Manju B Reddy

Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (30)97.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both Echinacea ethanol extracts stimulated apparent glucuronidation and basolateral efflux of glucuronides of alkamides 8 and 10 but not alkamide 11. Bauer ketone 24 was totally metabolized to more hydrophilic metabolites when administered as a single compound, but was also glucuronidated when present in Echinacea extracts. Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 (175-230 µM) and ethanol extracts of E. sanguinea (1 mg/mL, containing ~ 90 µM total alkamides) and E. pallida (5 mg/mL, containing 285 µM total alkamides) decreased the efflux of the P-glycoprotein transporter probe calcein-AM from Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that other constituents in these Echinacea extracts facilitated the metabolism and efflux of alkamides and ketones, which might improve therapeutic benefits. Alkamides and Echinacea extracts might be useful in potentiating some chemotherapeutics, which are substrates for the P-glycoprotein transporter.
    Planta Medica 03/2013; 79(3-4):266-74. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High phytate content in staple food crops is a major barrier to successful iron biofortification. We have exploited the low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) mutant of maize to generate transgenic plants with up-to 70 μg/g seed iron through the endosperm-specific overexpression of soybean ferritin, resulting in more than 2-fold improvement in iron bioavailability. The levels of bioavailable seed iron achieved in this study greatly exceed any achieved thus far and closely approach values estimated to have a nutritional impact on target populations. Gene expression studies reveal a large induction of the YS1 transporter in leaves and severe repression of an iron acquisition gene DMAS1 in roots, suggesting significant alterations in the iron homeostatic mechanisms in transgenic lpa1-1. Furthermore, preliminary tests show that the high-iron lpa1-1 seeds have higher germination rates and seedling vigor when compared to those of the nontransgenic seeds, which may help improve their value to plant breeders.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2011; 59(24):12954-62. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2011; 137(3):1107-12. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soy foods have been substituted for meat in recent years because of proposed health benefits. Research indicates, however, that soy protein and phytate in soy products inhibit the absorption of divalent cations. Our study was primarily designed to determine the effect of consuming two to three servings per day of soy foods, providing ∼19 g protein and ∼36 mg isoflavones, on iron and zinc status in premenopausal women during a 10-weeks period. As secondary outcomes, we also tested the effect of soy foods on biochemical markers of bone and thyroid hormones. Nonsmoking women (18-28 years) without chronic disease, anemia, pregnancy, or irregular menstrual cycles were randomly assigned to either the soy food (SF, n=31) or animal food (AF, n=32) group. Blood and urine samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and postintervention. At baseline, iron and zinc status, bone markers, and thyroid hormones were not different between groups. After intervention, no significant changes were observed in hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, serum iron, ferritin, or transferrin receptor (TFR) concentrations. Plasma zinc, but not serum alkaline phosphatase, significantly decreased in both groups (-0.8 μmol/L). The change in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was significant between SF (1.5 U/L) and AF (-0.7 U/L) groups. No significant changes were observed in bone resorption, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or free thyroxine after soy food intake. Incorporating ∼19 g soy protein from soy foods for 10 weeks had no significant effect on iron or zinc status, bone resorption or formation, or thyroid hormone status in premenopausal women.
    Journal of Women's Health 05/2011; 20(5):771-80. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    Qi Xu, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Manju B Reddy
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    ABSTRACT: Iron may play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD) since it can induce oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration. The objective of this study was to determine whether the iron chelator, phytic acid (IP6) can protect against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced apoptosis in immortalized rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cells under normal and iron-excess conditions. Caspase-3 activity was increased about 6-fold after 6-OHDA treatment (compared to control; P < .001) and 30 μmol/L IP6 pretreatment decreased it by 38% (P < .05). Similarly, a 63% protection (P < .001) against 6-OHDA induced DNA fragmentation was observed with IP6 pretreatment. Under iron-excess condition, a 6-fold increase in caspase-3 activity (P < .001) and a 42% increase in DNA fragmentation (P < .05) with 6-OHDA treatment were decreased by 41% (P < .01) and 27% (P < .05), respectively, with 30 μmol/L IP6. Together, our data suggest that IP6 protects against 6-OHDA-induced cell apoptosis in both normal and iron-excess conditions, and IP6 may offer neuroprotection in PD.
