and CCl(4)-induced the rat liver damage, and significantly increased (p<0.05) the GPT, gamma-GT and MDA levels, and decreased the SOD, CAT and GPx levels. However, treatment with FST could decrease serum GPT, gamma-GT, and MDA levels significantly in plasma, and increase the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in liver tissues compared with ethanol and CCl(4)-treated group.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2010; 48(4):1123-8. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2010.02.006 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Gram-negative bacteria, type I protein secretion systems and tripartite drug efflux pumps have a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP) as an essential component. MFPs bridge the outer membrane factor and an inner membrane transporter, although the oligomeric state of MFPs remains unclear. The most characterized MFP AcrA connects the outer membrane factor TolC and the resistance-nodulation-division-type efflux transporter AcrB, which is a major multidrug efflux pump in Escherichia coli. MacA is the periplasmic MFP in the MacAB-TolC pump, where MacB was characterized as a macrolide-specific ATP-binding-cassette-type efflux transporter. Here, we report the crystal structure of E. coli MacA and the experimentally phased map of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans MacA, which reveal a domain orientation of MacA different from that of AcrA. Notably, a hexameric assembly of MacA was found in both crystals, exhibiting a funnel-like structure with a central channel and a conical mouth. The hexameric MacA assembly was further confirmed by electron microscopy and functional studies in vitro and in vivo. The hexameric structure of MacA provides insight into the oligomeric state in the functional complex of the drug efflux pump and type I secretion system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TolC is an outer membrane porin protein and an essential component of drug efflux and type-I secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria. TolC comprises a periplasmic alpha- helical barrel domain and a membrane-embedded beta-barrel domain. TdeA, a functional and structural homolog of TolC, is required for toxin and drug export in the pathogenic oral bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Here, we report the expression of the periplasmic domain of TdeA as a soluble protein by substitution of the membraneembedded domain with short linkers, which enabled us to purify the protein in the absence of detergent. We confirmed the structural integrity of the TdeA periplasmic domain by size-exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electron microscopy, which together showed that the periplasmic domain of the TolC protein family can fold correctly on its own. We further demonstrated that the periplasmic domain of TdeA interacts with peptidoglycans of the bacterial cell wall, which supports the idea that completely folded TolC family proteins traverse the peptidoglycan layer to interact with inner membrane transporters.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 05/2008; 18(5):845-51. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the single dose toxicity and the protective effect of water extract of Cordyceps militaris grown upon Protaetia dreujtarsis (CMPD extract) on liver damage on carbon tetrachloride ()- induced acute hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The CMPD extract was once administered orally to both sexes of rats at dose of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the recommended maximum limit dose for acute toxicity. Neither significant toxic signs nor death was observed during the observation period. These results indicate that (lethal dose of 50%) of CMPD extract is greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight in SD rats. To investigate also the effect of hepatoprotection of CMPD extract, SD rats were orally treated with CMPD extract (50, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight) or silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight) before and after administration of (2 mL/kg body weight, 20% in olive oil). Treatment with CMPD extract or silymarin could decrease the GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) levels in serum when compared with -treated group. Therefore, the results of this study show that CMPD extract can be proposed to protect the liver against -induced hepatic damage in rats.
