[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine whether corneal topical application of mitomycin-C (MMC) results in measurable plasma levels of systemic absorption. SETTING: Madigan Army Medical Center, Refractive Surgery Center, Fort Lewis, Washington, and Micro-Constants Laboratory, San Diego, California, USA. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The study comprised male and female active-duty soldiers having excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy with MMC. Patients who met inclusion criteria were asked to provide a blood sample immediately after being treated with MMC 0.2 mg/mL (0.02%) for 30 seconds. Human plasma samples were evaluated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine whether MMC was present. RESULTS: Thirty samples were submitted for evaluation. There was zero detection of MMC in the submitted samples. The quantifiable limit was greater than 10.0 ng/mL. All samples were below this. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of 30 patients with topical application of MMC for refractive surgery, there was no measurable evidence of systemic absorption. Although systemic absorption has been found with use in larger quantities, it was not known whether MMC toxicity concerns could be extrapolated to the refractive surgery population. This information allows counseling of patients on the extremely low likelihood of systemic absorption or toxicity following current techniques for refractive surgery. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 11/2012; · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to conduct a quality improvement (QI), applied practical review of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th edition, Carcinoma of the Eyelid staging system. AJCC utilizes a primary tumor, lymph node, metastasis (pTNM) cancer staging approach.
We wanted to determine if the AJCC pTNM carcinoma staging system identified patients with highly aggressive carcinoma of the eyelid. We also wanted to determine if there were any unexpected issues in its practical application.
We conducted a 15-year, consecutive, retrospective review of all cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid. We reviewed the original histopathology slides and complete pathology records for each case.
Over a 15-year review period, 52 cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid were identified. The average age of the study population was 72 years. Nodular well-differentiated basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the predominant histology for 85% of cases. Morpheaform/metatypical BCC was the next dominant at 9%. Squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous carcinoma followed at 4% and 2%, respectively. We were able to assign clear staging to 50 of the 52 cases with the available pathology data. The stage results were as follows: stage 1A 72%, stage 1B 22%, stage II 4%, stage III 2%, with no cases of stage IV metastatic disease.
The 7th edition AJCC Carcinoma of the Eyelid chapter proved to be a practical tool for carcinoma staging of the eyelid. The largest tumor dimension remains an effective predictive factor. High-grade pathologic prognostic factors such as tumor necrosis or perineural spread had a 100% association with a final stage of II or greater. Concordance and compliance was 100% for the recommended site-specific pathologic risk factors. Regarding squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid, three new required data points had a 0% reporting rate over 15 years. Overall, smaller less invasive tumors were classified as stage 1A and 1B tumors. More invasive and higher risk tumors fell into appropriate higher staging classifications. The newly recommended prognostic site-specific tumor factors appear to work well with a high concordance with staging severity, and strong medical community acceptance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer commissioned the Ophthalmic Oncology Task Force to modify and update the ophthalmic chapters of the 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual.
To review the existing eyelid carcinoma chapter in the 6th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual for its clinical and research utility and to seek evidence-based revisions with the strongest medical foundation to use in updating the anatomically based TNM cancer staging system manual.
The 4-year Ophthalmic Oncology Task Force consisted of 45 tumor specialists from 10 countries and an extensive internal and external peer review process. The 10-member Carcinoma of the Eyelid team included a diverse group of international authors. The group included extensive representation by clinicians, pathologists, surgeons, radiation therapists, and cancer registrars, all with advanced, ophthalmic cancer-related areas of subspecialty. Data sources included the above expertise applying a worldwide medical literature search, with no discrimination based on language, country of origin, discipline source, specialty source, or surgical practice.
