[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this randomized double-blinded study was to see whether the addition of small-dose clonidine to small-dose bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia prolonged the duration of postoperative analgesia and also provided a sufficient block duration that would be adequate for inguinal herniorrhaphy. We randomized 45 patients to 3 groups receiving intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 6 mg combined with saline (Group B), clonidine 15 micro g (Group BC15), or clonidine 30 micro g (Group BC30); all solutions were diluted with saline to 3 mL. The sensory block level was insufficient for surgery in five patients in Group B, and these patients were given general anesthesia. Patients in Groups BC15 and BC30 had a significantly higher spread of analgesia (two to four dermatomes) than those in Group B. Two-segment regression, return of S1 sensation, and regression of motor block were significantly longer in Group BC30 than in Group B. The addition of clonidine 15 and 30 micro g to bupivacaine prolonged time to first analgesic request and decreased postoperative pain with minimal risk of hypotension. We conclude that clonidine 15 micro g with bupivacaine 6 mg produced an effective spinal anesthesia and recommend this dose for inguinal herniorrhaphy, because it did not prolong the motor block. IMPLICATIONS: The addition of clonidine 15 micro g to 6 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine increases the spread of analgesia, prolongs the time to first analgesic request, and decreases postoperative pain, compared with bupivacaine alone, during inguinal herniorrhaphy under spinal anesthesia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the absorption, distribution and elimination of ethanol in women with abnormal gut as a result of gastric bypass surgery. Patients who undergo gastric bypass for morbid obesity complain of increased sensitivity to the effects of alcohol after the operation.
Twelve healthy women operated for morbid obesity at least 3 years earlier were recruited. Twelve other women closely matched in terms of age and body mass index (BMI) served as the control group. After an overnight fast each subject drank 95% v/v ethanol (0.30 g kg-1 body weight) as a bolus dose. The ethanol was diluted with orange juice to 20% v/v and finished in 5 min. Specimens of venous blood were taken from an indwelling catheter before drinking started and every 10 min for up to 3.5 h post-dosing. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was determined by headspace gas chromatography.
The maximum blood-ethanol concentration (Cmax) was 0.741 +/- 0.211 g l-1 (+/- s.d.) in the operated group compared with 0.577 +/- 0.112 g l-1 in the controls (mean difference 0.164 g l-1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.021, 0.307). The median time to peak (tmax) was 10 min in the bypass patients compared with 30 min in controls (median difference -15 min (95% CI -10, -20 min). At 10 and 20 min post-dosing the BAC was higher in the bypass patients (P < 0.05) but not at 30 min and all later times (P > 0.05). Other pharmacokinetic parameters of ethanol were not significantly different between the two groups of women (P > 0.05).
The higher sensitivity to ethanol after gastric bypass surgery probably reflects the more rapid absorption of ethanol leading to higher Cmax and earlier tmax. The marked reduction in body weight after the operation might also be a factor to consider if the same absolute quantity of ethanol is consumed.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2003; 54(6):587-91. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not known whether patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have delayed gastric emptying compared with patients without PONV. We compared the perioperative rate of gastric emptying in patients experiencing PONV with the rate in those without PONV immediately after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gastric emptying was studied by the acetaminophen method. Acetaminophen is not absorbed from the stomach but is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine, and the rate of gastric emptying therefore determines the rate of absorption of acetaminophen administered into the stomach. Forty patients (ASA physical status I and II) were included in the study. After the induction of anesthesia, a gastric tube was positioned in the stomach and 1.5 g of acetaminophen dissolved in 200 mL of water was administered. Venous blood samples for the determination of serum acetaminophen concentrations were taken before and at 15-min intervals during a period of 180 min after the administration of acetaminophen. Twenty-six patients experienced nausea during the first 4 h postoperatively. The other 14 patients had no nausea. There were no statistically significant differences in the maximal acetaminophen concentration, the time taken to reach the maximal concentration, or the area under the serum acetaminophen concentration time curves from 0 to 60, 0-120, and 0-180 min between the groups of patients with or without PONV. We did not find any relationship between postoperative gastric emptying and PONV, and therefore gastric emptying is not a predictor of PONV. IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting is frequent after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study has shown that perioperative gastric emptying is not a predictor of early postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.