Wenji Sun

Northwest University, Missouri, United States

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Publications (33)61.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four novel 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl glycosides have been synthesized by a short and efficient route starting from d-glucose. Their structures were elucidated by applying high-resolution mass spectra, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR techniques. These glycosides were prepared and used as intermediate building blocks in the scheme developed for oligosaccharide construction.
    Research on Chemical Intermediates 02/2015; 41(2). DOI:10.1007/s11164-013-1257-2 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Xinxin Zhang · Jing Li · Yoichiro Ito · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, reliable and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was established for simultaneous analyses of the following 5 steroid saponins in rat plasma after the single dose administration of total steroid saponins extracted from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright for the first time. Protodioscin, huangjiangsu A, zingiberensis new saponin, dioscin, and gracillin were quantified using ginsenoside Rb1 as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a single step acetonitrile-mediated protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid under a gradient elution mode at 0.2 mL min(-1) using a microsplit after the eluent from the HPLC apparatus. The quantification was accomplished on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive ionization mode. The above five analytes were stable under sample storage and preparation conditions applied in the present study. The linearity, precision, accuracy, and recoveries of the analysis confirmed the requirements for quality-control purposes. After validation, this proposed method was successfully adopted to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of these five analytes.
    Steroids 09/2014; 93. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2014.08.023 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Xinxin Zhang · Lin Chen · Xuan Dang · Jianli Liu · Yoichiro Ito · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: Total steroid saponins isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis are a unique traditional Chinese medicine known for its potential usage in various types of diseases. However, there is little evidence about its neuroprotective effect in transient focal ischemia-reperfusion cerebral injury. Therefore, the current study was carried out to investigate the effect of total steroid saponins on neuroprotection and its potential mechanisms in the rat ischemia-reperfusion model by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 min. The rats were each treated with total steroid saponins (30 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 3 mg/kg) or nimodipine (20 mg/kg) daily for 6 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Then, the neurological deficit score, cerebral infarct volume, and brain water content were measured at 24 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, the histopathological changes and AQP-4 protein activities were examined in hippocampal CA1 and the cortex of ipsilateral ischemic cerebral hemisphere by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The indices of oxidative stress in the serum were also obtained, and NF-κB and ERK 1/2 protein expressions in the injured brain were evaluated by Western blotting. The results indicated that the pre-treatment with these drugs not only significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain water content and improved neurological deficit score, but also restored neuronal morphology and decreased the AQP-4 positive cells in CA1 and the cortex. Moreover, it markedly restored the level of oxidant stress markers (CAT, SOD, MDA, NO and iNOS) to their normal range in serum. In addition, the increased NF-κB and ERK 1/2 protein expressions were alleviated as compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. These findings demonstrate that total steroid saponins exhibit promising neuroprotection effects against the transient focal ischemia-reperfusion cerebral injury in the rat experimental model and the underlying mechanisms might be mediated through inhibition of anti-edema as well as anti-oxidative effects by inactivation of NF-κB and ERK 1/2 signalling pathway.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):637-644. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1368584 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A concise and efficient synthetic route for preparation of four ganglioside GM3 analogues was described. The key step is a highly regioselective and stereoselective α-sialylation from a suitably protected glycoside acceptor with a sialyl xanthate to provide the sialo-oligosaccharide in good yield. The cytotoxic properties of the synthetic gangliosides were evaluated against normal human keratinocytes and human HCT116 and K562 cancer cells. Two of them exhibited good antiproliferative activity and displayed a better cytotoxicity against cancer cell than HaCaT normal cell.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2014; 75C:247-257. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.01.054 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Jinru Liang · Yoichiro Ito · Xinxin Zhang · Jiao He · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid method combining microwave-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography was applied for preparative separation of six bioactive compounds including loganic acid (I), isoorientin-4'-O-glucoside (II), 6'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl gentiopicroside (III), swertiamarin (IV), gentiopicroside (V), sweroside (VI) from traditional Tibetan medicine Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. Microwave-assisted extraction parameters were predicted by central composite design-response surface methodology. That is, 5.0 g dried roots of G. Crassicaulis was extracted with 50 mL 57.5% aqueous ethanol under 630 W for 3.39 min. The extract (gentian total glycosides) was separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography with n-butanol/ethyl acetate/methanol/1% acetic acid water (7.5:0.5:0.5:3.5, v/v/v/v) using upper phase mobile in tail-to-head elution mode. 16.3 mg, 8.8 mg, 12.8 mg, 25.1 mg, 40.7 mg and 21.8 mg of compounds I-VI were obtained with high purities in one run from 500 mg of original sample. The purities and identities of separated components were confirmed using HPCL with photo diode array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight MS and NMR spectroscopy. The study reveals that response surface methodology is convenient and highly predictive for optimizing extraction process, microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography could be an expeditious method for extraction and separation of phytochemicals from ethnomedicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Separation Science 12/2013; 36(24). DOI:10.1002/jssc.201300897 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a fingerprint of steroid saponins, the major bioactive constituents in the crude extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (DZW), has been established for the first time by combined use of the following two methods: high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) and the simultaneous characterization of the steroid saponins by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and quadrupole tandem time-of-fight mass analyzers detection (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF). All HPLC analyses were carried out on a Welchrom C18 column (250mm×4.6mm I.D., 5μm) with a mobile phase composed of water and acetonitrile under gradient elution. There were 68 common characteristic peaks in the fingerprints, in which 12 of them were confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention times with those of the reference compounds. In order to identify other unknown peaks, their fragmentation behaviors characteristic of the major groups of steroid saponins from DZW with six types of aglycone skeletons were discussed in detail, and possible MS/MS fragmentation pathways were proposed for aiding the structural identification of these components. According to the summarized fragmentation patterns, these peaks were tentatively assigned by matching their empirical molecular formula with those of the published compounds, or by elucidating their quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to available literature information when the reference standards were unavailable. As a result, 22 new steroid saponins were found in DZW for the first time. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the nine (except for the reference compounds A, B, and C) known peaks was accomplished at the same time which indicated that there was a great variability in the amount of these active compounds in different batches in the crude extracts. This approach could demonstrate that the fingerprint could be considered to be a suitable tool to comprehensively improve the quality control of DZW. The identification and structural elucidation of the peaks in the fingerprint may provide important experimental data for further pharmacological and clinical researches.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 11/2013; 91C:46-59. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2013.11.023 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four novel 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl glycosides have been synthesized by a short and efficient route starting from d-glucose. Their structures were elucidated by applying high-resolution mass spectra, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR techniques. These glycosides were prepared and used as intermediate building blocks in the scheme developed for oligosaccharide construction.
    Research on Chemical Intermediates 04/2013; 40(4). DOI:10.1007/s11164-013-1060-0 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loganin, sweroside, and morroniside, three main iridoid glycosides from FRUCTUS CORNI were successfully separated by macroporous resin column chromatography and countercurrent chromatography (CCC). In the first step, D101 macroporous resin was selected for cleaning-up, water was used to elute the column to remove the undesired constituents and then 50% aqueous ethanol was used to elute the targets. The total content of three iridoid glycosides was 51.1% in this process. In the second step, the obtained crude sample was then isolated by CCC using a two-phase solvent system composed of dichloromethane-methanol-n-butanol-water-acetic acid (5:5:2:4:0.1, v/v/v/v/v). From 100 mg of a crude sample, 12.6 mg of loganin, 5.9 mg of sweroside, and 28.5 mg of morroniside were obtained with purities of 98.6%, 97.3%, and 99.1% and total recoveries of 90.4%, 91.8%, and 89.1%, respectively, after a two-step purification. The HPLC quantitative analysis and response surface methodology were used for optimization of the separation condition and the target compounds were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR.
    Journal of Liquid Chromatography &amp Related Technologies 03/2013; 36(8). DOI:10.1080/10826076.2012.683914 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a two-phase solvent system composed of dichloromethane-methanol-n-butanol-water-acetic acid (5:5:3:4:0.1, v/v/v/v/v), high-speed countercurrent chromatography was successfully performed for isolation and purification of three iridoid glycosides from Fructus Corni for the first time. From 100 mg of a crude extract of Fructus Corni 7.9 mg of sweroside, 13.1 mg of morroniside, and 10.2 mg of loganin were obtained in less than 3 h with purities of 92.3, 96.3 and 94.2%, respectively. These target compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.