Revisions were made to the TNM classification in areas with the strongest basis in evidence and practical effect. Lymph node staging data were expanded markedly to reflect its significant prognostic value. T3 and T4 were redefined and stage groupings were added that applied current understanding in tumor biology, respected site-specific risk factors, and provided greater correlation with the common language of the overall AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Evidence-based biomarkers and data-field modifiers were included to capture additional pathologically and clinically substantiated prognostic factors.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 09/2009; 133(8):1256-61. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) positive for the cell marker Ki-1/CD30 is a recently recognized high grade lymphoma. The authors present a case of a three-year-old female child with a rapidly growing sino-orbital lesion with central nervous system extension, suggestive of rhabdomyosarcoma. The child presented a clinical challenge for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Histologically, the unusual tumor showed a mixture of large malignant lymphocytes and histiocytes. Immunohistochemically, the malignant lymphocytes showed positive reactivity to LCA, Ki-1, CD3, UCHL-1. The histiocytes were positive for KP-1 and lysozyme. There was complete resolution of the lymphoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of Ki-1+ ALCL lymphoma involving the orbit of a child.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To document the incidence and treatment of patients with severe ocular and ocular adnexal injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Retrospective hospital-based observational analysis of injuries.
All coalition forces, enemy prisoners of war, and civilians with severe ocular and ocular adnexal injuries.
The authors retrospectively examined severe ocular and ocular adnexal injuries that were treated by United States Army ophthalmologists during the war in Iraq from March 2003 through December 2005.
Incidence, causes, and treatment of severe ocular and ocular adnexal injuries.
During the time data were gathered, 797 severe eye injuries were treated. The most common cause of the eye injuries was explosions with fragmentation injury. Among those injured, there were 438 open globe injuries, of which 49 were bilateral. A total of 116 eyes were removed (enucleation, evisceration, or exenteration), of which 6 patients required bilateral enucleation. Injuries to other body systems were common.
Severe eye injuries represent a significant form of trauma encountered in Operation Iraqi Freedom. These injuries were most commonly caused by explosion trauma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rehabilitation of the congenitally anophthalmic orbit is frustrating to both the parents and physician. Traditional methods involve using progressively enlarging static acrylic conformers to expand the conjunctival socket, followed by placement of conventional static spherical orbital implants, dermis-fat grafts, or inflatable balloon expanders for orbital enlargement. Limitations of these methods typically result in less-than-optimal cosmetic outcomes, with retardation of bony orbital and overlying soft tissue growth adversely affecting midfacial growth and symmetry. Recent advances in tissue expansion technology may offer additional, novel alternatives to conventional therapies.
Hydrogel tissue expanders were recently adapted for use in congenital anophthalmia. The expanders are placed in their dry, contracted states, and expand gradually to their full size via osmosis of surrounding tissue fluid, with up to a 10-fold increase in volume. Offering the benefit of predictable and controllable self-expansion, hydrogel expanders may offer yet another alternative or adjunctive therapy to the early rehabilitation of the contracted socket. Separate appliances are used for conjunctival and orbital reconstruction. Initial results appear promising. Tempering the enthusiasm for their use, however-particularly in terms of implanted orbital expanders-is the recent spate of long-term complications reported from previous uses of hydrogels as scleral buckling material.
Self-expanding hydrogel tissue expanders appear to offer an intriguing reconstructive alternative to the frustrating condition of congenital anophthalmia. Long-term safety of the material as an orbital implant has not yet been demonstrated, but early results are promising.
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 11/2004; 15(5):426-31. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical presentation of cutaneous benign mixed tumor of the eyelid and its management options.
Periocular cases of cutaneous benign mixed tumor were gathered from members of an oculoplastics specialty Internet discussion group. A total of 9 patients are described in this retrospective, interventional case series. The clinical presentation, histopathology, and management of these lesions is reviewed.
Patients were typically asymptomatic, presenting with a slowly enlarging, nontender nodule of 2 to 8 years' duration. The lesions ranged from 4 mm to 17 mm in greatest dimension. Four of the lesions were on the eyelid margin, three in the sub-brow area of the upper eyelid, and two in the central lids. All six cases not involving the brow were fixed to the tarsus; one brow lesion was believed to be adherent to the skin. None of the lesions was associated with significant changes of the overlying epidermis, although one lesion showed overlying pigmentation. All patients underwent excisional biopsy for diagnostic or cosmetic reasons. On histopathologic examination, the tumors were biphasic, with an epithelial component exhibiting apocrine or hair follicle differentiation and a myxoid, adipocytic, chondroid, and/or fibrous stroma. The pathologic diagnoses were all consistent with cutaneous benign mixed tumor (chondroid syringoma, pleomorphic adenoma). Follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 12 months, although several patients failed to keep scheduled follow-up appointments. No clinical recurrences were identified.
