Eugene S. Flamm

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany

Are you Eugene S. Flamm?

Claim your profile

Publications (130)628.4 Total impact

  • A Szelényi · D Langer · J Beck · A Raabe · E.S. Flamm · V Seifert · V Deletis ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To analyse the parallel use of transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) for eliciting muscle motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) in intracranial aneurysm surgery; to correlate permanent or transient TES- and/or DCS-MMEP changes with surgical maneuvers and clinical motor outcome. TES and DCS were intraoperatively performed in 108 patients (51.5+/-14.7 years); MMEPs were obtained in muscles belonging to the vascular territory of interest. Monopolar, anodal stimulation was achieved with a train of five stimuli consisting of an individual pulse width of 0.5ms, an interstimulus interval of 4ms, a train repetition rate of 0.5-2Hz, and maximum stimulation intensities up to 200mA (TES) versus 25mA (DCS). In 95/108 (88%) patients, no changes in MMEPs occurred and none of these patients suffered a permanent severe motor deficit. In 14/108 (12%) patients, we observed nine (64%) temporary changes, four (29%) permanent deteriorations and one (7%) permanent MMEP loss. Out of 14 MMEP changes, nine (64%) occurred with TES, compared to 13 (93%) with DCS (Fishers'p=0.165). Parallel changes in TES- and DCS-MMEPs occurred in 8/14 patients (57%), in which case a permanent loss was always followed by a permanent severe motor deficit. Sixty-seven percent of all permanent changes occurred with DCS-MMEPs, compared to 33% with TES-MMEPs (p=0.567, NS). In aneurysm surgery, provided that close-to-motor-threshold stimulation and the most focal stimulating electrode montage are used, TES- and DCS-MMEPs do not differ in their capacity to detect an impending lesion of the motor cortex or its efferent pathways. TES stimulation can cause significant muscular contraction during surgery, potentially disrupting the operating surgeon. DCS maintains the singular advantage of stimulating a very focal and superficial motor cortex stimulation that does not result in patient movement.
    Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology 01/2008; 37(6):391-8. DOI:10.1016/j.neucli.2007.09.006 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Source

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 495(1):711 - 714. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb23718.x · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors in this study evaluated muscle motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) and direct cortical stimulation as a means of monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. The analysis focused on the value and frequencies of any intraoperative changes and their correlation to the postoperative motor status. One hundred nineteen patients undergoing surgery for 148 cerebral aneurysms were included in the study. Muscle motor evoked potentials were elicited by a train of five constant-current anodal stimuli with an individual pulse duration of 0.5 msec and a stimulation rate of 2 Hz. Stimulation intensity was up to 240 mA for TES and up to 33 mA for direct cortical stimulation. The MMEPs were continuously recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior muscles bilaterally and from the biceps brachii and extensor digitorum communis muscles contralateral to the surgical side. The motor status was evaluated immediately after surgery and 7 days later. In 97% of the patients MMEPs were recordable for continuous neurophysiological monitoring of the vascular territory of interest throughout the surgery. In 14 patients significant intraoperative MMEP changes occurred, resulting in a transient motor deficit in one patient and a permanent motor deficit in six. The permanent loss of MMEPs in three patients was followed by a permanent severe motor deficit in one patient and severe clinical deterioration in the other two. Data in this study demonstrated that MMEPs are a useful means of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of motor pathway integrity and predicting postoperative motor status. The intraoperative loss of MMEPs reliably predicts both severe and permanent postoperative motor deficits.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 12/2006; 105(5):675-81. DOI:10.3171/jns.2006.105.5.675 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates technical aspects, handling, and safety of intraoperatively applied transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) for eliciting muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) during cerebral aneurysm surgery. In 119 patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery, mMEPs were evoked by a train of five stimuli with individual pulse duration of 0.5 milliseconds, a repetition rate of 2 Hz, and constant current anodal stimulation. The maximal stimulation intensity was 240 mA for transcranial and 33 mA for direct stimulation. mMEPs were recorded continuously from the abductor pollicis brevis, from tibial anterior muscles bilaterally, and from the biceps brachii and extensor digitorum communis muscles contralateral to the side operated on. In 118 (99%) of 119 patients, transcranially evoked mMEPs were monitorable for the vascular territory of interest. DCS was performed successfully in 95 (95%) of 100 patients. In 86 (99%) of 87 patients with internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery, or posterior circulation aneurysms, mMEPs from upper-extremity muscles were obtained with DCS. In 11 (55%) of 20 patients with anterior communicating artery, anterior cerebral artery, or pericallosal aneurysms, mMEPs from the lower-extremity muscles could be recorded. The incidence of seizures was 0.84% for TES and 1% for DCS. Minor and inconsequential subdural bleeding after positioning of the strip electrode occurred in 2%. The cogent comprehensive combination of transcranial and direct cortical electrical stimulation allows for the continuous mMEP monitoring of the cerebral vascular territory of interest in 99% of the patients with cerebral aneurysms. Unwarranted effects of electrode placement and stimulation are rare and without clinical consequences.
    Neurosurgery 11/2005; 57(4 Suppl):331-8; discussion 331-8. DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000176643.69108.FC · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients presenting with vasospasm remains a particular challenge. The authors treated two patients harboring Hunt and Hess Grade 1 subarachnoid hemorrhages from middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms associated with severe local angiographically demonstrated yet asymptomatic vasospasm on presentation. Because both aneurysms had wide necks and were located at the MCA bifurcation, they were believed to be anatomically suitable for microsurgical clip application. Severe M, vasospasm was believed to be a relative contraindication to open surgery, however. An intentionally staged endovascular and microsurgical treatment strategy was planned in each patient. Partial coil occlusion of the aneurysmal dome was performed to prevent the lesion from rebleeding and was followed by balloon angioplasty of the spastic vessel. Early treatment of the severe spasm appeared to prevent significant delayed neurological ischemic deficit. Following resolution of the vasospasm, definitive clipping of the aneurysms was performed on Day 13 post embolization. One patient had a good clinical recovery and was discharged without neurological deficit. The other patient's hospital course was complicated by the occurrence of a postoperative posterior temporal infarct requiring partial temporal lobectomy, although she eventually had a good recovery with only a small visual field deficit. Based on data obtained in these two patients, one can infer that ruptured wide-necked MCA aneurysms associated with severe local vasospasm may best be treated using a staged combined treatment plan. Delayed clip application might be performed more safely 4 to 6 weeks postocclusion, or later, than at 2 weeks.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 08/2004; 101(1):154-8. DOI:10.3171/jns.2004.101.1.0154 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    John M Abrahams · Solen Gokhan · Eugene S Flamm · Mark F Mehler ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies documenting the phenomenon of de novo neurogenesis within the adult brain have propelled this area of research to the forefront of neuroscience investigations and stroke pathogenesis and treatment. Traditional theories have suggested that the central nervous system is incapable of neural regeneration; hence the emergence of the field of stem cell biology as a discipline devoted to uncovering novel forms of neural repair. However, several recent experimental observations have shown that the adult brain is capable of ongoing neurogenesis in discrete regions of the uninjured brain and additional forms of endogenous neural regeneration in the presence of an inciting event (induction neurogenesis). Induction neurogenesis has the potential for providing new insights into the cause and treatment of acute stroke syndromes.
    Neurosurgery 02/2004; 54(1):150-5; discussion 155-6. DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000097515.27930.5E · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The value of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) as an intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring tool for detecting selective subcortical ischemia of the motor pathways during intracerebral aneurysm repair is described and the use of such measures to predict postoperative motor status is discussed. The authors present the case of a 64-year-old woman in whom there was an incidental finding of two right middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. During the aneurysm clipping procedure, an intraoperative MEP loss in the left abductor pollicis brevis and tibial anterior muscles occurred during an attempt at permanent clip placement. There were no concurrent changes in somatosensory evoked potentials. Postoperatively, the patient demonstrated a left hemiplegia with intact sensation. A computerized tomography scan revealed an infarct in the anterior division of the MCA territory, including the posterior limb of the internal capsule. In this patient, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring with MEPs has been shown to be a sensitive tool for indicating subcortical ischemia affecting selective motor pathways in the internal capsule. Therefore, intraoperative loss of MEPs can be used to predict postoperative motor deficits.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2003; 99(3):575-8. DOI:10.3171/jns.2003.99.3.0575 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Arthur A Grigorian · Alvin Marcovici · Eugene S Flamm ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some well-known predictors of clinical outcomes in patients with ruptured aneurysms are not useful for forecasting outcome in patients with unruptured aneurysms. The goal of this study was to analyze outcomes in patients harboring unruptured cerebral aneurysms in different locations and to create a predictive tool for assessing both favorable outcome and morbidity in a large series of unruptured aneurysms. The authors analyzed data from 387 patients with nonruptured intracranial cerebral aneurysms who underwent surgery for clip placement. Intraoperative data were reviewed and seven factors that might influence outcomes were identified. These included the following: 1) aneurysm size larger than 10 mm; 2) presence of a broad aneurysm neck; 3) presence of plaque calcification near the aneurysm neck; 4) application of clips to more than one aneurysm during the same surgery; 5) temporary occlusion; 6) multiple clip applications and repositioning; and 7) use of multiple clips. The entire group of patients with unruptured aneurysms was divided into two subgroups on the basis of outcome. Each patient was subsequently assessed to formulate the factor accumulation index (FAI), the sum of different factors observed in a given patient. The subgroup of patients with expected outcomes was composed of 312 patients, whereas the subgroup of unexpected outcomes consisted of 31 patients. Depending on the anatomical locations of the aneurysms, the combined mortality-morbidity rate ranged from 5.7 to 25%, with the best results for patients harboring ophthalmic artery aneurysms and the worst results for those with vertebrobasilar system (VBS) aneurysms. The majority of patients with expected outcomes who harbored aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery, the internal carotid artery, and the VBS had a lower FAI, whereas the majority of patients with unexpected outcomes had a higher FAI. It is possible to predict outcomes in patients with unruptured cerebral artery aneurysms by calculating the FAI. The rate of postoperative morbidity increases with the FAI within the range of three to four factors.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2003; 99(3):452-7. DOI:10.3171/jns.2003.99.3.0452 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (EDAFs) are an unusual type of intracranial vascular lesion that commonly present with acute hemorrhage. They are often best treated surgically; however, recent endovascular advances raise questions concerning the best therapeutic approach. We present 7 cases of EDAFs managed at this institution over a 6-year period, which demonstrate the broad spectrum of clinical behavior associated with the lesions. Four patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, 1 patient with rapidly progressive dementia, 1 patient with a proptotic, red eye, and 1 with a retro-orbital headache. One patient underwent no treatment, 1 underwent embolization alone, 2 underwent embolization and resection, and 3 patients underwent resection alone. There was complete obliteration of the EDAF in all of the patients who underwent surgical resection. Embolization was performed through the external carotid circulation and not the ophthalmic artery. There were no treatment-related neurologic deficits. Treatment is best managed with a multidisciplinary approach, which emphasizes complete resection of the lesions with assistance from interventional neuroradiology techniques. However, each patient must be evaluated independently as treatment may vary depending on the angioarchitecture of the lesion.
    Surgical Neurology 01/2003; 58(6):410-6; discussion 416. DOI:10.1016/S0090-3019(02)00871-6 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Eric L Zager · Ellen G Shaver · Robert W Hurst · Eugene S Flamm ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aneurysms of the distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are rare; fewer than 100 cases have been reported. The authors detail their experience with four cases and present endovascular as well as microsurgical management options. The medical records and neuroimaging studies obtained in four patients who were treated at a single institution were reviewed. Clinical presentations, neuroimaging and intraoperative findings, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. There were three men and one woman; their mean age was 43 years. Two patients presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and two presented with ataxia and vertigo (one with tinnitus, the other with hearing loss). Angiographic studies demonstrated aneurysms of the distal segment of the AICA. In one patient with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple cerebellar hemangioblastomas, a feeding artery aneurysm was found on a distal branch of the AICA. Three of the patients underwent successful surgical obliteration of their aneurysms, one by clipping, one by trapping, and one by resection along with the tumor. The fourth patient underwent coil embolization of the distal AICA and the aneurysm. All patients made an excellent neurological recovery. Patients with aneurysms in this location may present with typical features of an acute SAH or with symptoms referable to the cerebellopontine angle. Evaluation with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography should be performed. For lesions distal to branches coursing to the brainstem, trapping and aneurysm resection are viable options that do not require bypass. Endovascular obliteration is also a reasonable option, although the possibility of retrograde thrombosis of the AICA is a concern.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2002; 97(3):692-6. DOI:10.3171/jns.2002.97.3.0692 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • J.M. Abrahams · L.J. Bagley · E.S. Flamm · R.W. Hurst · G.P. Sinson ·

    Surgical Neurology 01/2002; 58(6). · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • G Sinson · L J Bagley · E S Flamm · R W Hurst ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Embolization of cerebral aneurysms has become a common technique. Its impact on subsequent medical management of the patient is not well known. We report two patients who presented in a poor neurological grade after subarachnoid hemorrhage from posterior communicating artery aneurysms. Both were treated by coil embolization and both developed subclavian vein thrombosis, requiring systemic anticoagulation, initiated 11 and 21 days after embolization, respectively. Both developed a large, fatal intracranial hemorrhage adjacent to the embolized aneurysm in the fourth week of anticoagulation. Systemic anticoagulation of patients who have had a ruptured aneurysm treated by coil embolization may carry a significant risk of rebleeding. Alternate management strategies should be considered in these patients.
    Neuroradiology 06/2001; 43(5):398-404. DOI:10.1007/s002340000497 · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • John M. Abrahams · Jeffrey E. Arle · Robert W. Hurst · Eugene S. Flamm ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracranial aneurysms of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are extremely rare and sometimes difficult to diagnose without an adequate angiogram. We present the first series of 3 patients who were evaluated by the senior author and treated surgically. All 3 patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clincial symptoms, included occipital headache, nuchal rigidity, abducens nerve palsy and rapid neurologic deterioration. A unilateral injection of the vertebral artery failed to show the distal contralateral PICA and the aneurysm in 1 patient. All patients underwent aneurysm clipping through a posterior fossa craniectomy and C-1 laminectomy. The aneurysms were located on the tonsillomedullary segment of the PICA, 10-12 mm below the level of the foramen magnum. It is important to adequately visualize the distal extent of both PICAs or these aneurysms may not be seen. Patients who present with SAH must have the entirety of both vertebral arteries evaluated to avoid missing these aneurysms. The aneurysms were located adjacent to the atlas necessitating an upper cervical laminectomy for adequate surgical exposure. In general, the patients did well postoperatively and none of the patients developed cerebral vasospasm.
    Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/2000; 10(6):466-70. DOI:10.1159/000016109 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Eugene S. Flamm · Arthur A. Grigorian · Alvin Marcovici ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To build a predictive tool for assessing both favorable outcome and morbidity in a large series of unruptured aneurysms. Some well-known predictors of clinical outcome for patients with ruptured aneurysms are not useful in forecasting outcome for patients with unruptured aneurysms. The authors analyzed 93 patients with a total of 101 unruptured middle cerebral aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping. Intraoperative data was reviewed and seven factors that might influence outcome were identified: 1) aneurysm size > 10 mm, 2) presence of a broad neck, 3) presence of intraaneurysmal plaque, 4) clipping of more than one aneurysm during the same surgery, 5) temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, 6) multiple clip applications and repositionings, and 7) use of multiple clips. The entire group of unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms was divided into two subgroups on the basis of outcome. Each patient was subsequently analyzed for the Factor Accumulation Index (FAI), the sum of different factors observed in a given patient. The expected outcome subgroup was represented by 86 patients, with a total of 92 aneurysms, and demonstrated the following results: no factors were found in six patients; FAI of 1: 24 patients; FAI of 2: 23 patients; FAI of 3: 12 patients; FAI of 4: 11 patients; FAI of 5: 8 patients; FAI of 6: one patient; FAI of 7: one patient. Seven patients represented the subgroup of unexpected outcomes with total morbidity of 7.5%. There were no deaths. None of the patients in this subgroup accumulated FAI of 0, 1, 2, or 5; otherwise: FAI of 3: two patients; FAI of 4: two patients; FAI of 6: one patient; FAI of 7: two patients. It is possible to predict outcome in patients with unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm by calculating FAI. The postoperative morbidity increases with an FAI within a range of 3 to 4.
    Annals of Surgery 11/2000; 232(4):570-5. DOI:10.1097/00000658-200010000-00012 · 8.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The University of Pennsylvania Medical School was the nation's first medical school, and its Department of Neurosurgery is one of the nation's oldest. The history of the Department of Neurosurgery at Penn is recounted, beginning with the pioneer surgeon Charles Harrison Frazier. The evolution of the current department, its contemporary status, and its residency program are described.
    Neurosurgery 06/2000; 46(5):1223-8. DOI:10.1097/00006123-200005000-00040 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • O Cataltepe · D Langer · E Flamm ·