    Parkinson's disease. 01/2011; 2011:431068.
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    ABSTRACT: Centralized adiposity, insulin resistance, excess iron, and elevated oxidative stress place postmenopausal women at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship among excess iron, oxidative stress, and centralized fat mass in healthy postmenopausal women. The parent project recruited healthy women for a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial designed to examine the effect of soy isoflavones on bone. At baseline (n = 122), we measured three antioxidant enzymes, iron status indices (serum ferritin among others), oxidative stress indices (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL], urinary isoprostanes [PGF(2alpha)], protein carbonyls, DNA damage), and waist, hip, and thigh fat mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the CVD risk factors that contributed to oxidative stress and centralized fat mass (waist + hip/thigh = AndGynFM ratio). Almost 14% (p < 0.0005) of the variability in oxLDL was accounted for by AndGynFM ratio (6.1%, p < 0.0005), age (4.0%, p = 0.012), and serum iron (2.8%, p = 0.053). Similarly, 16% (p < 0.0001) of the variability in PGF(2alpha) was accounted for by the AndGynFM ratio (4.8%, p = 0.011), HOMA (3.9%, p = 0.021), and serum iron (2.7%, p = 0.054). We accounted for 33% (p </= 0.0001) of the variability in AndGynFM ratio by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (4.3%, p = 0.008), ferritin (4.9%, p = 0.005), HOMA (4.5%, p = 0.006), oxLDL (2.6%, p = 0.04), and PGF(2alpha) (3.0%, p = 0.025). Our study suggests that reducing centralized fat mass and maintaining a favorable lipid profile, antioxidant status, and iron status all may be important in protecting postmenopausal women from atherosclerotic CVD.
    Journal of Women's Health 06/2009; 18(6):795-801. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ferritin-iron has been shown to be as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate in humans. Thus, biofortification to breed crops with high ferritin content is a promising strategy to alleviate the global iron deficiency problem. Although ferritin is present in all food crops, its concentration varies between species and varieties. Therefore, a successful ferritin biofortification strategy requires a method to rapidly measure ferritin concentrations in food crops. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and reliable ELISA using an anti-ferritin polyclonal antibody to detect ferritin in various crops. Crude seed extracts were found to have 10.2 +/- 1.0, 4.38 +/- 0.9, 1.2 +/- 0.3, 0.38 +/- 0.1, and 0.04 +/- 0.01 microg of ferritin/g of dry seed in red beans, white beans, wheat, maize, and brown rice, respectively. Although the measured absolute concentrations of ferritin values were low, the presented method is applicable for rapid screening for the relative ferritin concentrations of large numbers of seeds to identify and breed ferritin-rich crops.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2009; 57(6):2155-61. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body composition and energy homeostasis are thought to affect the appetitive hormones: adiponectin, leptin, insulin, and ghrelin. This study examined whether centrally located fat and/or overall adiposity were related to these appetitive hormones in healthy postmenopausal women. Overall and regional body composition was assessed by dual-energy X ray absorptiometry in relation to plasma adiponectin, serum leptin, serum insulin, and plasma ghrelin in 242 postmenopausal women. Regression analyses revealed that the androidal-to-gynoidal fat mass ratio (18.0%), age (3.2%), and white blood cell count (1.8%) accounted for 28% of the variability in adiponectin (F=22.2; P<0.0001); androidal (waist+hip) fat mass (66.0%), androidal fat mass(2) (6.2%), whole-body lean mass (2.2%), and age (0.8%) accounted for 69% of the variability in leptin (F=102.5; P<0.0001). Regression analyses revealed that sagittal abdominal diameter (8.4%), glucose (5.4%), white blood cell count (2.6%), and dietary omega-3 fatty acids (2.0%) accounted for 32% of the variability in insulin (F=20.8; P<0.0001); waist circumference (12.7%), hip lean mass (2.0%), and white blood cell count (1.9%) accounted for 26% of the variability in ghrelin (F=20.7; P<0.0001). Our results indicated that centralized fat mass was the primary contributor to these appetitive hormones in healthy postmenopausal women. Since central adiposity in postmenopausal women was related to appetitive hormones, minimizing weight gain during the menopausal transition may optimize appetitive hormones, thereby facilitating appetite control and weight maintenance.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 06/2008; 158(6):889-97. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal source food (ASF) intake in young children has been associated with improved dietary quality and growth outcomes. The ENAM project provides technical and financial support for income generation activities of caregivers of young children in selected districts in Ghana, with the goal of improving household food security and ASF utilization in children’s diets. Baseline data from the ENAM project was analyzed to compare child dietary intakes and anthropometry between 123 households that experienced child-level food-insecurity and 391 households in which children were food secure. Caregiver wealth rank (p<0.001), occupation (p=0.004), weekly income (p=0.011), and locality (p<0.001) were associated with food security among the children in the past month. The likelihood of eating ASF and the frequency of consuming ASF within the past week were positively associated with children’s food security (p<0.01). However, child WHZ (95% CI: –0.20, 0.22); WAZ (95% CI:–0.18, 0.25) and HAZ (95% CI:–0.22, 0.35) did not differ by food security status. In this setting, food security was related to ASF intake but not anthropometry in 2- to 5-y-old children. Support was through GL-CRSP, funded in part by USAID, Grant # PCE-G-00-98-00036-00.
    Experimental Biology 2008, San Diego; 04/2008
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    Qi Xu, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Manju B Reddy
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    ABSTRACT: Disrupted iron metabolism and excess iron accumulation has been reported in the brains of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Because excessive iron can induce oxidative stress subsequently causing degradation of nigral dopaminergic neurons in PD, we determined the protective effect of a naturally occurring iron chelator, phytic acid (IP6), on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced cell death in immortalized rat mesencephalic/dopaminergic cells. Cell death was induced with MPP(+) in normal and iron-excess conditions and cytotoxicity was measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) and trypan blue staining. Apoptotic cell death was also measured with caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation, and Hoechst nuclear staining. Compared to MPP(+) treatment, IP6 (30 micromol/L) increased cell viability by 19% (P<0.05) and decreased cell death by 22% (P<0.05). A threefold increase in caspase-3 activity (P<0.001) and a twofold increase in DNA fragmentation (P<0.05) with MPP(+) treatment was decreased by 55% (P<0.01) and 52% (P<0.05), respectively with IP6. Cell survival was increased by 18% (P<0.05) and 42% (P<0.001) with 30 and 100 micromol/L of IP6, respectively in iron-excess conditions. A 40% and 52% (P<0.001) protection was observed in caspase-3 activity with 30 and 100 micromol/L IP6, respectively in iron-excess condition. Similarly, a 45% reduction (P<0.001) in DNA fragmentation was found with 100 micromol/L IP6. In addition, Hoechst nuclear staining results confirmed the protective effect of IP6 against apoptosis. Similar protection was also observed with the differentiated cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate a significant neuroprotective effect of phytate in a cell culture model of PD.
    Toxicology 04/2008; 245(1-2):101-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein and fibrinogen are established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors. These acute-phase proteins and the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1beta may be elevated in obesity and with menopause. The purpose of this multicenter study was to identify whether centrally located fat and/or overall adiposity were related to these inflammatory markers in healthy postmenopausal women. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess overall and regional body composition (fat mass in particular) in 242 postmenopausal women in relation to plasma fibrinogen, serum C-reactive protein, and these proinflammatory cytokines. Multiple regression analyses revealed that 36% of the variability in C-reactive protein (F = 32.4, P <or= 0.0001) was accounted for by androidal fat mass (16.1%, P <or= 0.0001), white blood cells (5.6%, P <or= 0.0001), and age (2.3%, P = 0.0045). Regression analyses revealed that 30% of the variability in fibrinogen (F = 24.5, P <or= 0.0001) was accounted for by white blood cells (3.1%, P = 0.0015), hip fat mass (2.2%, P = 0.0081), years since menopause (0.9%, P = 0.082), and geographic site (P <or= 0.0001). Our results indicated that androidal fat mass and hip fat mass contributed to C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, respectively, whereas we found no association between whole-body or regional fat measures and cytokines. Further study is warranted to determine the responsiveness of these acute-phase proteins and cytokines to loss of body fat through exercise and dietary intervention in postmenopausal women.
