[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organochlorines such as PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB were determined in pooled whole body homogenized of fish samples collected from five locations during 1998 and 2003 in order to understand their contamination status, temporal and spatial variation in Indonesian waters. PCBs and DDTs were the predominant contaminants with concentrations from 9.7 to 2700 ng/g lipid wt. and 12 to 1100 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, while HCHs (nd-24 ng/g lipid wt.), CHL compounds (nd-81 ng/g lipid wt.) and HCB (0.22-28 ng/g lipid wt.) were one to two orders of magnitude lower. Among the locations, PCBs and CHLs were higher in the samples from highly industrialized and thickly populated-locations, whereas OC pesticides such as DDTs and HCHs were particularly more prominent in suburban and rural areas. Levels of OCs observed in the waters surrounding Java Island were higher than those in Sumatra Island, implying significant use of OCs in highly populated Java Island. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in fish from Jakarta Bay were significantly lower in the samples collected in 2003 as compared to fish in 1998, indicating decreasing trend of these compounds in the Indonesian environment. Recent estimated average daily intakes of PCBs (0.81 microg/person/day), DDTs (1.1 microg/person/day), HCHs (0.018 microg/person/day), CHLs (0.010 microg/person/day) were much lower than the threshold values recommended by various agencies, suggesting minimal risk of this compound via fish ingestion to Indonesians.
Environment International 09/2007; 33(6):750-8. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2007.02.009 · 5.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High concentration of mercury (Hg) in hair has been reported for Cambodians. To confirm the Hg contamination occurring through intake, Hg concentrations were determined in both hair and blood of residents (n=20) from Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Mercury concentrations in the hair and blood were 0.69-190microg g(-1) dry wt and 5.2-58microg l(-1), respectively, which were lower than those from Hg contaminated or high fish intake regions, but were higher than those from non-contaminated regions. Some female subjects had hair and blood Hg levels exceeding the threshold values for neurotoxic effects. Interestingly, serum estrone and estradiol levels were positively correlated with blood Hg level for both males and females, indicating possible induction of female hormones by Hg exposure in Cambodians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, were examined for inhabitants of the Mekong Basin in Kratie Province, Cambodia. Also, the arsenic levels of tube-well water were determined. Total arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from <1 to 886 microg L(-1), and 44.8% of these exceeded the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 microg L(-1). Elevated levels of arsenic were observed in the human hair and urine, and also a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentrations in hair and urine. These results suggest that the inhabitants are chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking the tube-well water. Levels of urinary 8-OHdG were higher for the subjects with higher arsenic levels in hair and urine, suggesting that induction of oxidative DNA damage was caused by chronic exposure to arsenic in tube-well water for the inhabitants in Kratie Province. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the oxidative DNA damage caused by chronic exposure to arsenic in groundwater for the inhabitants in Cambodia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190mug/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50mug/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10mug/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96mug/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs)--such as polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls--were found in human breast milk from women living near dumping sites of municipal waste and reference sites in India, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines during 1999 to 2000. DRCs were detected in all human breast milk samples analyzed, demonstrating that residents in these Asian developing countries have been exposed to these contaminants. In India, the concentrations of DRCs in human breast milk from women living near the investigated dumping site were notably higher than those from women living near reference sites and from women in other Asian developing countries. Toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) levels of DRCs were comparable with or higher than those reported in the general populations of developed countries since 1990. In contrast, levels of these contaminants in human breast milk in women from Cambodia and Vietnam were not significantly different between milk from women living near the dumping and reference sites. These results indicate that significant pollution sources for DRCs are present in Indian dumping sites and that residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants. TEQ levels in human breast milk from the dumping site in India tended to decrease with an increase in the number of previous deliveries by mothers, whereas no significant relationship was observed in Cambodia, Vietnam, or the Philippines. This suggests that mothers who have been exposed to relatively high levels of DRCs transfer greater amounts of these contaminants to the first infant than later ones through breast-feeding, which in turn implies that the first children of these mothers might be at higher risk from DRCs. When the residue levels of DRCs in bovine milk collected from the Indian dumping site and reference sites were examined, TEQ levels in bovine milk from the dumping site were higher than those from reference sites. This result suggests that bovine milk is a potential source of DRCs for residents living near the dumping site in India. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study on exposure to DRCs of residents living in proximity to open dumping sites of municipal waste in Asian developing countries.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 11/2004; 47(3):414-26. DOI:10.1007/s00244-004-3172-4 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study determined the concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) in human breast milk from Cambodia. DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and TCPMe were detected in almost all the human breast milk samples analyzed, and the concentrations ranged from 310 to 11,000, 6.0 to 87, <0.12 to 21, <0.12 to 8.1, <0.12 to 5.3, and 2.9 to 70 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. TCPMOH was detected in only 10 among 36 samples. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from Cambodia were notably higher than those from developed countries and comparable to those from other developing countries, where usage of DDT for agricultural and public health purposes has been suspected to be continuing still, implying the recent usage of DDT in Cambodia. On the other hand, concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and CHLs in human breast milk from Cambodia were 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those from other countries, indicating that Cambodia is one of the less contaminated countries by these OCs. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe in Cambodian residents. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk tended to decrease with an increase in the number of children, implying that the first infant would be exposed to higher levels of OCs from breast milk and might be at higher risk by these contaminants, especially DDTs in Cambodia. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study on the residue levels of OCs in human breast milk from Cambodia.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 04/2004; 46(3):405-12. DOI:10.1007/s00244-003-3008-7 · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Green lipped mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected from seven locations along the east coast of China in September and October 2001. The mussel tissues were analyzed for metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg), and trace organic contaminants including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; based on 24 individual PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Maximum concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg in the mussel tissues were 0.14, 26.76, 5.31, 15.72, 4.78, 2.93, 7.40, 231.0, 54.17, 1002 and 317.3 microg/g dry weight respectively. Levels of DDTs, PAHs, PCBs and PHCs in the mussel samples were 14-640, 456-3495, 1-13 ng/g and 621-2863 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Results of this study indicated that contaminant levels were, in general, higher or at least comparable to those reported in other local or regional studies. Mussel samples collected in Chongming Dao in Shanghai and Jiao Zhou Wan in Qingdao had significantly higher levels of metal and trace organic contaminants among the seven sampling stations. Examination of the contaminant profiles suggests that PHCs originated from petrogenic sources, while both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources were important for PAHs. The generally high levels of metals and organochlorine compounds are probably the result of increasingly intense industrial activities along the east coast of China. An assessment of potential risks to human health due to consumption of the mussels was undertaken for the metals, PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes, and the results indicated that all metals, except Ni, could pose a health risk to heavy seafood consumers, while Hg appears to be of concern even for low level consumers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to 31,000 ng/g on lipid weight basis, followed by PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, dieldrin, TCPMOH, and heptachlor epoxide in order. The concentrations of OCs in beluga (Huso huso) were the highest among all the five species. When comparing residue levels among same species, OC residues were highest in sturgeons from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan and lowest in Turkmenistan. However, the concentrations of HCHs, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide in sturgeons showed less geographical variability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open landfill dumping areas for municipal wastes in Asian developing countries have recently received particular attention with regard to environmental pollution problems. Because of the uncontrolled burning of solid wastes, elevated contamination by various toxic chemicals including dioxins and related compounds in these dumping sites has been anticipated. In this study, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam. Residue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in dumping site soils were apparently greater than those in soils collected in agricultural or urban areas far from dumping sites, suggesting that dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds. Observed PCDD/F concentrations in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines and Cambodia were comparable or higher than those reported for dioxin-contaminated locations in the world (e.g., near the municipal waste incinerators and open landfill dumping sites). Homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in dumping site soils from the Philippines and, to a lesser extent, from Cambodia and India reflected patterns of samples representing typical emissions, while profiles of agricultural or urban soils were similar to those of typical environmental sinks. This result suggests recent formation of PCDD/Fs in dumping site areas and that open dumping sites are a potential source of dioxins in Asian developing countries. Uncontrolled combustions of solid wastes by waste pickers, generation of methane gas, and low-temperature burning can be major factors for the formation of dioxins in dumping sites. Elevated fluxes of PCDD/Fs to soils in dumping sites were encountered in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi, and these levels were higher than those reported for other countries. Considerable loading rates of PCDD/Fs in the dumping sites of these countries were observed, ranging from 20 to 3900 mg/yr (0.12-35 mg TEQ/yr). PCDD/F concentrations in some soil samples from the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi exceeded environmental guideline values, suggesting potential health effects on humans and wildlife living near these dumping sites. The estimated intakes of dioxins via soil ingestion and dermal exposure for children were higher than those for adults, suggesting greater risk of dioxin exposure for children in dumping sites. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study on PCDD/Fs contamination in open dumping sites of Asian developing countries. On the basis of the result of this study, we have addressed a new environmental issue that open dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds, and dioxin contamination in dumping sites may become a key environmental problem in developing countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of tin accumulation in mussels. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on butyltin pollution monitoring in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT compounds (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexanes) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in 27 species of marine and freshwater fish collected from Cambodia. DDT and its derivatives were the predominantly detected compounds in both marine and freshwater fish. PCBs were the second highest followed by HCHs, CHLs and HCB. Freshwater fish contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those of marine fish, implying that the sources of DDTs originate from inland watersheds such as the Mekong River, Basac River, Tonlesap River and Tonlesap Great Lake. Comparison of the OCs residue levels in Cambodian fish with those in other Asian and Oceanic regions suggested that Cambodia is one of the less-contaminated countries by OCs. In other words, it can be concluded that Cambodia has kept “Clean Environment” among Asian and Oceanic countries.