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 01/2008; 40(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunostimulating factor (ISTF) isolated from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans which has been described previously, is distinct from lipopolysaccharide and induces proliferation of B cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether ISTF might enhance the stimulation of other immune cells. Immunohistochemically, ISTF exhibited a profound stimulating effect on macrophages and dendritic cells as well as B cells in the spleen of BALB/c mice. ISTF was also recognized for its capacity to induce direct activation of mouse macrophages to produce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and NO and MHC class II expression. Therefore, it is postulated that ISTF stimulates macrophages and possibly other cells to produce a wide variety of proinflammatory mediators, which may be involved in the chronicity and tissue destruction of periodontal disease.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2006; 50(7):535-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2006.tb03823.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris is famous for its medicinal efficacies. It has been reported to have various pharmacological activities such as anti-tumour, insecticidal, antibacterial, immunomodulatory and antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effect of the extract of C. militaris (MPUN8501), which was identified by the analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 5.8S ribosomal RNA, on the function of liver. C. militaris powder was extracted using hot water extracts method as time, volume and temperature and using method as differential polarity of organic solvent. Each fraction was tested for the improvement of hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. The BuOH extracts (CME) had highest activity which was used for the test of toxicity and efficacy of C. militaris. The enhancing effect of CME on the activity of ADH and ALDH was much more than medicine, drink, natural tea etc. Thus CME promoted the resolution of alcohol and acetaldehyde in rats, inducing recovery to normal condition rapidly. Furthermore, oral administration of CME effectively protected the carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury as revealed by the hematological parameters (levels of sGOT and sGPT) and histological observation. CME was ascertained to be safe by regulatory toxicity studies of single dose toxicity and genotoxicity. These results suggest that CME would be useful for the maintaining normal hepatic activity as a functional health food.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that herbimycin A (HMA) alters the mode of cell death of K562 cells induced by radiation and enhanced their radiosensitivity. In the present study, we explored the apoptosis-inducing activity of HMA and the fundamental mechanism via which it regulates radiation-induced cell death.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K562 was used. For X-irradiation and drug treatment, cells were plated at approximately 2x10(5) cells/ml. Exponentially growing cells were treated with 10 Gy of X-ray using a 6-MeV X-ray machine at a dose rate of 200-300 cGy/min. The cells were treated with 0.25 microM HMA immediately after irradiation and HMA remained for the entire culture period. The modes of cell death were discriminated by morphological changes, analysis of cell cycle, analysis of the mitochondrial events, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.
Our data demonstrates that radiation induced a significant time-dependent increase of cell death and failed to sustain a prolonged G2 arrest in K562 cells. Radiation-induced cell death caused the accumulation of cyclinB1 and weak nuclear fragmentation, suggesting a mitotic catastrophe. This mitotic catastrophe was dependent upon the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening and was independent of caspase-3. In contrast, K562 cells treated with radiation and HMA had an accelerated cell death and induced a p53-independent apoptosis. This apoptotic pathway was dependent upon an initial hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, following the release of cytochrome c and subsequent caspase-3 activation.
Two mechanisms of radiation-induced cell death in K562 cells, mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis, are regulated through distinct pathways, mitochondria and caspase-independent and -dependent, respectively. The findings of this study may provide new insights into improving the efficiency of radiotherapy in CML patients.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 08/2005; 81(7):531-43. DOI:10.1080/09553000500303773 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the modulation of water reabsorption in mammalian kidney. In addition to short-term regulation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) trafficking, AVP also has long-term effects to regulate the expression of AQP2 in renal collecting duct. However, the detailed mechanism of the long-term effects of AVP in kidney remains to be elucidated. We have searched for genes induced by AVP using the polymerase chain reaction-based suppression subtractive hybridization technique in AVP-responsive AQP2-transfected MDCK cells. We found that the expression of the genes such as VIP17/MAL, annexin II, stimulatory GTP binding protein, tubulin, and mitochondrial ATP synthase was induced by AVP treatment for 4h. These results suggest that AVP might induce the expression of several genes related to the apical targeting of newly synthesized AQP2 as well as that of AQP2 for the long-term modification of water permeability in renal collecting duct.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2004; 324(4):1234-41. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.185 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been demonstrated that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitor or statin can regulate the thrombogenesis beyond its lipid lowering effect. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effect of statin to reduce the platelet P-selectin expression in atherosclerotic ischemic stroke. Thirty-two (28 men, 4 women; mean age 59.8 +/- 9.6 years) patients with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke were assigned to receive simvastatin 20 mg per day for 12 weeks and discontinued for another 12 weeks. Then, administration of simvastatin was discontinued for the following 12 weeks. Using whole blood flow cytometry, we evaluated the change of platelet P-selectin expression of all the patients after the 12-weeks use and the 12-weeks discontinuance of simvastatin. The platelet P-selectin expression was significant reduced after treatment of simvastatin 20 mg for 12 weeks (p < 0.001). However, the effect of statin to reduce platelet P-selectin expression disappeared after 12 weeks of cessation of statin. In addition, the P-selectin changes induced by statin were independent of the changes of the LDL cholesterol (r = -0.311, p = 0.386). This study demonstrated that the use of statin might be a helpful add-on therapy to regulate the platelet related thrombogenesis in atherosclerotic ischemic stroke.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 09/2004; 18(1):39-42. DOI:10.1007/s11239-004-0172-1 · 2.17 Impact Factor