J Kafka

Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Kassa, Košický, Slovakia

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Publications (14)34.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a key component of the stress response induced by various noxious conditions such as heat, oxygen stress, trauma and infection. In present study we have assessed the consequences of the compression of lower lumbar and sacral nerve roots caused by a multiple cauda equina constrictions (MCEC) on HSP70 immunoreactivity (HSP70-IR) in the dog. Our data indicate that constriction of central processes evokes HSP70 up-regulation in the spinal cord (L7, S1-Co3) as well as in the corresponding dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs) (L7-S1) two days following injury. A limited number of bipolar or triangular HSP-IR neurons were found in the lateral collateral pathway (LCP) as well as in the pericentral region (lamina X) of the spinal cord. In contrast, a high number of HSP70 exhibiting motoneurons with fine processes appeared in the ventral horn (laminae VIII-IX) of lumbosacral segments. Concomitantly, close to them a few lightly HSP70-positive neuronal somata or cell bodies lacking the HSP70-IR occurred. In the DRGs, HSP70 expression was mildly up-regulated in small and medium-sized neurons and in satellite cells. On the contrary, DRGs from intact or sham-operated dogs did not reveal HSP70 specific neuronal staining. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the MCEC in dogs mimicking the cauda equina syndrome in clinical settings evokes expression of HSP70 synthesis in specific neurons of the lumbo-sacro-coccygeal spinal cord segments and in small and medium sized neurons of corresponding DRGs. This suggests that HSP70 may play an active role in neuroprotective processes partly by maintaining intracellular protein integrity and preventing the neuronal degeneration in this experimental paradigm.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 02/2005; 54(3):349-56. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was studied in the gray and white matter regions of the spinal cord 2 and 5 days after multiple cauda equina constrictions of the central processes of L7-Co5 dorsal root ganglia neurons. The results show considerable differences in enzyme activity in the thoracic, upper lumbar, lower lumbar, and sacral segments. Increased NOS activity was observed at 2 days after multiple cauda equina constrictions in the dorsal, lateral, and ventral columns of the lower lumbar segments and in the ventral column of the upper lumbar segments. The values returned to control levels within 5 postconstriction days. In the lateral columns of thoracic segments taken 2 and 5 days after surgery, NOS activity was enhanced by 54% and 55% and in the upper lumbar segments by 130% and 163%, respectively. Multiple cauda equina constrictions performed surgically for 2 and 5 days caused a significant increase in NOS activity predominantly in the gray matter regions of thoracic segments. A quite different response was found 5 days postconstriction in the upper lumbar segments, where the enzyme activity was significantly decreased in the dorsal horn, intermediate zone, and ventral horn. No such extreme differences could be seen in the lower lumbar segments, where NOS activity was significantly enhanced only in the ventral horn. The data correspond with a higher number of NOS immunoreactive somata, quantitatively evaluated in the ventral horn of the lower lumbar segments at 5 days after multiple cauda equina constrictions. While the great region-dependent heterogeneity in NOS activity seen 2 and 5 days after multiple cauda equina constrictions is quite apparent and suggestive of an active role played by nitric oxide in neuroprotective or neurotoxic processes occurring in the gray and white matter of the spinal cord, the extent of damage or the degree of neuroprotection caused by nitric oxide in compartmentalized gray and white matter in this experimental paradigm would be possible only using longer postconstriction periods.
