[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be the most economically important disease of swine worldwide. The appearance of highly pathogenic PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains in Europe and Asia has raised concerns about this disease and initiated increased efforts to understand the pathogenesis. In this study, we have compared the pathology and the virus distribution in tissues of pigs experimentally inoculated with three different genotype 1 PRRSV isolates. Sixty 5-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with a) the Lelystad virus (LV), b) a field strain from the UK causing respiratory clinical signs (UK) or c) a highly pathogenic strain from Belarus (BE). Sixteen animals were mock-infected and used as controls. The animals were euthanized at 3, 7 and 35 days post-infection (dpi), and lung and lymphoid tissues collected for histopathological examination and PRRSV detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Histopathological lesions consisted of interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cell infiltrates in the lungs, lymphoid depletion, apoptosis and follicular hyperplasia in the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsil and lymphoid depletion in the thymus. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was detected mainly in monocytes–macrophages. BE-infected animals showed the highest pathological scores and the highest presence of virus at 3 and 7 dpi, followed by the UK field strain and then LV. Moderate lesions were observed at 35 dpi with lesser detection of PRRSV by IHC in each infected group. The highly pathogenic BE strain induced more severe pathology in both lungs and lymphoid organs of pigs compared with the classic field isolate and the prototype LV. The increased severity of pathology was in correlation with the presence of a higher number of PRRSV-infected cells in the tissues.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 11/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude glycerin (Gly) added to nursery pig diet on nutrient digestibility, the digestive and metabolic status, intestinal morphology and intestinal cytokine expression. A total of 18 male piglets (weaned at 23 days) were used. There were three dietary treatments that differed in the inclusion level of Gly (0, 9 and 18%). On day 14 of the experiment, the animals were weighed and plasma samples were collected before slaughtering. In addition urine, digesta content and intestinal tissues were sampled post mortem. No differences were observed among the tested diets as regards the coefficients of apparent ileal digestibility of DM and CP. The concentration of lactic acid decreased linearly (P<0.05) in the jejunum and ileum segments as the level of Gly increased, although the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the cecum and colon were not affected. The plasma concentrations of glucose, fructosamine and IGF-1 were not affected. However, urinary glycerol concentrations increased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of Gly. In general, there were no differences in villus height, crypt depth, villus/crypt ratio or number of lymphocytes in the intestinal segments between the different treatments. Nevertheless, the control treatment produced a higher level of goblet cells in the ileum than either of the Gly treatments (P<0.01), while in the jejunum, the number of IgA-secreting cells in the 9% Gly group was higher (P<0.01) than in the control group. There were no differences among the experimental treatments concerning the gene expression of IL-10, IL-12 p40 and TNF-α. Gene expressions of TGF-β, IL-12 p35, IFN-γ and IFN-α were remained unaffected or increased, depending on the intestinal segment and level of Gly addition. In conclusion, the inclusion of Gly at 9 and 18% to the nursery pig diet did not affect nutrient digestibility or plasma metabolites but increased the levels of urinary glycerol, suggesting that metabolic pathways of glycerol utilization became saturated when high levels of Gly are used. In addition, the intestinal cell structure and intestinal cytokine expression might be affected when Gly is included in the feed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports the performance of the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay for M. bovis in a cattle herd with high prevalence of paratuberculosis (PTB). A total of 58/350 animals were selected for necropsy based on one or more of the following criteria: positive to SIT, IFN-γ, a breeding cow that seroconverted to PTB and showed signs compatible with a wasting disease. Infection status was determined by post mortem diagnostic tests that included histopathology examination and mycobacterial cultures coupled with PCR identification for M. bovis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In 7/58 animals primary tuberculosis (TB) lesions, affecting only the retropharyngeal and/or mediastinal lymph nodes, were found; 3/7 animals were found SIT positive. PTB was confirmed in 35/58 animals, of which 30 had seroconverted and 14 had typical clinical signs. 