[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presenilins 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2, respectively) play a critical role in mediating gamma-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Numerous mutations in the presenilins are known to cause early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). In addition, it is well established that PS1 deficiency leads to altered intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis involving endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. However, there has been little evidence suggesting Ca(2+) signals from extracellular sources are influenced by PS1. Here we report that the Ca(2+) currents carried by voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels are increased in PS1-deficient cortical neurons. This increase is mediated by a significant increase in the contributions of L- and P-type Ca(2+) channels to the total voltage-mediated Ca(2+) conductance in PS1 (-/-) neurons. In addition, chelating intracellular Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) produced an increase in Ca(2+) current amplitude that was comparable to the increase caused by PS1 deficiency. In contrast to this, BAPTA had no effect on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) conductances in PS1-deficient neurons. These data suggest that PS1 deficiency may influence voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel function by means that involve intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. These findings reveal that PS1 functions at multiple levels to regulate and stabilize intracellular Ca(2+) levels that ultimately control neuronal firing behavior and influence synaptic transmission.
Journal of Neurophysiology 01/2006; 94(6):4421-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylcholine binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activates G-proteins, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates brain Na+ channels and reduces peak Na+ current in hippocampal neurons. Because multiple PKC isozymes with different regulatory properties are expressed in hippocampal neurons, we investigated which ones are responsible for mediating this effect. The diacylglycerol analog oleoylacetylglycerol (OAG) reduced the amplitude of Na+ current in dissociated mouse hippocampal neurons by 28.5 +/- 5.3% (p < 0.01). The reduction of peak Na+ current was similar with Ca2+-free internal solution and in 92 nm internal Ca2+, suggesting that calcium-dependent, conventional PKC isozymes were unlikely to mediate this response. Gö6976, which inhibits conventional PKC isozymes, reduced the effect of PKC activators only slightly, whereas rottlerin, which inhibits PKCdelta preferentially at 5 microm, had no effect. Ro-31-8425 (20 nm), which inhibits conventional PKC isozymes, did not reduce the response to OAG. However, higher concentrations of Ro-31-8425 (100 nm or 1 microm) that inhibit novel PKC isozymes effectively blocked OAG inhibition of Na+ current. Inclusion of a selective PKCepsilon-anchoring inhibitor peptide (PKCepsilon-I) in the recording pipette prevented the reduction of peak Na+ current by OAG, whereas an anchoring inhibitor peptide specific for PKCbeta and an inactive scrambled PKCepsilon-I peptide had no effect. In addition, OAG had no effect on Na+ current in hippocampal neurons from PKCepsilon null mice. Overall, our data from four experimental approaches indicate that anchored PKCepsilon is the isozyme responsible for PKC-mediated reduction of peak Na+ currents in mouse hippocampal neurons.
Journal of Neuroscience 01/2005; 25(2):507-13. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated Na+ channels are major targets of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-initiated signaling cascades. These cascades act principally through protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the channel alpha subunit. Phosphorylation reduces Na+ channel availability in most instances without producing major alterations of fast channel gating. The nature of this change in availability is poorly understood. The results described here show that both GPCR- and protein kinase-dependent reductions in Na+ channel availability are mediated by a slow, voltage-dependent process with striking similarity to slow inactivation, an intrinsic gating mechanism of Na+ channels. This process is strictly associated with neuronal activity and develops over seconds, endowing neurons with a novel form of cellular plasticity shaping synaptic integration, dendritic electrogenesis, and repetitive discharge.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of D1-like dopamine (DA) receptors reduces peak Na(+) current in hippocampal neurons voltage-dependent in a manner via phosphorylation of the alpha subunit. This modulation is dependent upon activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and requires phosphorylation of serine 573 (S573) in the intracellular loop connecting homologous domains I and II (L(I-II)) by PKA anchored to A kinase anchoring protein-15 (AKAP-15). Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) also reduces peak Na(+) currents and enhances the strength of the PKA modulatory pathway. Here we probe the molecular mechanism responsible for the convergent effects of PKA and PKC on brain Na(v)1.2a channels. Analysis of the interaction of AKAP-15 with the intracellular loops of the Na(v)1.2a channel shows that it binds to L(I-II), thereby targeting PKA directly to its sites of phosphorylation on the Na(+) channel by specific protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis and expression experiments indicate that reduction of peak Na(+) current by PKC requires S554 and S573 in L(I-II) in addition to S1506 in the inactivation gate. In addition, PKC-dependent phosphorylation of S576 in L(I-II) is necessary for enhancement of PKA modulation of brain Na(+) channels. When S576 is phosphorylated by PKC, the increase in modulation by PKA activation requires phosphorylation of S687 in L(I-II). Thus, the maximal modulation of these Na(+) channels by concurrent activation of PKA and PKC requires phosphorylation at four distinct sites in L(I-II): S554, S573, S576, and S687. This convergent regulation provides a novel mechanism by which information from multiple signaling pathways may be integrated at the cellular level in the hippocampus and throughout the central nervous system.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 10/2002; 21(1):63-80. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated Na+ channels set the threshold for action potential generation and are therefore good candidates to mediate forms of plasticity that affect the entire neuronal output. Although early studies led to the idea that Na+ channels were not subject to modulation, we now know that Na+ channel function is affected by phosphorylation. Furthermore, Na+ channel modulation is implicated in the control of input–output relationships in several types of neuron and seems to be involved in phenomena as varied as cocaine withdrawal, hyperalgesia and light adaptation. Here we review the available evidence for the regulation of Na+ channels by phosphorylation, its molecular mechanism, and the possible ways in which it affects neuronal function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of D1-like dopamine (DA) receptors reduces peak Na(+) current in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons via a modulatory mechanism involving phosphorylation of the Na(+) channel alpha subunit by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Peak Na(+) current is reduced 20-50% in the presence of the D1 agonist SKF 81297 or the PKA activator Sp-5,6-dichloro-l-beta-d-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothionate (cBIMPS). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that Na(+) channels are associated with PKA and A-kinase-anchoring protein 15 (AKAP-15), and immunocytochemical labeling reveals their co-localization in the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Anchoring of PKA near the channel by an AKAP, which binds the RII alpha regulatory subunit, is necessary for Na(+) channel modulation in acutely dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Intracellular dialysis with the anchoring inhibitor peptides Ht31 from a human thyroid AKAP and AP2 from AKAP-15 eliminated the modulation of the Na(+) channel by the D1-agonist SKF 81297 and the PKA activator cBIMPS. In contrast, dialysis with the inactive proline-substituted control peptides Ht31-P and AP2-P had little effect on the D1 and PKA modulation. Therefore, we conclude that modulation of the Na(+) channel by activation of D1-like DA receptors requires targeted localization of PKA near the channel to achieve phosphorylation of the alpha subunit and to modify the functional properties of the channel.
Journal of Neuroscience 10/1999; 19(17):RC21. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of D1-like dopamine (DA) receptors reduces peak Na 1 current in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons through phosphorylation of the a subunit of the Na 1 channel by cAMP- dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here we report that neuro- modulation of Na 1 currents by DA receptors via PKA is voltage-dependent in the range of 2110 to 270 mV and is also sensitive to concurrent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Depolarization enhanced the ability of D1-like DA receptors to reduce peak Na 1 currents via the PKA pathway. Similar voltage-dependent modulation was observed when PKA was activated directly with the membrane-permeant PKA activator DCl-cBIMPS (cBIMPS; 20 mM), indicating that the membrane potential dependence occurs downstream of PKA. PKA activa- tion caused only a small (22.9 mV) shift in the voltage depen- dence of steady-state inactivation and had no effect on slow inactivation or on the rates of entry into the fast or slow inac- tivated states, suggesting that another mechanism is respon- sible for coupling of membrane potential changes to PKA mod- ulation. Activation of PKC with a low concentration of the membrane-permeant diacylglycerol analog oleylacetyl glycerol also potentiated modulation by SKF 81297 or cBIMPS, and these effects were most striking at hyperpolarized membrane potentials where PKA modulation was not stimulated by mem- brane depolarization. Thus, activation of D1-like DA receptors causes a strong reduction in Na 1 current via the PKA pathway, but it is effective primarily when it is combined with depolariza- tion or activation of PKC. The convergence of these three distinct signaling modalities on the Na 1 channel provides an intriguing mechanism for integration of information from multi- ple signaling pathways in the hippocampus and CNS.
