Kimberly Shipman

University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (22)41.87 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Children’s Worry Management Scale (CWMS). The CWMS has three subscales that specify methods of regulating worry: inhibition (the suppression of worry), dysregulation (exaggerated displays of worry), and coping (constructive ways of managing worry). Using a Caucasian, middle-class sample of 214 children (M=9years, 1month), Study 1 provides reliability and validity data through patterns of correlations to parent- and child-completed measures of emotion management and behavioral problems. Internal consistencies range from .69 to .74. Study 2 establishes discriminant validity by demonstrating that the CWMS Dysregulation and Coping subscales differentiated, in the expected directions, between a group of children (n=27) with DSM-IV anxiety diagnoses and a control group of children with no psychological disorders. KeywordsWorry-Emotion regulation-Coping-Inhibition-Dysregulation
    Journal of Child and Family Studies 01/2010; 19(4):381-392. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study offered an initial investigation into parent–child communication about interparental conflict and its relation to children’s psychological functioning. Seventy-five predominantly African-American children ages 6–12 and their mothers were interviewed. Children listened to an unresolved interparental conflict and answered questions regarding the frequency and content of mother–child communication as if the conflict had occurred in their home. Descriptives of mother-and child-initiated discussions were provided in detail. Children who expected mothers to initiate discussions about interparental conflict with them were in turn more likely to initiate discussions with their mothers. Surprisingly, less than half of mothers were reported by children to communicate in a validating manner, and an equal number of children expected their mothers to communicate in an invalidating manner. Findings demonstrated significant relations between the content of mother–child communication (i.e., validation, invalidation) and children’s adjustment (e.g., externalizing problems, depression). Future directions are discussed with an emphasis on the importance of further “process-oriented” research.
    Journal of Family Violence 07/2007; 22(6):407-412. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother–child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother–child dyads participated in the parent–child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal validation and invalidation in response to children's emotion. Mothers were also interviewed about their approach to emotion socialization using the meta-emotion interview-parent version (Katz & Gottman, 1999). The meta-emotion interview-parent version was coded for maternal emotion coaching. Mothers also completed measures that assessed their child abuse potential and abuse-related behaviors as well as children's emotion regulation. Findings indicated that maltreated children demonstrated fewer adaptive emotion regulation skills and more emotion dysregulation than non-maltreated children. In addition, maltreating mothers engaged in less validation and emotion coaching and more invalidation in response to children's emotion than non-maltreating mothers. Finally, maternal emotion socialization behaviors mediated the relation between maltreatment status and children's adaptive emotion regulation skills.
    Review of Social Development 04/2007; 16(2):268 - 285. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary goal of this pilot study was to examine emotion management skills (i.e., emotional understanding, emotion regulation) in children who had experienced neglect and a control group to determine the ways that neglect may interfere with children's emotional development. Participants included children 6--12 years of age and their mothers (neglect group, N=24; control, N=24). Participants completed questionnaires and an interview that assessed children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation. Findings indicated that neglected children, compared to their non-maltreated peers, demonstrated lower understanding of negative emotions (i.e., anger, sadness) and fewer adaptive emotion regulation skills. Further, neglected children expected less support and more conflict from mothers in response to displays of negative emotion and reported that they were more likely to attempt to inhibit the expression of negative emotion. Findings suggest that neglect may interfere with the normal acquisition of emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills, highlighting the importance of addressing these skills in the context of clinical intervention with neglected children.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 10/2005; 29(9):1015-29. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly Shipman, Renee Schneider, Chandler Sims
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants consisted of both boys (64%) and girls (36%) and ranged from 6 to 12 years of age. Findings indicated maltreatment negatively predicted maternal support and positively predicted children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Further, maternal support negatively predicted children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Finally, maternal support partially mediated the relation between maltreatment and internalizing problems. No mediation was indicated for externalizing difficulties. Findings suggest that a lack of maternal support in response to children's emotion is particularly important to the development of children's internalizing behavior problems.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 10/2005; 34(3):590-6. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    Anna Edwards, Kimberly Shipman, Amy Brown
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of maternal socialization (i.e., maternal support, discussion of emotion, negative affect) on children's emotional understanding in 24 neglectful mother-child dyads and a matched control group. Mothers and children were administered an interaction task. Mothers were also assessed for negative emotional experience, and children were assessed for emotional understanding and expectations of maternal support. Findings indicated that neglectful mothers, compared with nonneglectful mothers, provided less support in response to their children's emotional displays, engaged in less emotional discussion, and reported more negative emotion. As well, neglected children demonstrated lower levels of emotional understanding than nonmaltreated children. Further, maternal support mediated the relation between neglect and children's emotional understanding. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context and socialization on children's emotional understanding.