45/58 animals were IFN-γ+ using the most stringent criterion (cut-off point≥0.05); however, IFN-γ test was only positive in 33 animals when using a higher threshold (cut-off point≥0.1). Three animals co-infected also showed extensive TB and diffuse PTB lesions. These results show that the combined use of SIT and IFN-γ, as interpreted using official guidelines, detected all confirmed cases of TB. Individually, the sensitivity of the SIT was inadequate to diagnose TB-positive animals with an advanced stage of PTB. The large number of IFN-γ+ animals with no visible TB lesion could be due, in part, to some protection conferred by prior infection with MAP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine. PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in the pig is characterized by a weak or absent host innate immune response. The underlying mechanisms of PRRSV pathogenesis are still unclear. The analysis of transcript levels represents an alternative to immunoassays for the detection of cytokines that sometimes are difficult to detect due to their low amounts. This study sets out to determine the differences in pathogenesis and the immune response between lung, tonsil, tracheobronchial lymph node (Tb-LN) and retropharyngeal LN (Rf-LN) of PRRSV 2982 strain infected pigs. PRRSV strain 2982 avoided the onset of an effective innate immune response, especially in PRRSV main target (lung) and reservoir (tonsil) organs. PRRSV lead to an impaired expression of IFN-α and TNF-α gene expression, which finally induced a weak and delayed adaptive immune response trough an inefficient IL-12 and IFN-γ expression. Finally, PRRSV replication favoured the expression of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine in infected pigs.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages (MΦ) is essential to understand MΦ function. Consequently, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of IFN-γ (M1), IL-4 (M2) and IFN-β activation of MΦ on the susceptibility to genotype 1 and 2 porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) strains varying in virulence. To this end, monocyte-derived MΦ were generated by culture during 72h and polarization was induced for another 24h by addition of IFN-γ, IL-4 or IFN-β. MΦ were infected with a collection of PRRSV isolates belonging to genotype 1 and genotype 2. Undifferentiated and M2 MΦ were highly susceptible to all PRRSV isolates. In contrast, M1 and IFN-β activated MΦ were resistant to low pathogenic genotype 1 PRRSV but not or only partially to genotype 2 PRRSV strains. Interestingly, highly virulent PRRSV isolates of both genotypes showed particularly high levels of infection compared with the prototype viruses in both M1 and IFN-β-treated MΦ (p<0.05). This was seen at the level of nucleocapsid expression, viral titres and virus-induced cell death. In conclusion, by using IFN-γ and IFN-β stimulated MΦ it is possible to discriminate between PRRSV varying in genotype and virulence. Genotype 2 PRRSV strains are more efficient at escaping the intrinsic antiviral effects induced by type I and II IFNs. Our in vitro model will help to identify viral genetic elements responsible for virulence, an information not only important to understand PRRS pathogenesis but also for a rational vaccine design. Our results also suggest that monocyte-derived MΦ can be used as a PRRSV infection model instead of alveolar MΦ, avoiding the killing of pigs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents an optimized procedure for assessing an immune-mediated cytotoxicity, produced after the addition of human and baboon serum to transgenic porcine fibroblasts. This procedure is performed with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer (RTCA). The xCELLigence system measures the impedance variations in the culture media of a 96-well microelectronic plate, and shows the changes in cell number and morphology in a real-time plot. However, different factors need to be optimized before developing an RTCA assay. Thus, we studied the influence of several variables, such as the number of cells seeded, the time the cells were allowed to grow before the tests, the serum concentration and the addition of rabbit complement. The findings were confirmed by the WST-1 classical cytotoxicity test. The results showed that 7.5 × 10(3) cells seeded per well produced the adequate CI in 10 h. The area under the curve and the CImin versus concentration values showed a very high correlation index (r(2) = 0.966 and r(2) = 0.92 for the first 50 h after challenge, respectively), proving that CI variations are directly proportional to the quantity of serum added. The addition of complement resulted in lower CImin values. Therefore, both the cytolysis level with and without exogenous complement addition had to be assessed. There was a high correlation between the relative cytotoxicity assessed by WST-1 and the CI obtained by RTCA when exogenous complement was not added (r(2) = 0.827; p < 0.001). The correlation was average when rabbit complement was added (r(2) = 0.523; p = 0.046). In conclusion, culture conditions have an important influence on RTCA cytotoxicity assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 12-year-old, male, fox terrier dog presented with an abnormal gait of the left pelvic limb. Computed tomography revealed a large, homogeneous, hypoattenuating, noncontrast enhancing mass within the left epaxial muscles that invaded the L5-6 vertebral canal and caused spinal cord compression. Imaging findings were consistent with an infiltrative lipoma. The mass was removed and a left hemilaminectomy was performed in the affected area. Histopathology