    Menopause 02/2008; 15(4 Pt 1):619-27. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin A deficiency has been widely associated with perturbations of iron homeostasis, a consequence that can be reversed by retinoid supplementation. Despite the numerous studies that demonstrate an interaction between these 2 nutrients, the mechanistic basis for this relation has not been well characterized. Because iron regulatory proteins (IRP) have been established as central regulators of iron homeostasis, we investigated the potential role of IRP in the regulation of iron homeostasis under conditions of vitamin A deficiency and supplementation with all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA). Rats were fed a control diet or a diet deficient in either vitamin A or iron or both micronutrients. Four parallel groups of rats were supplemented with atRA daily (30 micromol/kg body weight) during the final week of this study. As expected, iron-deficient (-Fe) rats exhibited a decrease in hepatic nonheme iron levels and a subsequent increase in IRP RNA-binding activity, resulting in diminished ferritin abundance. Interestingly, atRA supplementation inhibited the increase in IRP RNA-binding activity in -Fe rats to a level that was not significantly (P = 0.139) different from control values, and it partially restored ferritin abundance. This inhibition of IRP RNA-binding activity by atRA supplementation was also associated with a 40% reduction in transferrin receptor abundance. Taken together, these results indicate that IRP represent a mechanistic link between vitamin A and the regulation of iron homeostasis, a key finding toward further understanding this important nutrient-nutrient interaction.
    Journal of Nutrition 01/2008; 137(12):2686-90. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    Amy K Proulx, Manju B Reddy
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    ABSTRACT: Maize is one of the most important cereal crops for human consumption, yet it is of concern due to its low iron bioavailability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing on iron bioavailability in common maize products and elucidate better processing techniques for enhancing iron bioavailability. Maize products were processed to represent different processing techniques: heating (porridge), fermentation (ogi), nixtamalization (tortillas), and decortication (arepas). Iron and phytate contents were evaluated. Iron bioavailability was assessed using the Caco-2 cell model. Phytate content of maize products was significantly reduced by decortication (25.6%, p = 0.003) and nixtamalization (15%, p = 0.03), and iron content was reduced by decortication (29.1%, p = 0.002). The relative bioavailability (RBA, compared to 100% bioavailability of porridge with FeSO4) of ogi was significantly higher than that of other products when fortified with FeSO4 (p < 0.001) or reduced iron (p < 0.001). Addition of lactic acid (6 mg/g of maize) significantly increased iron solubility and increased bioavailability by about 2-fold (p < 0.01), especially in tortillas. The consumer panel results showed that lactic acid addition does not significantly affect the organoleptic characteristics of tortillas and arepas (p = 0.166 and 0.831, respectively). The results suggest that fermentation, or the addition of small amounts of lactic acid to unfermented maize products, may significantly improve iron bioavailability. Lactic acid addition may be more feasible than the addition of highly bioavailable but expensive fortificants. This approach may be a novel means to increase the iron bioavailability of maize products to reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anemia.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2007; 55(7):2749-54. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184). We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to assess volumetric bone at the distal tibia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess areal composite bone at the proximal femur and lumbar spine. Multiple regression revealed that 22% of the variability in trabecular bone mineral content (F=9.59, p<or=0.0001) was accounted for by weight (12.4%; p<or=0.0001), hemoglobin (5.5%; p=0.0006), uric acid (4.2%; p=0.003), and blood glucose (1.5%; p=0.07). Multiple regression revealed that 5.4% of the variability in trabecular bone mineral density (F=3.36; p=0.020) was accounted for by hemoglobin (4.2%; p=0.006) and Hcy (1.5%; not significant, p=0.10). Total Hcy and CRP were not significantly related to trabecular bone, perhaps because these were nonosteoporotic women. However, our results suggested a weak but negative relationship between Hcy and trabecular bone. Further investigation is needed to examine the relationship of Hcy as an endogenous bioactive molecule to trabecular bone loss in early postmenopausal women and the response of trabecular bone to dietary intervention.