Cutaneous benign mixed tumor may occur in the eyelid, and, although uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of firm, nodular eyelid tumors. The histopathologic features are similar to those seen in this tumor type arising in other areas of the body. Preoperative consideration of this diagnostic possibility may allow the surgeon to plan for complete excision, thereby reducing the possibility of recurrence or malignant transformation.
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 04/2004; 20(2):110-6. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To highlight the various causes of gaze-evoked amaurosis.
Retrospective noncomparative interventional case series.
Five patients treated at our facility over the past 6 years.
Clinical presentation, radiologic studies, surgical management, and postsurgical results are presented.
Visual acuity, clinical findings of gaze-evoked amaurosis.
Only two patients had classic intraorbital etiologies, one with an intraconal cavernous hemangioma and one with an intraconal foreign body. Three patients had extraorbital processes, two with orbital fractures and one with a sinus tumor. Only two of our patients initially were aware of the gaze-evoked amaurosis at presentation. Appropriate surgery was curative in all cases.
Gaze-evoked amaurosis is a rare condition, classically implicating intraconal orbital pathology. In one of the largest case series published to date, we found extraorbital etiologies are also capable of producing gaze-evoked vision loss. Gaze-evoked amaurosis should be suspected and tested for in any orbital condition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital entropion and atrichosis of the lower eyelids associated with tarsal hypoplasia is a rare condition, with isolated reports in the literature and without previous pathologic examination.
Case report. A father and son with mild entropion, lower eyelash atrichosis, and tarsal hypoplasia are described. A family pedigree demonstrates autosomal dominant inheritance.
Histopathology from an entropion repair shows rudimentary tarsus and Meibomian glands consistent with hypoplasia of the tarsus.
Isolated congenital entropion may occur in association with atrichosis of the lower eyelashes and hypoplasia of the tarsus as an isolated anomaly. The condition may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and appears to be well tolerated.
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 10/2002; 18(5):381-4. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cogent update of orbital blowout history, anatomy, and management are included with a retrospective study of 59 pure orbital blowout fractures which occurred between 1994 and 1998. Our goal is to provide a better understanding of this frequently encountered entity and to help augment the confidence of nonophthalmologists who will often evaluate patients with suspected orbital blowout fractures.
American Journal of Emergency Medicine 04/2001; 19(2):147-54. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chorioretinitis sclopetaria presents a characteristic pattern of choroidal and retinal changes caused by a high velocity projectile passing into the orbit, in close proximity to the globe. While it is unlikely that a patient should completely forget the trauma causing such damage, preserved or compensated visual function may blur the patient's memory of these events over time. Characteristic physical findings help to clarify the antecedent history. Despite the lack of an acknowledged history of ocular trauma or surgery, in our case, the characteristic ocular findings discovered at presentation allowed for recognition of the underlying etiology. Because of good visual function, the patient had completely forgotten about the trauma that occurred 12 years earlier. Strabismus surgery was performed for treatment of the presenting symptomatic diplopia. The pathognomonic findings in chorioretinitis sclopetaria are invaluable in correctly diagnosing this condition, especially when a history of ocular trauma is unavailable.
Ophthalmic surgery and lasers 01/2001; 32(2):152-5.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present a case of oculo-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia associated with corneal anesthesia and ipsilateral dacryostenosis that was successfully treated with monocanalicular lacrimal intubation.
