[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From our linkage study of Irish families with a high density of schizophrenia, we have previously reported evidence for susceptibility genes in regions 5q21-31, 6p24-21, 8p22-21, and 10p15-p11. In this report, we describe the cumulative results from independent genome scans of three a priori random subsets of 90 families each, and from multipoint analysis of all 270 families in ten regions. Of these ten regions, three (13q32, 18p11-q11, and 18q22-23) did not generate scores above the empirical baseline pairwise scan results, and one (6q13-26) generated a weak signal. Six other regions produced more positive pairwise and multipoint results. They showed the following maximum multipoint H-LOD (heterogeneity LOD) and NPL scores: 2p14-13: 0.89 (P = 0.06) and 2.08 (P = 0.02), 4q24-32: 1.84 (P = 0.007) and 1.67 (P = 0.03), 5q21-31: 2.88 (P= 0.0007), and 2.65 (P = 0.002), 6p25-24: 2.13 (P = 0.005) and 3.59 (P = 0.0005), 6p23: 2.42 (P = 0.001) and 3.07 (P = 0.001), 8p22-21: 1.57 (P = 0.01) and 2.56 (P = 0.005), 10p15-11: 2.04 (P = 0.005) and 1.78 (P = 0.03). The degree of 'internal replication' across subsets differed, with 5q, 6p, and 8p being most consistent and 2p and 10p being least consistent. On 6p, the data suggested the presence of two susceptibility genes, in 6p25-24 and 6p23-22. Very few families were positive on more than one region, and little correlation between regions was evident, suggesting substantial locus heterogeneity. The levels of statistical significance were modest, as expected from loci contributing to complex traits. However, our internal replications, when considered along with the positive results obtained in multiple other samples, suggests that most of these six regions are likely to contain genes that influence liability to schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large body of genetic epidemiological data strongly implicate genetic factors in the etiology of smoking behavior. Polymorphisms of genes in the dopaminergic system are plausible functional candidate genes and a linkage and an association study suggested that the type 5 dopamine receptor gene (DRD5) may be etiologically involved. We investigated the association of four DRD5 polymorphisms with smoking initiation and progression to nicotine dependence in a population-based sample of over 900 subjects. For smoking initiation, there was no significant association with the four DRD5 markers we studied; however, maximum likelihood analyses suggested the presence of a haplotype protective against smoking initiation. For progression to nicotine dependence, there were no strongly significant associations with the four DRD5 markers or for the estimated haplotypes. These data are not consistent with a strong etiological role for DRD5 in the etiology of these complex smoking behaviors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 04/2001; 105(3):259-65. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.1301 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several types of evidence, including experiments with mice that lack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2-subunit gene (CHRNB2), have suggested that a beta2-containing nicotinic receptor is necessary for at least some of the reinforcing properties of nicotine. However, sequence variations in CHRNB2 have not been reported, and its role in influencing human smoking behavior and nicotine dependence is not known. We screened most of the introns and exons and found five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We tested four of these SNPs in three large, carefully selected samples: nonsmokers (n = 317) and regular smokers low levels of nicotine dependence (ND, n = 238), or smokers with high-ND (n = 317). None of the four polymorphisms we tested, nor their estimated haplotypes, were associated with smoking initiation or progression to nicotine dependence.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2000; 96(5):646-53. DOI:10.1002/1096-8628(20001009)96:53.0.CO;2-W · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and public health costs. Genetic factors influence both smoking initiation and nicotine dependence, but none of the genes involved have been identified. A genome scan using 451 markers was conducted to identify chromosomal regions linked to nicotine dependence in a collection of 130 families containing 343 genotyped individuals (308 nicotine-dependent) from Christchurch, New Zealand. By pairwise analysis, the best result was with marker D2S1326 which gave a lod score under heterogeneity (H-LOD) of 2.63 (P=0.0012) and a nonparametric linkage (NPL, Zall) score of 2.65 (P=0.0011). To identify regions that warranted further study, rather than comparing the pairwise scores from the scan to theoretical thresholds, we compared them to an empirical baseline, found here to be H-LOD scores of 0.5 and Zall scores of 1.0. We also found a number of large (31-88 cM) regions where many (8-16) consecutive markers yielded small but positive Zall scores. Selected regions of chromosomes 2, 4, 10, 16, 17 and 18 were investigated further by additional genotyping of the Christchurch sample and an independent sample from Richmond, Virginia (91 families with 264 genotyped individuals, 211 nicotine-dependent). Multipoint nonparametric analysis showed the following maximums for the Christchurch sample: Chr. 2 (Zlr=2.61, P=0.005), Chr. 4 (Zlr=1.36, P=0.09), Chr. 10 (Zlr=2.43, P=0.008), Chr. 16 (Zlr=0.85, P=0.19), Chr. 17 (Zlr=1.64, P=0.05), Chr. 18 (Zlr=1.54, P=0.06). Analysis of the Richmond sample showed the following maximums: Chr. 2 (Zlr=1.00, P=0.15), Chr. 4 (Zlr=0.39, P=0.34), Chr. 10 (Zlr=1.21, P=0.11), Chr. 16 (Zlr=1.11, P=0.13), Chr. 17 (Zlr=1.60, P=0.05), Chr. 18 (Zlr=1.33, P=0.09). It is probable that the small samples used here provided only limited power to detect linkage. It may have been difficult therefore to detect genes of small effect, or those that are influencing risk in only a small proportion of the families. When simply judged against the usual standards of linkage significance, none of the individual regions yielded strong evidence in either sample. Some or all of the most positive results in the genome scan of the Christchurch sample, therefore, could be due to chance. However, the presence in the Christchurch scan of multiple large regions containing many consecutive positive markers, coupled with the relatively positive results in these same regions in the Richmond sample, suggests that some of these regions may contain genes influencing nicotine dependence and therefore deserve further study.