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2007; 10(4):395-403. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of the enhancing effect of muscle tissue on nonheme iron absorption in humans is unclear but thought to be related to muscle proteins. We conducted radioiron absorption studies to compare iron absorption from proteins isolated from beef and chicken muscle with that from freeze-dried beef and chicken muscle and from egg albumin. All meals contained an equivalent amount of protein as part of a semisynthetic liquid formula. Freeze-dried beef and chicken muscle increased iron absorption 180% (P < 0.001) and 100% (P < 0.001), respectively, relative to egg albumin. When added to the meal at an equivalent protein level (15 g), the isolated beef protein and the isolated heme-free beef protein with 94 and 98% protein content, respectively, increased iron absorption to the same extent as the native beef muscle. Similarly, when added to the meal at an equivalent protein level (30 g), isolated chicken muscle protein (94% protein) increased iron absorption similarly to native chicken muscle. Iron absorption from the meal containing the isolated heme-free chicken protein, however, was 120% (P < 0.01) greater than from the meal containing freeze-dried chicken muscle, indicating that a nonprotein component of muscle tissue with iron-binding potential may have been removed or concentrated by the protein extraction and separation procedures. Our results support the hypothesis that the enhancing effect of muscle tissue on iron absorption is mainly protein related but indicate that other factors may also play a role.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2006; 136(11):2808-12. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soy protein or its components may protect against the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors total homocysteine (tHcy), C-reactive protein (CRP), and excess body iron, which generally increase with menopause. The primary objective of this study was to determine the independent effect of the soy protein components isoflavones and phytate on CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women. The secondary objective was to identify factors [blood lipids, oxidative stress indexes, serum ferritin, plasma folate, plasma vitamin B-12, and body mass index (BMI)] contributing to tHcy and CRP concentrations. In a double-blind, 6-wk study, 55 postmenopausal women aged 47-72 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 soy protein (40 g/d) isolate treatments: native phytate and native isoflavone (n = 14), native phytate and low isoflavone (n = 13), low phytate and native isoflavone (n = 14), or low phytate and low isoflavone (n = 14). We measured iron indexes, tHcy, CRP, and BMI. Soy protein with native phytate significantly reduced tHcy (P = 0.017), transferrin saturation (P = 0.027), and ferritin (P = 0.029), whereas soy protein with native isoflavones had no effect on any variables. At baseline, BMI was highly correlated with tHcy (r = 0.39, P = 0.003) and CRP (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001), whereas HDL cholesterol was correlated with CRP (r = -0.30, P = 0.02). Multiple regression analysis showed that LDL cholesterol and BMI contributed significantly (R2= 19.9%, P = 0.003) to the overall variance in tHcy. Consuming phytate-rich foods and maintaining a healthy weight may reduce atherosclerotic CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2006; 84(4):774-80. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined the effect of training on body composition, dietary intake, and iron status of eumenorrheic female collegiate swimmers (n = 18) and divers (n = 6) preseason and after 16 wk of training. Athletes trained on dryland (resistance, strength, flexibility) 3 d/wk, 1.5 h/d and in-water 6 d/wk, nine, 2-h sessions per week (6400 to 10,000 kJ/d). Body-mass index (kg/m2; P = 0.05), waist and hip circumferences (P < or = 0.0001), whole body fat mass (P = 0.0002), and percentage body fat (P < or = 0.0001) decreased, whereas lean mass increased (P = 0.028). Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we found no change in regional lean mass, but fat decreased at the waist (P = 0.0002), hip (P = 0.0002), and thigh (P = 0.002). Energy intake (10,061 +/- 3617 kJ/d) did not change, but dietary quality improved with training, as reflected by increased intakes of fiber (P = 0.036), iron (P = 0.015), vitamin C (P = 0.029), vitamin B-6 (P = 0.032), and fruit (P = 0.003). Iron status improved as reflected by slight increases in hemoglobin (P = 0.046) and hematocrit (P = 0.014) and decreases in serum transferrin receptor (P < or = 0.0001). Studies are needed to further evaluate body composition and iron status in relation to dietary intake in female swimmers.
