[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of S-linked palmitoylation of human apolipoprotein (apo) B in the assembly and secretion of very low density lipoproteins using recombinant human apoB48. There are four free cysteine residues (Cys(1085), Cys(1396), Cys(1478), and Cys(1635)) within apoB48 that potentially can be palmitoylated. All four cysteine residues were substituted with serine by site-specific mutagenesis. The mutant protein was expressed in transfected rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 cells. Metabolic labeling of the stably transfected cells with iodopalmitic acid analog showed that the mutant apoB48 lacked palmitoylation. The lack of palmitoylation had little impact on the ability of apoB48 to assemble and secrete very low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins. Immunocytochemistry experiments using confocal microscopy failed to reveal any major alterations in the intracellular distribution of the mutant apoB48 at steady state. Pulse-chase analysis combined with subcellular fractionation showed no apparent deficiency in the movement of the mutant apoB48 protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to cis/medial Golgi. However, the mutant apoB48 lacking palmitoylation showed retarded movement toward the distal Golgi and increased association (>2-fold) with the membranes of the secretory compartments. A marginal decrease (by 15-20%) in secretion efficiency as compared with that of wild type apoB48 was also observed. These results suggest that lack of palmitoylation may influence the partitioning of apoB48 between microsomal membranes and microsomal lumen, but it does not compromise the ability of apoB48 to assemble lipoproteins.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2003; 278(16):14153-61. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), an autosomal co-dominant disorder, is associated with reduced plasma concentrations (<5th percentile for age and sex) of apolipoprotein (apo) B and beta-migrating lipoproteins. To date, only mutations in APOB encoding prematurely truncated apoB have been found in FHBL. We discovered a novel APOB gene mutation, namely R463W, in an extended Christian Lebanese FHBL kindred. Heterozygotes for R463W had the typical FHBL phenotype, whereas homozygotes had barely detectable apoB-100. The effect of the R463W mutation on apoB secretion was examined using transfected McA-RH7777 cells that expressed one of two recombinant human apoBs, namely B48 and B17. In both cases, the mutant proteins (B48RW and B17RW) were retained within the endoplasmic reticulum and were secreted poorly compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pulse-chase analysis showed that secretion efficiencies of B48RW and B17RW were, respectively, 45 and 40% lower than those of the wild-types. Substitution of Arg(463) with Ala in apoB-17 (B17RA) decreased secretion efficiency by approximately 50%, but substitution with Lys (B17RK) had no effect on secretion, indicating that the positive charge was important. Molecular modeling of apoB predicted that Arg(463) was in close proximity to Glu(756) and Asp(456). Substitution of Glu(756) with Gln (B17EQ) had no effect on secretion, but substitution of Asp(456) with Asn (B17DN) decreased secretion to the same extent as B17RW. In co-transfection experiments, the mutant B17RW showed increased binding to microsomal triglyceride transfer protein as compared with wild-type B17. Thus, the naturally occurring R463W mutant reveals a key local domain governing assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(15):13442-52. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the role of N-linked glycosylation of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in the assembly and secretion of lipoproteins using transfected rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 cells expressing human apoB-17, apoB-37, and apoB-50, three apoB variants with different ability to recruit neutral lipids. Substituting Asn residue with Gln at the single glycosylation site within apoB-17 (N(158)) decreased its secretion efficiency to a level equivalent to that of wild-type apoB-17 treated with tunicamycin, but had little effect on its synthesis or intracellular distribution. When selective N-to-Q substitution was introduced at one or more of the five N-linked glycosylation sites within apoB-37 (N(158), N(956), N(1341), N(1350), and N(1496)), secretion efficiency of apoB-37 from transiently transfected cells was variably affected. When all five N-linked glycosylation sites were mutated within apoB-37, the secretion efficiency and association with lipoproteins were decreased by >50% as compared with wild-type apoB-37. Similarly, mutant apoB-50 with all of its N-linked glycosylation sites mutagenized showed decreased secretion efficiency and decreased lipoprotein association in both d < 1.02 and d > 1.02 g/ml fractions. The inability of mutant apoB-37 and apoB-50 to associate with very low-density lipoproteins was attributable to impaired assembly and was not due to the limitation of lipid availability. The decreased secretion of mutant apoB-17 and apoB-37 was not accompanied by accumulation within the cells, suggesting that the proportion of mutant apoB not secreted was rapidly degraded. However unlike apoB-17 or apoB-37, accumulation of mutant apoB-50 was observed within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments. These data imply that the N-glycans at the amino terminus of apoB play an important role in the assembly and secretion of lipoproteins containing the carboxyl terminally truncated apoB.
The Journal of Lipid Research 09/2002; 43(9):1496-507. · 4.73 Impact Factor