    Child Maltreatment 09/2005; 10(3):293-304. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) perceive themselves as less competent mothers and report greater parenting difficulties than nonabused women, few investigators have actually observed the parenting behaviors of CSA survivors. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether incest history was related to maternal perceptions of parenting efficacy and interactional patterns with their children. The secondary aim of this study was to explore the constructs of internal working models of relationships and maternal psychological adjustment as potential mediators of the relation between incest history and parenting. A community sample of 17 incest survivors, 18 nonabused women and their 3-6 year-old children participated. Mothers completed self-report measures of parenting efficacy, parental bonding (i.e., internal working models of relationships), and psychological adjustment. In addition, mothers interacted with their children in a problem-solving task. Although incest survivors reported less parenting self-efficacy than did nonabused mothers, their interactional styles with their children were positive overall and comparable to those of nonabused mothers. Specifically, survivors displayed moderate to high levels of support, assistance, and confidence, and their children showed high levels of affection towards their mothers. Incest survivors reported less bonding with their own mothers in childhood and poorer current psychological adjustment. Findings suggest that incest survivors' perceptions of their parenting abilities may be more negative than their actual parenting behaviors.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 07/2005; 29(6):661-81. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    Kelly Champion, Eric Vernberg, Kimberly Shipman
    Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 01/2004; 25(5):625. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly Shipman, Renee Schneider, Amy Brown
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in emotion and emotion regulation has burgeoned in the past two decades, particularly with regard to the development of emotional competence and the role that emotion may play in facilitating psychosocial adjustment across the lifespan. Recent theory and research in this area highlights the importance of emotion to navigating interpersonal relationships and to organizing an individual's goal-related behavior. This emphasis on the adaptive functions of emotion reflects a shift from traditional emotion theories that viewed emotions as irrational feeling states with little or no influence on external events (Keltner & Gross 1999). The goal of this chapter is to examine the relation between emotion regulation (or dysregulation) and psychopathology within the context of functionalist theory. To do this, we will first present a theoretical discussion of the functional role of emotion. Next we will define the constructs of emotion regulation and dysregulation and discuss different avenues to emotion regulation (e.g., attentional control, expression management, coping). Finally, we will review the empirical literature that examines the links between emotion dysregulation and psychological symptomatology and discuss future directions for research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    01/2004;
  • Kelly Champion, Eric Vernberg, Kimberly Shipman
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-four early adolescents were selected and classified as nonbullying Victims (frequently bullied by peers but did not bully others) or Nonvictims (neither bullied others nor were targets of bullies) based on the distribution of victimization scores on a self-report questionnaire. These male and female students and a parent from each family completed questionnaires that assessed the students' victimization of self and others and social skills of cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Adolescents also reported their likely responses to potential interpersonal conflicts and characteristics of their friendships. Results suggest nonbullying victimized adolescents have subtle difficulties managing confrontation adaptively in a variety of contexts for peer interaction. Further research on interpersonal skills related to conflict management may help explain why some nonbullying adolescents are frequent targets of bullying while others are relatively free from victimization by peers.
    Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: The American Psychological Association (APA) has called for improving knowledge regarding child abuse and neglect among psychologists by increasing training. The present study examined the extent of child abuse training provided by APA-accredited doctoral programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology by surveying the training directors in 1992 and 2001. The survey assessed available coursework, practica, and research experience in the area of child maltreatment. Findings indicated that more than half of all programs cover child maltreatment in three or more courses, and most programs discuss child maltreatment in ethics/professional seminars. Most students have some exposure to clients with abuse-related problems, and some have opportunities to participate in maltreatment research. Nonetheless, training falls short of APA recommendations for minimal levels of competence in child maltreatment, with no change in training in the past decade. Recommendations for improving training include more discussion among program faculty, attention to essential competencies, and specific suggestions for developing interdisciplinary training.
    Child Maltreatment 09/2003; 8(3):211-7. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined emotion regulation skills in 22 sexually maltreated girls and 22 nonmaltreated girls between 6 and 12 years of age to determine how the experience of sexual maltreatment might interfere with normative emotional development. Findings indicated that sexually maltreated girls, compared to nonmaltreated peers, reported different goals (i.e., inhibiting emotion to avoid conflict vs. displaying emotion to rectify, a situation) for managing their emotional expressivity with their parents. They also reported expecting less support and more conflict from parents in response to emotional displays. Finally, maltreated girls expected less practical assistance from all social partners (i.e., mother, father, best friend) following their emotional displays. Surprisingly, however, there were no group differences in girls' ability to generate effective strategies for coping with emotionally arousing situations. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context (i.e., maltreating, nonmaltreating) in the development of children's emotion regulation skills.
    Child Maltreatment 09/2003; 8(3):163-72. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the influence of expressive strategies (i.e., verbal, facial, crying, sulking, and aggressive), emotion type (i.e., anger, sadness), social context (i.e., mother, father, best friend), age (i.e., 7, 10 years), and gender on 144 children's expectancies regarding interpersonal responses to their emotional expression. Participants included 72 boys and 72 girls, with an average age of 8 years and 10 months. Results indicate that children expect others to respond more positively to certain expressive strategies (e.g., verbal, facial) as compared to others (e.g., aggression) and that these expectancies vary as a function of the type of emotion experienced, the social context, age, and gender. Consistent with the functionalist approach to emotion, findings suggest that, through social interaction, children learn culturally appropriate strategies for emotional expression that facilitate their ability to elicit a desired response from social partners.
    Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 01/2003; 49(1):100-122.
  • Janice Zeman, Kimberly Shipman, Cynthia Suveg
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    ABSTRACT: Examined the relation between children's self-reported anger and sadness regulation and the presence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 121 boys and 106 girls in the fourth and fifth grades who completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), Emotion Expression Scale for Children (EESC), and Children's Emotion Management Scales (CSMS, CAMS) and rated each other on aggressive behavior. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that the inability to identify emotional states, the inhibition of anger, the dysregulation of anger and sadness, and the constructive coping with anger predicted internalizing symptoms. The dysregulated expression of sadness and constructive coping with anger were inversely related to externalizing symptoms.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 10/2002; 31(3):393-8. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • K L Shipman, J Zeman
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in 25 physically maltreating and 25 nonmaltreating mother-child dyads. Maltreating mothers and their 6- to 12-year-old children were recruited from two parenting programs affiliated with Children's Protective Services with a control group matched on race, SES, child gender, and child age. Children and their mothers were interviewed individually about their (a) management of emotional expression. (b) strategies for coping with emotional arousal, and (c) anticipated consequences following emotional displays. Compared to controls, maltreated children expected less maternal support in response to their emotional displays, reported being less likely to display emotions to their mothers, and generated fewer effective coping strategies for anger. Maltreating mothers indicated less understanding of children's emotional displays and fewer effective strategies for helping children to cope with emotionally arousing situations than nonmaltreating mothers. Further, findings indicated that maternal socialization practices (e.g., providing support in response to children's emotional display, generating effective coping strategies for their child) mediate the relation between child maltreatment and children's regulation of emotional expression and emotional arousal. These findings suggest that children's emotion regulation strategies are influenced by their relationship with their social environment (e.g.. physically maltreating, nonmaltreating) and that the experience of a physically maltreating relationship may interfere with children's emotional development.