confirmed the mass to be an infiltrative lipoma. The dog recovered and regained neurologic function within 2 weeks. Computed tomography assisted preoperative planning by characterizing the shape, size, and location of the mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To characterize the kinetics of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretion in peripheral blood and lymph node mononuclear cells isolated from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-vaccinated pigs after cells were challenged with PCV2 open reading frame 2 antigen. Animals-10 pigs. Procedures-5 pigs were vaccinated with a PCV2 vaccine and received a booster dose 3 weeks later. They were kept together with a similar group of 5 nonvaccinated pigs that served as controls. One week after the second vaccination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and excised retropharyngeal lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMCs) were isolated and cultured. Cells were then challenged by exposure to PCV2 open reading frame 2 and evaluated at 2, 12, 24, and 48 hours to determine the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 via quantitative PCR assay. Changes in gene expression were analyzed relative to the results from analysis of the sample at 0 hours (calibrator). Results-All ILs were upregulated differently in LNMCs and PBMCs from vaccinated pigs. Lymph node mononuclear cells from vaccinated animals produced significantly more IL-4 mRNA than did PBMCs at 2, 12, and 48 hours (relative change: 2.8 vs -3.6, 13.0 vs 3.6, and 9.8 vs 1.8, respectively) and more IL-5 mRNA at 2, 12, 24, and 48 hours (relative change: 1. 2 vs -4.8, 2.2 vs 0.2, 3.2 vs -1.9, and 4.0 vs -3.6, respectively). Interleukin-13 mRNA reached its highest concentration at 24 hours but was 11.9-fold higher in PBMCs than in LNMCs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results supported the importance of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in pigs, suggesting that PBMCs and LNMCs express cytokines in a tissue-specific manner.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/2013; 74(1):110-4. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) impairs local pulmonary immune responses by damaging the mucociliary transport system, impairing the function of porcine alveolar macrophages andinducing apoptosis of immune cells. An imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10, in PRRS may impair the immune response of the lung. Pulmonary macrophage subpopulations have a range of susceptibilities to different PRRSV strains and different capacities to express cytokines. Infection with PRRSV decreases the bactericidal activity of macrophages, which increases susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. PRRSV infection is associated with an increase in concentrations of haptoglobin, which may interact with the virus receptor (CD163) and induce the synthesis of anti-inflammatory mediators. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines modulates the expression of CD163, which may affect the pathogenicity and replication of the virus in different tissues. With the emergence of highly pathogenic PRRSV, there is a need for more information on the immunopathogenesis of different strains of PRRS, particularly to develop more effective vaccines.
The Veterinary Journal 12/2012; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have risen to alarming proportions, and there is a need for therapeutic and preventive measures. The polyphenol resveratrol (RES) protects against CVDs, but in vivo molecular mechanisms responsible for protection are not yet understood. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders. The identification of PBMNCs genes responding to dietary compounds might help to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of polyphenols. We determined gene expression differences between PBMNCs from pigs fed a high-fat diet manifesting a mild increase of cholesterol and pigs fed a high-fat diet containing low doses of RES. Although the consumption of RES did not modify the levels of cholesterol, microarray analyses indicated that some of the differentially expressed genes, collagens (COL1A, COL3A), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty-acid binding proteins (FABPs) involved in CVDs and lipid metabolism were up-regulated by the high-fat diet and down-regulated by RES. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed that RES and RES-containing grape extract prevented the induction of FABP4 in PBMNCs in female pigs fed a high-fat diet. Low micromolar concentrations of RES and its metabolite dihydroresveratrol exerted a minor but significant reducing effect on the induction of FABP4 expression in human macrophages treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Our results show that the consumption of low doses of RES modulates the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders that are affected by a high-fat diet and suggest that some of the circulating RES metabolites may contribute to these effects.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 08/2012; 23(7):829-37.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the numerous studies carried out, the mechanisms used by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) to impair the host immune response are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of IL-12, IL-10, IFN-α and IFN-γ in lymphoid organs of PRRSV experimentally-infected pigs. Twenty eight piglets were inoculated with PRRSV field isolate 2982 and killed in batches of four at 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24 days post-inoculation (dpi). Control animals were mock-inoculated and killed at the end of the study. Samples from mediastinal and retropharyngeal lymph nodes and tonsil were collected and fixed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. PRRSV antigen was mainly detected in the cytoplasm of macrophages, displaying a bimodal expression with a first peak at 3-7dpi and a second peak at 14dpi. The expression of IFN-α showed an early enhancement at 3dpi, and both IL-12 and IFN-γ displayed a similar trend in all the lymphoid organs analysed, showing an increase at 3-7dpi and at 14-17dpi. On the other hand, the expression of IL-10 was lower than the one observed for the other cytokines. The expression of IL-10 compared with the higher expression of IL-12, IFN-α and IFN-γ detected in this study, indicates that other mechanisms besides the expression of IL-10 play a role in the inducement of an erratic host immune response. Taking into account the enhanced expression of IFNs together with the detection of PRRSV antigen until the end of the study in the examined lymphoid organs, further studies are being conducted to rule out a down-regulation in IFN signalling pathway.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 07/2012; 149(3-4):262-71. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can persist in different organs of infected pigs, which suggests a failure in the immune response. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of effective T- and B-cell responses. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different APC subpopulations and T- and B-cell counts in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mediastinal lymph nodes of pigs experimentally infected with a European PRRSV field isolate. Our results demonstrated that the expression of S100, SWC3, HLA-DR molecule and CD3 was diminished in the studied organs throughout the study, observing a significant negative correlation between viral antigen and HLA-DR expression in both retropharyngeal and mediastinal lymph nodes. In contrast, λ-light chains showed an increase during the study. Taking all into account, after PRRSV infection, no enhancement in the number of APCs and T cells was observed, suggesting an impairment of the immune function which may allow the persistence of PRRSV into the organism.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 07/2012; · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a percutaneous ecoguided injection system to obtain chimeric piglets through a less invasive and traumatic technique than previously reported.
The two types of human cells included umbilical cord blood mononuclear elements and mesenchymal stem cells cultured from bone marrow. Four sows at gestational day 50 were anesthetized. A needle was inserted through the skin and uterine wall to reach the peritoneal cavity of the fetuses under continuous ultrasound guidance. Fourteen piglets were injected with various cell concentrations.
All sows carried pregnancies to term yielding 69 piglets, among which 67 were alive and two mummified. Two piglets died during the first 48 hours of life. Chimerism was detected using flow cytometry and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) to detect Alu gene in blood or tissues samples. The analysis detected blood chimerism in 13 piglets (21%) by flow cytometry and the presence of the human Alu gene in 33 (51%) by q-PCR. The results suggest cell trafficking between littermates after in utero injection.
Transcutaneous echo-guided injection succeeded to produce chimeric piglets without disadvantages to the sow or the fetuses and avoiding abortions or fetal death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uma vaca holandesa de seis anos de idade foi abatida após um curso de paraplegia progressiva de três semanas de duração. Ainda que a vaca teve muitas e crescentes dificuldades para levantarse e caminhar, o animal se manteve alerta, sem febre e com bom apetite quase todo o transcurso da doença. A análise do resultado de um hemograma, do perfil bioquímico e do líquido cefalorraquiano não mostraram alterações fora do padrão normal. A análise feita pelo teste de ELISA para o vírus da leucose bovina foi positivo, apoiando o diagnostico diferencial de leucemia. O exame post–mortem revelou uma forma localizada de linfosarcoma, com escassas e pequenas tumorações nodulares de 2–5 cm confinadas às paredes do trato gastrointestinal, principalmente no abomaso. Alem, os tumores estavam presentes no canal vertebral rodeando a medula espinhal na região lombar e as raízes nervosas adjacentes. A avaliação microscópica revelou que as massas nodulares estavam compostas de linfócitos neoplásicos; igualmente, o tecido conjuntivo ao redor da medula espinhal na região lombar apresentava uma grande infiltração desses linfócitos. A diferença deste caso com a forma mais comum e crônica da doença na qual existe um desgaste progressivo do animal associado a uma linfadenopatia generalizada, foi que neste caso houve uma rápida progressão da doença que evoluiu para uma paraplegia total que poderia explicar–se pela presença de tumores localizados na medula espinhal.
