Dieter Kirchner

Universität Ulm, Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (6)24.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Bcr-Abl translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11 ) defines a subgroup of ALL patients with a dismal prognosis despite the introduction of intensified induction and consolidation regimen. Although Bcr-Abl induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation has previously been shown, the role of NF-kappaB/Rel in Ph+ leukemia is unclear. Using DNA binding assays, we demonstrate constitutive NF-kappaB/Rel activity in nuclear extracts from Ph+ ALL blasts, whereas Ph- primary blast cells and B-precursor cell lines lack NF-kappaB/Rel activity. NF-kappaB/Rel activity was shown in the ela2 and the b2a2 subtypes. Constitutive NF-kappaB/Rel activity in Ph+ blasts is not due to elevated endogenous IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity as shown by immune complex kinase assays. Since NF-kappaB/Rel is a transcriptional regulator of inhibitors of apoptosis we examined the expression of anti-apoptotic genes known to be induced by NF-kappaB/Rel by real time PCR analysis. We found no induction of TRAFI, TRAF2, cIAPI, cIAP2, XIAP, A20 or Bfl/Al in Ph+ ALL samples as compared to Ph-negative ALL controls. In summary, constitutive NF-kappaB/Rel activation independent of endogenous IKK activation may be a common finding in Ph+ ALL. However, targets of NF-kappaB/Rel mediated transcriptional regulation in this disease remain to be identified.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 07/2004; 45(6):1181-4. DOI:10.1080/10428190310001657326 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the cytokine receptor CD30 is a typical feature of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL). CD30-induced effects have a great impact on cell activation and viability. Using Karpas 299 cells, we performed differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) to identify novel genes involved in CD30 signaling in ALCL. Activation of CD30 was induced by treatment with immobilized anti-CD30 antibody. RNA and protein expression were confirmed in different cell lines by Northern and Western blot analysis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis was applied to examine cell viability. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathways were blocked using a specific inhibitor. We found strongly enhanced expression of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis cIAP1 and cIAP2 in Karpas 299 cells stimulated with anti-CD30. Furthermore, we showed that CD30-regulated expression of cIAP1 and cIAP2 was mediated by NFkappaB. Induction of NFkappaB, cIAP1, and cIAP2 correlated with partial protection from apoptotic cell death caused by etoposide. Correspondingly, inhibition of the NFkappaB pathway not only prevented the prevalent antiapoptotic effects mediated by CD30, but even led to CD30-induced apoptosis. Finally, we found enhanced expression of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in several other ALCL cell lines and the HD-derived cell line HDLM-2 upon CD30 stimulation. Our results indicate that CD30-mediated protection from apoptosis is a common feature of CD30(+) cells. Therefore, CD30-induced signaling may have a significant impact on the clinical outcome of patients with ALCL.
    Experimental Hematology 05/2004; 32(4):382-9. DOI:10.1016/j.exphem.2004.01.003 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bcr-Abl constitutes a deregulated tyrosine kinase involved in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB/Rel has been demonstrated, mechanisms of NF-kappaB/Rel activation by Bcr-Abl remain obscure. In this paper we demonstrate activation of NF-kappaB/Rel by Bcr-Abl and for the first time by v-Abl. Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms of NF-kappaB/Rel induction by Bcr-Abl and v-Abl. Both Bcr-Abl and v-Abl induced NF-kappaB/Rel DNA binding in Ba/F3 cells. DNA binding was a result of nuclear translocation of p65/RelA, whereas p65/RelA expression was unaffected. Nuclear translocation of p65/RelA is at least partially due to increased IkappaBalpha degradation, which is independent of IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity. IKK activity is not deregulated by Bcr-Abl and v-Abl. NF-kappaB/Rel transactivation was dependent on abl kinase activity but independent of Grb2 and Grb10 binding tobcr sequences. In addition, NF-kappaB/Rel activation was dependent on Ras activity. Primary CML blasts showed constitutive p65/RelA NF-kappaB/Rel DNA binding activity. Thus NF-kappaB/Rel represents a potential target for molecular therapies in CML.