    Journal of Liquid Chromatography &amp Related Technologies 03/2013; 36(8):983-999. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gentiopicroside (GE), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, has been developed into a Novel Traditional Chinese Drug named Gentiopicroside injection, and it was approved for the treatment of acute jaundice and chronic active hepatitis by SFDA. However, the inhibitory and inducible effects of GE on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of GE to inhibit and induce human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. In human liver microsomes, GE inhibited CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 21.8 µg/ml and 594 µg/ml, respectively, and the IC(50) of CYP2A6 was close to the C(max) value observed clinically. GE was a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP2A6 at lower concentration and a competitive inhibitor at higher concentration. GE did not produce inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities. However, significant increase of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity was observed at high concentrations. In cultured human hepatocytes no significant induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 was observed. Given these results, the in vivo potential inhibition of GE on CYP2A6 deserves further investigation, and it seems that the hepatoprotective effect of GE is irrelevant with its effect on P450s.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 02/2013; 28(4). DOI:10.2133/dmpk.DMPK-12-RG-090 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A counter-current chromatography (CCC) method was successfully applied to separate and purify steroid saponins from the traditional Chinese medicine Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright for the first time. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-methanol-water (4:1:2:4, v/v) was used as the two-phase solvent system, and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was used as the detector in this method. The method separated in a single run the following five steroid saponins: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranol-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (Compound A); 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (Compound B); 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-en-3β, 22ζ, 26-triol-3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (Compound C); 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]}-β-d-glucopyranoside (Compound D); and 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5, 20(22)-diene-3β, 26-diol-3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (Compound E). Their structural identification of the five steroid saponins was performed by means of ESI-MS, and (13)C NMR.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 02/2013; 84C:117-123. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2013.02.005 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Wenna Zhao · Chen Sun · Jiao He · Lin Chen · Yongmin Zhang · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.(PQB) is used in folk medicines for the treatment of colds, upper respiratory infection, acute tonsillitis, acute gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery and a variety of acute infectious diseases in Asia. Although recent reports indicate that PQB has antibacterial, and anti- inflammatory effects, its effects on colitis and its inhibitory mechanisms have not been previously reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effects and the mode of action of the extract of Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.(PQB)on a model of colitis in mice induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced mice colitis using TNBS/ethanol, then different doses of Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn.(PQB)extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) and sulfasalazine (500mg/kg/day) were administered by gavage for 7 days after the induction of colitis. The mice body weight, colonic wet weight, colonic lengths, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, macroscopic and histological colon injury were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colons were determined by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: PQB administration effectively prevented mice diarrhea, decreasing of the body weights, shortening of colon length and increasing of colon wet weight. Macroscopic and histological examinations also indicated that it was protected against colonic edema, ulceration and MPO activity elevation. Furthermore, PQB inhibited the abnormal secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-8. Additionally, administration of PQB effectively inhibited COX-2 and iNOS protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PQB has an anti-inflammatory effect on TNBS-induced colitis due to the down-regulations of the productions and expressions of inflammatory mediators, and that it may be a potential inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drug candidate.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2012; 145(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.001 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICA RELEVANCE: Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. (PQB) is a widely used herbal medicine used for gastroenteritis, snakebite, infection and hypertension in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible antihypertensive mechanisms on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of the extract from Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. Materials and methods: In the in vivo study, extract from Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. at the dose of 50, 100, 200mg/kg and captopril (12.5mg/kg) were administrated to different group of SHR rats by gavage for six consecutive weeks after the blood pressures were firstly measured. At the end of the study, rats serum nitric oxide (NO) was measured by the nitrate reductase method; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activities were measured by the colorimetric method; the expression of aorta endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The results showed that the oral administration of PQB could lower the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR rats. In addition, the serum level of NO in SHR treated with PQB (100 and 200mg/kg) was increased dramatically (P<0.05, P<0.01), but administration with captopril had no significant effect. The expression of aorta eNOS was markedly increased when treated with PQB. The serum SOD levels were increased with treatment of PQB (100 and 200mg/kg; P<0.05, P<0.01). All the effects of these parameters were comparable to that of the SHR control group. Conclusions: Our results disclosed that PQB is effective to lower blood pressure of SHR, its antihypertensive effect is probably associated with lowering oxidative stress by reducing SOD activity, preserving endothelial function and increasing the expression of eNOS to regulate NO and directly relax artery.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2012; 145(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.049 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tibetan medicine get used to use the flowers of Gentiana straminea Maxim. to cure inflammation of stomach and intestines, hepatitis, cholecystitis, etc. The flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. have been traditionally treated as an anti-inflammatory agent to clear heat in Mongolian medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. have also been used under the name “Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix” and prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2012; 144(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.004 · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • Jinru Liang · Jiao He · Sha Zhu · Wenna Zhao · Ye Zhao · Yongmin Zhang · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: Selective and efficient analytical methods for authentication and quality evaluation of herbal medicines are significant and necessary. A expeditious method combining multi-components determination and fingerprinting based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA -MS/MS) and chemometrics for authentication and quality evaluation of Cornus Officinalis Sieb. et Zucc was developed. Tandem mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for determination of three characteristic constituents (morroniside, sweroside and loganin) in C. Officinalis. Meanwhile, UPLC fingerprint of C. Officinalis was established and the data set was submitted for classification to a suite of chemometrics method. Combing main biologically active components content level and chemometrics analysis, the effect of cultivation area, harvesting and storage time on the quality of C. Officinalis were investigated. The study reveals that multi-components determination coupled with fingerprinting could be applied for authentication and quality evaluation of C. Officinalis which is accurate, efficient and reliable.