Journal of Neuroscience 08/1999; 19(13). · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated sodium channel is the site of action of more than six classes of neurotoxins and drugs that alter its function by interaction with distinct, allosterically coupled receptor sites. Batrachotoxin (BTX) is a steroidal alkaloid that binds to neurotoxin receptor site 2 and causes persistent activation. BTX binding is inhibited allosterically by local anesthetics. We have investigated the interaction of BTX with amino acid residues I1760, F1764, and Y1771, which form part of local anesthetic receptor site in transmembrane segment IVS6 of type IIA sodium channels. Alanine substitution for F1764 (mutant F1764A) reduces tritiated BTX-A-20-alpha-benzoate binding affinity, causing a 60-fold increase in Kd. Alanine substitution for I1760, which is adjacent to F1764 in the predicted IVS6 transmembrane alpha helix, causes only a 4-fold increase in Kd. In contrast, mutant Y1771A shows no change in BTX binding affinity. For wild-type and mutant Y1771A, BTX shifted the voltage for half-maximal activation approximately 40 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction and increased the percentage of noninactivating sodium current to approximately 60%. In contrast, these BTX effects were eliminated completely for the F1764A mutant and were reduced substantially for mutant I1760A. Our data suggest that the BTX receptor site shares overlapping but nonidentical molecular determinants with the local anesthetic receptor site in transmembrane segment IVS6 as well as having unique molecular determinants in transmembrane segment IS6, as demonstrated in previous work. Evidently, BTX conforms to a domain-interface allosteric model of ligand binding and action, as previously proposed for calcium agonist and antagonist drugs acting on L-type calcium channels.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1998; 95(23):13947-52. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of brain Na+ channel alpha subunits by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) decreases peak Na+ current in cultured brain neurons and in mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned brain Na+ channels. We have studied PKA regulation of Na+ channel function by activation of D1-like dopamine receptors in acutely isolated hippocampal neurons using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording techniques. The D1 agonist SKF 81297 reversibly reduced peak Na+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. No changes in the voltage dependence or kinetics of activation or inactivation were observed. This effect was mediated by PKA, as it was mimicked by application of the PKA activator Sp-5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole-3', 5'-monophosphorothioate(cBIMPS) and was inhibited by the specific PKA inhibitor peptide PKAI5-24. cBIMPS had similar effects on type IIA brain Na+ channel alpha subunits expressed in tsA-201 cells, but no effect was observed on a mutant Na+ channel alpha subunit in which serine residues in five PKA phosphorylation sites in the intracellular loop connecting domains I and II (LI-II) had been replaced by alanine. A single mutation, S573A, similarly eliminated cBIMPS modulation. Thus, activation of D1-like dopamine receptors results in PKA-dependent phosphorylation of specific sites in LI-II of the Na+ channel alpha subunit, causing a reduction in Na+ current. Such modulation is expected to exert a profound influence on overall neuronal excitability. Dopaminergic input to the hippocampus from the mesocorticolimbic system may exert this influence in vivo.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/1997; 17(19):7330-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of brain Na+ channels by protein kinase C (PKC) decreases peak Na+ current and slows macroscopic inactivation, but receptor-activated modulation of Na+ currents via the PKC pathway has not been demonstrated. We have examined modulation of Na+ channels by activation of muscarinic receptors in acutely-isolated hippocampal neurons using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording. Application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol reduced peak Na+ current and slowed macroscopic inactivation at all potentials, without changing the voltage-dependent properties of the channel. These effects were mediated by PKC, since they were eliminated when the specific PKC inhibitor (PKCI19-36) was included in the pipette solution and mimicked by the extracellular application of the PKC activator, OAG. Thus, activation of endogenous muscarinic receptors on hippocampal neurons strongly modulates Na+ channel activity by activation of PKC. Cholinergic input from basal forebrain neurons may have this effect in the hippocampus in vivo.