    Neurochemical Research 03/2004; 29(2):429-39. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of cauda equina constriction (CEC) on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity has been studied in spinal cord of the dog. CEC lasting for 2 days caused significant increase in NOS activity in white matter of lumbar segments. The enzyme activity decreased to basal levels 5 days after injury. An extreme reduction of NO formation has been seen in sacral segments at 2 day of postsurgery. At 5 day, the enzyme activity greatly increased and in gray matter significantly exceeded baseline. Quantitative measurement of NOS activity produced a rise in gray matter of thoracic segments and indicated a decrease in gray matter of upper lumbar segments. The results indicate a time-dependent formation of nitric oxide after CEC in spinal cord segments and regions.Acknowledgements: Supported by VEGA Grants no. 2/2079/22 and 2/3217/23PS9, STAA Grant no. 51-013002 and by NIH grants NS 32794 and NS 40386 to M.M.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2003; 85(s2):37 - 37. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the cauda equina syndrome in the dog and the involvement of spinal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity (NOS-IR) and catalytic nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity were studied in a pain model caused by multiple cauda equina constrictions. Increased NOS-IR was found two days post-constriction in neurons of the deep dorsal horn and in large, mostly bipolar neurons located in the internal basal nucleus of Cajal seen along the medial border of the dorsal horn. Concomitantly, NOS-IR was detected in small neurons close to the medioventral border of the ventral horn. High NOS-IR appeared in a dense sacral vascular body close to the Lissauer tract in S1-S3 segments. Somatic and fiber-like NOS-IR appeared at five days post-constriction in the Lissauer tract and in the lateral and medial collateral pathways arising from the Lissauer tract. Both pathways were accompanied by a dense punctate NOS immunopositive staining. Simultaneously, the internal basal nucleus of Cajal and neuropil of this nucleus exhibited high NOS-IR. A significant decrease in the number of small NOS immunoreactive somata was noted in laminae I-II of L6-S2 segments at five days post-constriction while, at the same time, the number of NOS immunoreactive neurons located in laminae VIII and IX was significantly increased. Moreover, high immunopositivity in the sacral vascular body persisted along with a highly expressed NOS-IR staining of vessels supplying the dorsal sacral gray commissure and dorsal horn in S1-S3 segments. cNOS activity, based on a radioassay of compartmentalized gray and white matter regions of lower lumbar segments and non-compartmentalized gray and white matter of S1-S3 segments, proved to be highly variable for both post-constriction periods.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 02/2003; 52(4):481-96. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous investigations from our laboratory have documented that the neuropil of the phrenic nucleus contains a dense accumulation of punctate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase staining. In this study we investigated the occurrence and origin of punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the phrenic nucleus in C3-C5 segments, supposed to be the terminal field of the premotor bulbospinal respiratory nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive pathway in the dog. As the first step, nitric oxide synthase immunohistochemistry was used to characterize nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive staining of the phrenic nucleus and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the dorsal and rostral ventral respiratory group and in the Bötzinger complex of the medulla. Dense punctate nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was found on control sections in the neuropil of the phrenic nucleus. Several thin bundles of nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive fibers were found to enter the phrenic nucleus from the lateral and ventral column. Nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons were revealed in the dorsal respiratory group of medulla corresponding to the ventrolateral nucleus of the solitary tract and in the rostral ventral respiratory group beginning approximately 1 mm caudal to the obex and reaching to 650 microm rostral to the obex. Axotomy-induced retrograde changes, consisting in a strong upregulation of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons, were found in the dorsal and rostral ventral respiratory group contralateral to the hemisection performed at the C2-C3 level. Concurrently, a strong depletion of the punctate nitric oxide synthase immunopositivity in the neuropil of the phrenic nucleus ipsilaterally with the hemisection was detected, thus revealing that a crossed premotor bulbospinal respiratory pathway contains a fairly high number of nitric oxide synthase-immunopositive fibers terminating in the phrenic nucleus. The use of the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fluorogold injected into the phrenic nucleus and an analysis of sections cut through the dorsal and rostral ventral respiratory group and Bötzinger complex of medulla and processed for nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry revealed that approximately 73.8% of crossed premotor bulbospinal respiratory nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive axons originate in the rostral ventral respiratory group and 26.2% is given by nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons of the dorsal respiratory group. A few premotor nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive axons originating from the Bötzinger complex were found. In summary, the present study provides evidence for a hitherto unknown premotor bulbospinal respiratory nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive pathway connecting the bulbar respiratory centers with the motor neurons of the phrenic nucleus in the dog.
    Experimental Neurology 10/2002; 177(1):115-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The aim of the present study is to map the incipient phase of Fos expression in the sacral spinal cord neuronal pools of multiple cauda equina constrictions canine model. 2. Fos-positive neurons were found bilaterally in the lateral portion of superficial dorsal horn layers (Laminae I-III) and along the lateral edge of the dorsal horn accompanied by the lateral collateral pathway, fibers of Lissauer's tract, terminating at the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. Similarly, high Fos expression was detected in the ventral portion of the dorsal sacral commissure and in the dorsomedial portion of the anterior horns at S1-S3 segment level. Finally, a clearly expressed Fos-positivity was disclosed bilaterally in the neuropil of the nucleus Y in the anterior horn. 3. Data from the present study show that continuous stimulation of the central fibers of sacral dorsal root ganglia neurons, i.e., fibers of sacral primary afferents, unlike those using various stimulations of the peripheral fibres offers an unusual pattern of Fos-like immunoreactivity.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 09/2001; 21(4):413-9. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single or double-level compression of the lumbosacral nerve roots located in the dural sac results in a polyradicular symptomatology clinically diagnosed as cauda equina syndrome. The cauda equina nerve roots provide the sensory and motor innervation of most of the lower extremities, the pelvic floor and the sphincters. Therefore, in a fully developed cauda equina syndrome, multiple signs of sensory disorders may appear. These disorders include low-back pain, saddle anesthesia, bilateral sciatica, then motor weakness of the lower extremities or chronic paraplegia and, bladder dysfunction. Multiple etiologies can cause the cauda equina syndrome. Among them, non-neoplastic compressive etiologies such as herniated lumbosacral discs and spinal stenosis and spinal neoplasms play a significant role in the development of the cauda equina syndrome. Non-compressive etiologies of the cauda equina syndrome include ischemic insults, inflammatory conditions, spinal arachnoiditis and other infectious etiologies. The use of canine, porcine and rat models mimicking the cauda equina syndrome enabled discovery of the effects of the compression on nerve root neural and vascular anatomy, the impairment of impulse propagation and the changes of the neurotransmitters in the spinal cord after compression of cauda equina. The involvement of intrinsic spinal cord neurons in the compression-induced cauda equina syndrome includes anterograde, retrograde and transneuronal degeneration in the lumbosacral segments. Prominent changes of NADPH diaphorase exhibiting, Fos-like immunoreactive and heat shock protein HSP72 were detected in the lumbosacral segments in a short-and long-lasting compression of the cauda equina in the dog. Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with back pain, sciatica and with a herniated lumbar disc are mentioned, including many treatment options available.
    Progress in Neurobiology 09/2001; 64(6):613-37. · 9.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single or double-level compression of the lumbosacral nerve roots located in the dural sac results in a polyradicular symptomatology clinically diagnosed as cauda equina syndrome. The cauda equina nerve roots provide the sensory and motor innervation of most of the lower extremities, the pelvic floor and the sphincters. Therefore, in a fully developed cauda equina syndrome, multiple signs of sensory disorders may appear. These disorders include low-back pain, saddle anesthesia, bilateral sciatica, then motor weakness of the lower extremities or chronic paraplegia and, bladder dysfunction. Multiple etiologies can cause the cauda equina syndrome. Among them, non-neoplastic compressive etiologies such as herniated lumbosacral discs and spinal stenosis and spinal neoplasms play a significant role in the development of the cauda equina syndrome. Non-compressive etiologies of the cauda equina syndrome include ischemic insults, inflammatory conditions, spinal arachnoiditis and other infectious etiologies. The use of canine, porcine and rat models mimicking the cauda equina syndrome enabled discovery of the effects of the compression on nerve root neural and vascular anatomy, the impairment of impulse propagation and the changes of the neurotransmitters in the spinal cord after compression of cauda equina. The involvement of intrinsic spinal cord neurons in the compression-induced cauda equina syndrome includes anterograde, retrograde and transneuronal degeneration in the lumbosacral segments. Prominent changes of NADPH diaphorase exhibiting, Fos-like immunoreactive and heat shock protein HSP72 were detected in the lumbosacral segments in a short-and long-lasting compression of the cauda equina in the dog. Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with back pain, sciatica and with a herniated lumbar disc are mentioned, including many treatment options available.