    Development and Psychopathology 02/2001; 13(2):317-36. · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • Janice Zeman, Kimberly Shipman, Susan Penza-Clyve
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    ABSTRACT: Although sadness in children is a normal and transient experience, research has not investigated how children manage sadness. Understanding normative sadness management has important implications for helping children who exhibit maladaptive forms of emotional expression. The Children's Sadness Management Scale (CSMS) was developed to assess children's inhibition, dysregulated-expression, and coping with sadness experience and expression. Using multiple informants, reliability and validity were established based on a community sample of 227 fourth- and fifth-grade children's self-report, maternal report (N = 171), and peer ratings of behavior (N = 227). A three-factor solution was supported with strong internal consistency for the Inhibition scale and moderately strong internal consistency for the Emotion Regulation Coping and Dysregulated-Expression scales. Findings indicate that the CSMS provides a reliable and valid measure of normative sadness management.
    Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 01/2001; 25(3):187-205. · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly L. Shipman, Janice L. Zeman, Sheri Stegall
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    ABSTRACT: Examined emotion regulation decisions and outcome expectations following emotionally expressive behavior in fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders as a function of goals, age, and gender. Found that participants distinguished between vignettes characterized by prosocial versus self-protective goals. Goal type influenced emotional regulation decisions and expectations. Participants recognized importance of relationship with social partner when making emotion regulation decisions. (Author/KB)
    Child Study Journal. 12/2000;
  • K Shipman, J Zeman, S Penza, K Champion
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    ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated that children who experience familial sexual maltreatment are at risk for developing psychological difficulties characterized by emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Surprisingly, however, little attention has been directed toward identifying processes in emotional development that differ in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. From a developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined emotion management skills (i.e., emotional understanding, emotion regulation) in 21 sexually maltreated girls and their nonmaltreated peers to determine how the experience of sexual maltreatment may interfere with normative emotional development. Findings indicated that sexually maltreated girls, in comparison to their nonmaltreated peers, demonstrate lower emotional understanding and decreased ability to regulate their emotions in accordance with cultural expectations. Further, maltreated girls expected less emotional support and more relational conflict from parents in response to sadness displays and from parents and peers in response to anger displays. These findings will be discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context (e.g., maltreating, nonmaltreating) in the development of children's emotion management skills.
    Development and Psychopathology 02/2000; 12(1):47-62. · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • K L Shipman, J Zeman
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    ABSTRACT: Investigated emotional understanding in 22 physically maltreating mothers and their children and a matched control group to determine the ways in which a maltreating relationship may interfere with children's emotional development. Findings indicated that, when compared to controls, maltreating mothers were less likely to engage in discussion reflective of emotional understanding (e.g., causes and consequences of emotion) and maltreated children demonstrated lower levels of emotional understanding. Further, significant relations emerged between maternal behavior (e.g., discussion of emotion) and children's emotional understanding skills. Findings are discussed from the functionalist approach to emotional development, emphasizing the importance of social context in the development of children's emotional understanding skills. Potential clinical applications are also considered.
    Journal of clinical child psychology 10/1999; 28(3):407-17.
  • Janice Zeman, Kimberly Shipman
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of social context (mothers, fathers, best friends, medium friends) and type of negative affect (anger, sadness, pain) on 66 second-grade and 71 fifth-grade children's goals and strategies for affect regulation. Hypothetical vignette methodology was used. Results indicated that children perceived parents to be more accepting of emotional expressivity than peers. Children endorsed instrumental, prosocial, and rule-oriented goals and verbal regulation strategies more for anger and sadness than pain. Girls endorsed affective more than aggressive strategies, whereas the opposite pattern held for boys. Older children endorsed more regulation strategies than younger children.
    Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 08/1998; 22(3):141-165. · 1.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

505 Citations
41.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2010
    • University of Denver
      • Department of Psychology
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2004
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Social and Behavioral Sciences
      Tempe, AZ, United States
  • 2000–2003
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Psychology
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 1997–1998
    • University of Maine
      • Department of Psychology
      Orono, Minnesota, United States