    Experimental Hematology 07/2003; 31(6):504-11. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bcr-Abl constitutes a deregulated tyrosine kinase involved in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although activation of the transcription factor NF-κB/Rel has been demonstrated, mechanisms of NF-κB/Rel activation by Bcr-Abl remain obscure. In this paper we demonstrate activation of NF-κB/Rel by Bcr-Abl and for the first time by v-Abl. Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms of NF-κB/Rel induction by Bcr-Abl and v-Abl. Both Bcr-Abl and v-Abl induced NF-κB/Rel DNA binding in Ba/F3 cells. DNA binding was a result of nuclear translocation of p65/RelA, whereas p65/RelA expression was unaffected. Nuclear translocation of p65/RelA is at least partially due to increased IκBα degradation, which is independent of IκB kinase (IKK) activity. IKK activity is not deregulated by Bcr-Abl and v-Abl. NF-κB/Rel transactivation was dependent on abl kinase activity but independent of Grb2 and Grb10 binding tobcr sequences. In addition, NF-κB/Rel activation was dependent on Ras activity. Primary CML blasts showed constitutive p65/RelA NF-κB/Rel DNA binding activity. Thus NF-κB/Rel represents a potential target for molecular therapies in CML.
    Experimental Hematology 06/2003; 31(6):504-511. DOI:10.1016/S0301-472X(03)00069-9 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is characterized by a resistance toward apoptosis-inducing agents. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/Rel has been shown to regulate the expression of antiapoptotic genes, such as members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) gene families. Expression and regulation of NF-kappaB/Rel-dependent inhibitors of apoptosis have not been collectively studied in B-CLL. We examined expression of known NF-kappaB/Rel-regulated antiapoptotic genes by RNAse protection assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting in patients with B-CLL. TRAF1 and to a lesser extent TRAF2 were overexpressed in B-CLL lymphocytes as compared with normal CD19(+) B cells. TRAF1 overexpression did not correlate with markers of disease progression or overall survival. Furthermore, we found high constitutive expression of the IAP genes c-IAP-1, c-IAP-2, and XIAP both in normal and B-CLL lymphocytes. Focusing on the regulation of TRAF1, NF-kappaB/Rel activity in B-CLL nuclear extracts was shown to bind to TRAF1 promoter elements. However, IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity was not increased in CLL lymphocytes as compared with normal CD19(+) B cells. The known IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine did not compromise TRAF1 expression. Thus, although our study revealed a common expression pattern of NF-kappaB/Rel-regulated inhibitors of apoptosis, our findings indicate an IKK-independent regulation of TRAF1 in B-CLL.
    Blood 12/2002; 100(10):3749-56. DOI:10.1182/blood.V100.10.3749 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of leukemia-associated antigens (LAA) eliciting an immune response in patients is a prerequisite for specific immunotherapy of leukemias. To identify new LAA, we used the method of serologic screening of cDNA expression libraries (SEREX). A SEREX library of the cell line K562 was subjected to allogeneic screening with sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) vs sera from healthy volunteers. The receptor for hyaluronan acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) involved in cell growth and metastasis was identified as a new LAA. Serologic responses to RHAMM were observed in patients with AML (42%), CML (31%), melanoma (83%), renal cell carcinoma (40%), breast cancer (67%), and ovarian carcinoma (50%), but not in HV or patients with autoimmune diseases. RHAMM mRNA was detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) of 60% of newly diagnosed AML patients. Western blotting stained positive for RHAMM protein in 70% of AML patients. mRNA expression of RHAMM also was found in patients with CML (40%), renal cell carcinoma (73%), breast carcinoma (60%), and ovarian carcinoma (50%). In melanoma, RHAMM mRNA expression was detected in metastases (80%) but not in primary tumors. RHAMM is differentially expressed: significant mRNA expression was not found in normal tissues, except from testis, placenta, and thymus, or in PBMN- and CD34-separated cell samples of healthy volunteers. RHAMM is an immunogenic antigen in leukemias and solid tumors and might be a potential target structure for cellular immunotherapies and antibody therapies.
    Experimental Hematology 10/2002; 30(9):1029-35. DOI:10.1016/S0301-472X(02)00874-3 · 2.81 Impact Factor