    Analytical Letters 10/2012; 45(15). DOI:10.1080/00032719.2012.686129 · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • Wenna Zhao · Jiao He · Yongmin Zhang · Yoichiro Ito · Qi Su · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: By using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:2:2:2, v/v/v/v), a high-speed counter-current chromatography technique was successfully used for isolation and purification of three alkaloids from Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. for the first time. A total of 22.1 mg of 3-methylcanthin-2,6-dione, 4.9 mg of 4-methoxy-5-hydroxycanthin-6-one and 1.2 mg of 1-mthoxycarbonyl-β-carboline were obtained from 100 mg of crude extract of Picrasma quassiodes (D. Don) Benn. in less than 5 h, with purities of 89.30%, 98.32% and 98.19%, respectively. The target compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.
    Journal of Liquid Chromatography &amp Related Technologies 06/2012; 35(11):1597-1606. DOI:10.1080/10826076.2011.621150 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    Jiao He · Jing Li · Wenji Sun · Tianyou Zhang · Yoichiro Ito ·
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    ABSTRACT: Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:10:1.5, v/v/v/v) by eluting the lower phase in the head-to-tail elution mode. The revolution speed of the separation column, flow rate of the mobile phase and separation temperature were 800 rpm, 2 ml/min and 25 °C, respectively. In a single operation, 33 mg of GCDCA, 38 mg of GHDCA and 23 mg of GHCA were obtained from 200 mg of crude extract with the purity of 95.65%, 96.72% and 96.63%, respectively, in one step separation. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the structures of the three glycine-conjugated cholic acids were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.
    Journal of Liquid Chromatography &amp Related Technologies 03/2012; 35(5):737-746. DOI:10.1080/10826076.2011.608231 · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • Huanhuan Qu · Yongmin Zhang · Xiaoyun Chai · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: The isolation, structural elucidation, antioxidant effect and antibacterial activity of isoforsythiaside, a novel phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Forsythia suspensa, were described. The antioxidant activity was estimated using the 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity method and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the microtitre plate method. The results showed that this compound had strong activities. Owing to these properties, the study can be further extended to exploit for the possible application of isoforsythiaside as the alternative antioxidants and antibacterial agents from natural origin.
    Bioorganic Chemistry 02/2012; 40(1):87-91. DOI:10.1016/j.bioorg.2011.09.005 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW), a classic Chinese formulation, which contains Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Herba Ecliptae (HE). EZW is widely used to prevent and treat various kidney diseases for its actions of nourishing the kidney and strengthening tendon and bone. Although recent reports indicate that EZW restrains osteoclastic bone resorption, its effects on the protection against define OVX-induced bone loss in mature rats have not been systematically investigated. Sixty 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into sham-operated group (Sham) and five OVX subgroups, OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with Estradiol Valerate (EV, 0.4 mg/kg body weight/day); OVX with EZW of graded doses (9.0, 4.5, or 2.25 g/kg/day). Daily oral administration of EV and EZW on 5th week for 26 weeks. Bone turnover markers (Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OCN), deoxypyridinoline (DPD)), other parameters, including serum calcium (S-Ca), serum phosphorus (S-P), urine calcium (U-Ca), phosphorus (U-P), and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur, 4th lumbar vertebra and tibia, bone biomechanical properties and trabecular microarchitecture parameters were measured. Administration of EZW could significantly prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss, biomechanical reduction, deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture and the body weight gain without affecting the weight of the uterus, and increased S-Ca, S-P levels, decreased level of bone turnover markers and U-Ca, U-P levels in ovariectomized rats. The present study indicated that EZW had a definite antiosteoporotic effect without hyperplastic effect on uterus, and it might be a potential alternative medicine for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2011; 138(2):279-85. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.030 · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • Jiao He · Jinru Liang · Sha Zhu · Wenna Zhao · Yongmin Zhang · Wenji Sun ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) isolated from Pulvis Fellis Suis on acute ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. The efficacy of THDCA was studied by macroscopical and histological scoring systems as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Serum levels, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the colons was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Treatment with THDCA in doses of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day and sulfasalazine in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day used as reference for 7 consecutive days after the induction of colitis, significantly decreased colonic MPO activity, TNF-α, IL-6 serum levels and the expression of COX-2 in colon compared with TNBS induced ulcerative colitis model group. Moreover, THDCA attenuated the macroscopic colonic damage and the histopathological changes induced by TNBS. All the effects of these parameters were comparable to that of the standard sulfasalazine, especially at the highest dose level. The results suggested that THDCA from Pulvis Fellis Suis has a protective effect in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis which might be due to its anti-inflammatory activities, and that it may have therapeutic value in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease.
    European journal of pharmacology 09/2011; 670(1):229-35. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.08.036 · 2.53 Impact Factor