    Progress in Neurobiology. 08/2001;
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The aim of the present study is to map the incipient phase of Fos expression in the sacral spinal cord neuronal pools of multiple cauda equina constrictions canine model.2. Fos-positive neurons were found bilaterally in the lateral portion of superficial dorsal horn layers (Laminae I–III) and along the lateral edge of the dorsal horn accompanied by the lateral collateral pathway, fibers of Lissauer's tract, terminating at the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. Similarly, high Fos expression was detected in the ventral portion of the dorsal sacral commissure and in the dorsomedial portion of the anterior horns at S1–S3 segment level. Finally, a clearly expressed Fos-positivity was disclosed bilaterally in the neuropil of the nucleus Y in the anterior horn.3. Data from the present study show that continuous stimulation of the central fibers of sacral dorsal root ganglia neurons, i.e., fibers of sacral primary afferents, unlike those using various stimulations of the peripheral fibres offers an unusual pattern of Fos-like immunoreactivity.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 07/2001; 21(4):413-419. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution and changes of catalytic nitric oxid synthase (cNOS) activity in the dorsal, lateral and ventral white matter columns at midthoracic level of the rabbit's spinal cord were studied in a model of surgically-induced spinal cord constriction performed at Th7 segment level and compared with the occurrence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expressing and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive axons in the white matter of the control thoracic segments. Segmental and white-column dependent differences of cNOS activity were found in the dorsal (141.5 +/- 4.2 dpm/microm protein), lateral (87.3 +/- 11.5 dpm/microm protein) and ventral (117.1 +/- 7.6 dpm/microm protein) white matter columns in the Th5-Th6 segments and in the dorsal (103.3 +/- 15.5 dpm/microm protein), lateral (54.9 +/- 4.9 dpm/microm protein), and ventral (86.1 +/- 6.8 dpm/microm protein) white matter columns in the Th8-Th9 segments. A surgically-induced constriction of Th7 segment caused a disproportionate response of cNOS activity in the rostrally (Th5-Th6) and caudally (Th8-Th9) located segments in both lateral and ventral white matter columns. While a statistically significant decrease of cNOS activity was detected above the constriction site in the ventral columns, a considerable, statistically significant increase of cNOS activity was noted in the white lateral columns below the site of constriction. It is reasoned that the changes of cNOS activity may have adverse effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in the white matter close to the site of constriction injury, thus broadening the scope of the secondary mechanisms that play a role in neuronal trauma.
    Neurochemical Research 09/2000; 25(8):1139-48. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the submitted work was to draw attention to different types of injuries of the intracranial portion of the carotid artery and some problems associated with its solution. The investigated group comprised 7 subjects (2 women, 5 men) aged 19 to 76 years who attended between Jan. 1, 1995 and Feb. 29 2000 the Neurosurgical Clinic in Kosice with sequelae of injuries of the intracranial carotid artery. Two patients developed a pseudoaneurysm. In one case it was manifested by subarachnoid haemorrhage on the 24th day after a crash, in one instance by diplopia six weeks after a retrobulbar injection. Injury of the intracavernous portion of the artery was manifested in one instance by profuse epistaxis on the 17th day after a fall from a bicycle, four times by the development of a carotid-cavernous fistula several days to 3 years after the head injury. In the diagnosis classical as well as MR and digital subtraction angiography were used. In the patient with epistaxis classical carotid angiography was 3 times negative. The results are comparable with data in the literature. In three patients the problem was resolved by ligature of the common carotid artery on the neck. In another three it was necessary to use extra-intracranial trapping. One patient will be subjected to endovascular surgery. Two patients died (a 76-year-old woman from bronchopneumonia, a 19-year-old man from meningitis, despite a liquor fistula treated correctly by a patch).