Previous neurotrophic corneal ulcers in a child with hemifacial microsomia had become secondarily infected from a stagnant tear lake, resulting in significant corneal scarring and visual loss. A single monocanalicular stent maintained nasolacrimal patency without causing further corneal trauma, despite constant medial gaze because of wide lateral tarsorrhaphy and contralateral occlusion therapy for amblyopia.
Monocanalicular stents may aid the treatment of dacryostenosis in the face of compromised corneal sensation.
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 02/2000; 16(1):55-7. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of CT and MR imaging examination of orbital implants and the anophthalmic socket is expanding constantly. As the imaging techniques gain refinement and resolution, the list of potential clinical application grows. Frequent clinical-radiologic queries regarding the anophthalmic socket include neuro-radiologic findings with congenital anophthalmia or bilateral microphthalmia, the vascularization or position of an orbital implant following enucleation, or orbital recurrence of tumor following enucleation. Common clinical-radiologic questions regarding orbital implants relate to the associated findings of trauma, infection, bleeding, or recurrence of tumor in relationship to the existing orbital implant.
Radiologic Clinics of North America 12/1998; 36(6):1133-47, xi. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the manifestations of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Candida guilliermondii in a corneal transplant performed for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy.Method: Case report.Results: Candida guilliermondii was identified as the causative organism of an indolent infectious crystalline keratopathy. Incisional lamellar biopsy provided diagnostic culture and histopathologic results. Histopathology showed aggregates of yeast elements between corneal stromal lamellae, without inflammation. The infection progressed despite a 6-week course of topical amphotericin B and an additional 6-week course of topical and oral fluconazole. Repeat penetrating keratoplasty resulted in clear graft, with no recurrent infection.Conclusions: Fungal keratopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of infectious crystalline keratopathy. Numerous Candida species have been isolated in addition to the most common causative bacterial organism, Streptococcus viridans. Candida guilliermondii is yet one more causative agent of infectious crystalline keratopathy. Candida guilliermondii, a rare human pathogen, was resistant to medical therapy in this case.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 06/1998; · 3.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted, and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced MRI on 24 patients with retinoblastoma, using a 1.5 T superconducting unit and head and orbital surface coil imaging. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including B-scan ultrasonography. CT was performed on 10 of 24 patients. Pathologic correlation was obtained in 18 patients who required enucleation. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI with fat suppression was the sequence most sensitive to optic nerve extension and provided the greatest differentiation between tumor and uninvolved extrascleral tissue. Retinoblastoma demonstrated contrast enhancement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, the growing application of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of the orbit and globe have dramatically increased the role of imaging and, hence, that of the radiologist in assessing ophthalmologic disorders. This article discusses magnetic resonance imaging features of the most common and less common ocular pathologies, with particular emphasis on the potential of magnetic resonance imaging in the field of ophthalmology.
Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 03/1996; 6(1):29-59. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior uveal melanomas with ciliary body involvement have greater mortality when compared with choroidal melanomas. This study was conducted to determine if this association is due to an independent effect or to correlations with other parameters.
From the 4335 cases of uveal melanoma with follow-up data in the Registry of Ophthalmic Pathology, 664 were selected; therefore, approximately two thirds of the patients died of metastatic melanoma. Ciliary body involvement was determined by the location of the anterior tumor margin. Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox regression, and Gamel-Boag log-normal regression analyses were performed. Covariables included ciliary body involvement, largest tumor dimension, mean diameter of the largest ten nucleoli, and modified Callender classification.
Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox analyses indicated a significant association between ciliary body involvement and tumor-related death but when included in a multivariate Cox model, ciliary body involvement was not statistically significant. Similarly, when ciliary body involvement was included in a multivariate Gamel-Boag model, ciliary body involvement was not statistically significant. Melanomas that involve the ciliary body were more likely to be larger (Student's t = 10.5; P = 10(-6)), contain larger nucleoli (Student's t = 2.43; P = 0.015), and be of mixed cell type (chi-square = 17.2; P = 3 x 10(-5)).
Ciliary body involvement is associated with tumor-related mortality but this association is primarily due to ciliary body tumors being larger with more malignant cytology.