    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2000; 342(19):1455; author reply 1455-6. · 55.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe the neuro-ophthalmic findings in patients with orbital drainage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed the records of 100 consecutive adult patients with cerebral AVMs who presented to our institution during a 4-year period. All patients with orbital drainage were identified, and their neuro-ophthalmic evaluations were reviewed. Three patients (3%) were identified with orbital drainage from a cerebral AVM. The first patient presented with typical chiasmal syndrome (reduced visual acuity, bitemporal hemianopia, and optic atrophy). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large left temporal and parietal lobe AVM with compression of the chiasm between a large pituitary gland and a markedly enlarged carotid artery. The second patient presented with headaches and postural monocular transient visual obscurations. Examination revealed normal visual function with minimal orbital congestion and asymmetrical disc edema, which was worse in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right parietal and occipital lobe AVM without mass effect or hemorrhage and an enlarged left superior ophthalmic vein. The third patient had no visual symptoms and a normal neuro-ophthalmic examination; a right parietal lobe AVM was discovered during an examination for the cause of headaches. Orbital drainage from cerebral AVMs is rare. Manifestations may include anterior visual pathway compression, dilated conjunctival veins, orbital congestion, and asymmetrical disc swelling.
    Neurosurgery 05/2000; 46(4):820-4. DOI:10.1097/00006123-200004000-00010 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Robert W Hurst · Linda J Bagley · Paul Marcotte · Luis Schut · Eugene S Flamm ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spinal cord arteriovenous fistulas (SCAVF) are uncommon congenital lesions that usually involve the most caudal aspects of the cord. We present three cases of SCAVF that illustrate the clinical manifestations and possible management options. The characteristic involvement of the conus medullaris and an associated tethered spinal cord in one of our patient suggests that a disorder of secondary neurulation may be involved in the formation of these arteriovenous shunt lesions. Review of records and radiologic studies in three consecutive patients with SCAVF's treated at this institution. All three patients had SCAVF involving the lower lumbar spinal cord segments or the conus. One of the conus lesions was associated with tethering of the spinal cord. One small lesion (Type A) was treated surgically, whereas the two larger lesions (Type B) were treated using interventional neuroradiologic techniques. Both surgical and endovascular method have a role in management of these unusual spinal cord vascular malformations. The association with tethered cord suggests that the propensity for SCAVM to occur in the most caudal portions of the spinal cord may result from failure of secondary neurulation to properly develop the unique and complex vascular anatomy of the region.
    Surgical Neurology 08/1999; 52(1):95-9. DOI:10.1016/S0090-3019(99)00038-5 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • A Berenstein · E S Flamm · M J Kupersmith ·

    New England Journal of Medicine 06/1999; 340(18):1439-40; author reply 1441-2. DOI:10.1056/NEJM199905063401815 · 55.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors present the first reported case of a hemangiopericytoma (HPC) occurring in the third ventricle. Most of these lesions are based in the meninges. There is only one other reported case of an intraventricular HPC; in that case the lesion was found in the lateral ventricle. A 40-year-old right-handed man presented with a 3-month history of headaches. Clinical evaluation, including computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies, revealed a 1-cm enhancing lesion in the third ventricle. Given the findings on the preoperative imaging studies, the lesion was not consistent with some of the more commonly occurring tumors of the third ventricle, namely colloid cysts. A transcortical approach and resection of the lesion was performed without complication. The final pathological findings were consistent with those of an HPC. Hemangiopericytomas rarely occur in the ventricles and may pose a difficult diagnostic dilemma based on their radiographic and gross appearances, as shown in this case. Because of this difficulty, histological confirmation is required to make a definitive diagnosis. These lesions have a propensity to recur and metastasize in the central nervous system and periphery, thus making the goal of treatment a complete surgical resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy in most cases.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 03/1999; 90(2):359-62. DOI:10.3171/jns.1999.90.2.0359 · 3.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
628.40 Total Impact Points


  • 2006
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institut für Neurochirurgie
      Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
  • 2005
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2000-2003
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
    • Yeshiva University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1999-2003
    • Beth Israel Medical Center
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1992-1999
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1992-1998
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1995
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1977-1988
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1985
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States