    Rozhledy v chirurgii: měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti 08/2000; 79(7):318-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Segmental and laminar distribution of Fos-like immunoreactive, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd)-exhibiting and double-labeled (Fos-like immunoreactive and NADPHd-exhibiting) neurons was examined in lower lumbar and sacral segments of the dog spinal cord using the model of multiple cauda equina constrictions. NADPHd histochemistry was used as marker of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons. The appearance and the time-course of Fos-like immunoreactive, NADPHd and double-labeled neurons was studied at 2 h and 8 h postconstriction characterized as the incipient phase of cauda equina syndrome. The occurrence of Fos-like immunoreactive and NADPHd-exhibiting neurons in fully developed cauda equina syndrome was studied at five days postconstriction. An increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity in superficial laminae (I-II) and an enhanced NADPHd staining of lamina VIII neurons were found. A statistically significant increase in Fos-like immunoreactive neurons was found in laminae I-II and VIII-X 8 h postconstriction, and in contrast, a prominent decrease in Fos-like immunoreactive neurons was found in laminae I-II, accompanied by a statistically significant increase in Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in more ventrally located laminae VII-X at five days postconstriction. Quantitative analysis of laminar distribution of constriction-induced NADPHd-exhibiting neurons revealed a considerable increase in these neurons in laminae VIII-IX 8 h postconstriction and a statistically highly significant increase in NADPHd-exhibiting neurons in laminae VII-X five days postconstriction. Concurrently, the number of NADPHd-exhibiting neurons in laminae I-II was greatly reduced. While a low number of double-labeled neurons was found throughout the gray matter of lower lumbar and sacral segments at 2 h postconstriction, a statistically significant number of double-labeled neurons was found in lamina X 8 h and in laminae VII-X five days postconstriction. The course and distribution of anterograde degeneration resulting five days after multiple cauda equina constrictions are compared with segmental and laminar distribution of Fos-like immunoreactive and NADPHd-exhibiting neurons. Prominent involvement of the spinal cord neurons appearing in the lumbosacral segments at the early beginning and in fully developed cauda equina syndrome results in a Fos-like immunoreactivity and strongly enhanced NADPHd staining of some neuronal pools. Under such circumstances, an early cauda equina decompression surgery is advisable aimed at decreasing or preventing the derangement of the neural circuits in the lumbosacral segments.
    Neuroscience 02/2000; 95(2):543-57. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution and changes of catalytic nitric oxid synthase (cNOS) activity in the dorsal, lateral and ventral white matter columns at midthoracic level of the rabbit''s spinal cord were studied in a model of surgically-induced spinal cord constriction performed at Th7 segment level and compared with the occurrence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase expressing and neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive axons in the white matter of the control thoracic segments. Segmental and white-column dependent differences of cNOS activity were found in the dorsal (141.5 4.2 dpm/m protein), lateral (87.3 11.5 dpm/m protein) and ventral (117.1 7.6 dpm/m protein) white matter columns in the Th5-Th6 segments and in the dorsal (103.3 15.5 dpm/m protein), lateral (54.9 4.9 dpm/m protein), and ventral (86.1 6.8 dpm/m protein) white matter columns in the Th8-Th9 segments. A surgically-induced constriction of Th7 segment caused a disproportionate response of cNOS activity in the rostrally (Th5-Th6) and caudally (Th8-Th9) located segments in both lateral and ventral white matter columns. While a statistically significant decrease of cNOS activity was detected above the constriction site in the ventral columns, a considerable, statistically significant increase of cNOS activity was noted in the white lateral columns below the site of constriction. It is reasoned that the changes of cNOS activity may have adverse effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in the white matter close to the site of constriction injury, thus broadening the scope of the secondary mechanisms that play a role in neuronal trauma.
    Neurochemical Research 01/2000; 25(8):1139-1148. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: patterns of NADPH diaphorase staining in the spinal cord of dog. Biologia, Bratislava, 56: 685—693, 2001; ISSN 0006-3088 (Biologia). ISSN 1335-6399 (Biologia. Section Cellular and Molecular Biology). Segmental and laminar distribution of NADPHd activity was studied in the normal spinal cord of the dog and basic densitometric patterns of somatic, fiber-like and punctuate, non-somatic NADPHd staining were described in the gray and white matter. Prominent NADPHd activity was noted in the superficial and deep dorsal horn, pericentral region, intermediolateral cell col-umn, Lissauer's tract and in the vertical and horizontal limbs of the medial longitudinal bundle of the ventral column in the cervical and upper thoracic segments.