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 06/2012; 25(2):325-329. · 0.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of grape and wine polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in the diet is negligible. Therefore, the cardiovascular benefits of this molecule, in a dietary context, remain to be established. We aimed to investigate, through dietary intervention, the effects of a resveratrol-rich grape extract (GE-RES) on the prevention of early aortic lesions in pigs fed an atherogenic diet (AD). These effects were compared with those produced by a grape extract lacking RES (GE) or RES alone. Pigs fed the AD for 4 months showed early atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta: degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, increase of intima thickness, subendothelial fibrosis, and accumulation of fatty cells and anion superoxide radicals. GE-RES was the most effective treatment and prevented the disruption of aortic elastic fibers, decreased their alteration (57%), and reduced the intima thickness (33%) and the accumulation of fatty cells (42%) and O(2)(•-) (38%) in aortic tissue. In addition, GE-RES moderately downregulated the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and 3 (SOCS3), key regulators of vascular cell responses, in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Our results suggest that the consumption of this GE-RES nutraceutical, in a dietary prevention context, could prevent early atherosclerotic events. The presence of RES in the grape extract strengthened these effects.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2012; 60(22):5609-20. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of zoonoses is a major obstacle to xenotransplantation. Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) poses a potential risk of zoonotic infection, and its control is a prerequisite for the development of clinical xenotransplantation. The copy number of PERV varies among different breeds, and it has been suggested that the PERV integrations number is increased by inbreeding. The purpose of this study was (i) to examine the copy number of PERV in different Spanish pig breeds, Spanish wild boar and commercial cross-bred pigs from five different farms and genetic background (CCP1-CCP5) and (ii) to investigate the correlation between PERV copy number and the genetic background of the pigs in order to improve the selection of pigs for xenotransplantation. PERV copy number was determined by quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reactions. Thirty-four microsatellite markers were genotyped to describe the genetic diversity within populations (observed and expected heterozygosities, Ho and He, respectively) and the inbreeding coefficient (F). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between PERV copy number and Ho, He and F. The copy number of PERV among different pig breeds was estimated to range between three (CCP1) and 43 copies (Iberian Pig). Statistical differences were found among the studied populations concerning PERV copy number. No correlation was found between the PERV copy number and the heterozygosity (calculated at an individual level or at a population level) or the inbreeding coefficient of each population. Our data suggest that pigs inbreeding does not increase PERV copy number and support the idea that careful selection of pigs for organ donation with reduced PERV copy number will minimize the risk of retrovirus transmission to the human receptor.
Zoonoses and Public Health 02/2012; 59(6):401-7. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is an immunomodulatory cytokine which is able to modulate the host immune response eliciting an inefficient response against pathogens. In this sense, the role of this cytokine in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been poorly studied and the reported results are contradictory. Thus, in the present study, the expression of TGFβ was analysed both at tissue (lymphoid organs and lung) and serum level to study its correlation with the expression of PRRS virus (PRRSV). To carry out this study, 32 pigs were inoculated with the European PRRSV field isolate 2982 and sequentially killed from 0 dpi to the end of the study (24 dpi). Blood and tissue samples were collected to determine the expression of PRRSV and TGFβ. PRRSV was detected in inoculated animals from 3 dpi until the end of the study, however TGFβ was not detected in sera from inoculated animals. Contrary, an increase of TGFβ antigen was observed both in the lymphoid organs and in the lung of PRRSV-inoculated pigs when compared with control group. Since TGFβ play a role as an immunomodulatory cytokine of the immune response and also in the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), the upregulation of the TGFβ at tissue level may play a role in the impairment of the host immune response observed during PRRS, being observed a significant correlation between PRRSV and TGFβ expression at lung level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the origin of the haptoglobin (Hp) quantified in saliva and meat juice samples, the extrahepatic localization of Hp in salivary gland and in diaphragmatic muscle, as part of the systemic acute phase response in pigs, was studied by immunohistochemistry. For this purpose a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced by immunising mice with purified porcine Hp was used. Reactivity of the mAb was assessed by direct ELISA and by western blot, which showed the ability and specificity of the mAb to identify porcine haptoglobin as a purified antigen or in porcine serum in a native or denatured but non-reduced state. Five healthy and five diseased pigs were sampled at slaughter for serum and tissue procurement. Hepatic immunohistochemical analysis was used as control of the acute phase reaction status. In the liver, cell immunostaining revealed a perinuclear, cytoplasmic localization of Hp within hepatocytes, following mainly a periacinar pattern. Extrahepatic immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive cells in the glandular acini and duct epithelial cells of the salivary gland and intrasarcoplasmic immunolabelling of random diaphragmatic myofibers. A possible role of both salivary gland and diaphragmatic muscle on local Hp production could be postulated based on the present immunohistochemical study, which supports the concept that other cells besides hepatocytes may have the potential to produce Hp in the pig.
Histology and histopathology 02/2012; 27(2):187-96. · 2.28 Impact Factor