    International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 06/2006; 16(3):281-95. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that the intake of animal foods is the most important dietary determinant of the iron status of a population. The primary reason is the high bioavailability of heme iron, but it is also known from radiolabeled single-meal feeding studies in humans that muscle tissue facilitates absorption of nonheme iron. In the present study, we examined the effect of meat intake on nonheme iron absorption from a whole diet. Iron absorption was measured during 3 separate dietary periods in 14 volunteers (7 men and 7 women) by having them ingest a radioiron-labeled wheat roll with every meal for 5 d. The diet was freely chosen for the first dietary period and altered to eliminate or maximally increase the intake of muscle foods during the second and third periods. Nonheme iron absorption did not differ for the 3 dietary periods although the geometric mean of 4.81% when subjects consumed a freely chosen diet increased by 35% to 6.47% with maximum meat consumption (P = 0.075). When nonheme absorption was adjusted to normalize for differences in iron status using serum ferritin correction and the 3 absorption periods were pooled, multiple regression analysis indicated no significant relation with heme or nonheme iron, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, fiber, or tea content of the diet with the exception of animal tissue (P = 0.013). We conclude that the higher iron status associated with the consumption of an omnivorous diet is due more to the intake of heme iron than to the enhancing effect on nonheme iron absorption.
    Journal of Nutrition 04/2006; 136(3):576-81. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Amy K Proulx, Manju B Reddy
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    ABSTRACT: Heme iron has been identified in many plant sources-most commonly in the root nodules of leguminous plants, such as soy. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of soy root nodule (SRN) and purified soy hemoglobin (LHb) in improving iron bioavailability using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model, with ferritin response as the bioavailability index. We assessed bioavailability of iron from LHb (either partially purified (LHbA) or purified (LHbD)) with and without food matrix and compared it with that from bovine hemoglobin (BHb), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), or SRN. Bioavailability of each treatment was normalized to 100% of the FeSO4 treatment. When iron sources were tested alone (100 ug iron/mL), ferritin synthesis by LHbD and BHb were 19% (P > 0.05) and 113% (P < 0.001) higher than FeSO4, respectively. However, when iron sources were used for fortification of maize tortillas (50 ppm), LHbA and BHb showed similar bioavailability, being 27% (P < 0.05) and 33% (P < 0.05) higher than FeSO4. Heat treatment had no effect on heme iron but had a significant reduction on FeSO4 bioavailability. Adding heme (LHbA) iron with nonheme (FeSO4) had no enhancement on nonheme iron absorption. Our data suggest that heme iron from plant sources may be a novel value-added product that can provide highly bioavailable iron as a food fortificant.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2006; 54(4):1518-22. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Micronutrient deficiencies limit child health and development. Although animal source foods (ASF) provide highly bioavailable micronutrients, Ghanaian preschoolers consume little. Participatory rapid appraisal methods identified constraints to the availability, accessibility, and utilization of ASF. Stakeholders working with or living in six communities in three agro-ecological zones reported constraints including low income, lack of access to technology and markets, inequitable household food allocation, inadequate knowledge, and beliefs. The least expensive ASF was fish, which was easy to preserve and consumed by all communities. Since ASF was primarily purchased, interventions that increase income may be most successful in improving Ghanaian children's diets.
    Ecology of Food and Nutrition 01/2006; 45(5):351-377. · 0.80 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

464 Citations
97.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2002–2011
    • Iowa State University
      • Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
      Ames, IA, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs
      Duebendorf, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2003
    • ETH Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland