Vallabh Janardhan

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (14)52.28 Total impact

  • Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine. 01/2009; 10(4):271-271.
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    ABSTRACT: To report our initial experience in setting up a neuroendovascular service in a university-based comprehensive stroke center. We determined the rates of referral path, procedural type, and independently adjudicated 1-month outcomes (actual rates) in first 150 procedures (120 patients) and subsequently compared with rates derived from pertinent clinical trials after adjustment for procedural type (predicted rates). The patients were referred from the emergency department (n= 44), transferred from another hospital (n= 13), or admitted for elective procedures from the clinic (n= 63). The procedures included treatment of acute ischemic stroke (n= 12); extracranial carotid stent placement (n= 33); extracranial vertebral artery stent placement (n= 13); intracranial angioplasty and/or stent placement (n= 12); embolization for intracranial aneurysms (n= 35), arteriovenous malformations (n= 5), and tumors (n= 10); cerebral vasospasm treatment (n= 26); and others (n= 4). The technical success rate was 100% for intracranial aneurysm obliteration and extracranial carotid artery stent placement, and 95% for those undergoing intracranial or vertebral artery stent placements; and partial or complete recanalization was achieved in 72% of patients undergoing intra-arterial thrombolysis. After adjusting for procedural type, the actual adverse event rate of 3% compared favorably with the predicted rate of 7% based on the results of clinical trials. We provide estimates of procedure volumes and outcomes observed in the initial phase of setting up a neuroendovascular service with an active training program.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 07/2008; 19(1):72-9. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography (CTA) are frequently the initial imaging modalities used in the evaluation of patients with suspected aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It remains unclear whether CTA can provide adequate information to determine best treatment modality (endovascular versus surgical) for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Pertinent clinical and radiological information of consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent CTA on a 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner were independently reviewed by five endovascular specialists. Subsequently, the interobserver reliability was calculated. A total of 21 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH detected on CTA were reviewed. Of the total of 105 reviews, in 65% a treatment allocation decision was made. Responses were, 26% either treatment; 18% endovascular only; 18% surgical only; and 3% neither treatment. In the remaining 35% it was considered that CTA images were inadequate to make a decision for treatment allocation and more information was requested. Interobserver reliability was poor between endovascular specialists (k = 0.2). The reliability was higher among endovascular/vascular neurosurgeons (k = 0.34) and physicians with >5 years of faculty experience (k = 0.55). When 64-slice MDCT angiography is used in the evaluation of aneurysmal SAH, the information obtained is adequate to determine treatment modality allocation in two-thirds of the cases. The agreement on best treatment modality varied across primary specialty, practice experience, and site of fellowship completion.
    Neurocritical Care 05/2008; 9(3):300-6. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the midterm results of intracranial stent-assisted coil embolization in the treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and to assess the efficacy of various strategies used in stent deployment. A retrospective study of 42 patients with 46 wide-necked cerebral aneurysms enrolled in a prospective single-center registry of patients treated with a Neuroform stent (Boston Scientific/Target, Fremont, CA), a flexible self-expanding nitinol stent, was performed. Twenty-seven of 46 aneurysms were unruptured aneurysms, 14 were recanalized aneurysms, and five were acutely ruptured. Thirty-nine aneurysms were located in the anterior and seven in the posterior circulation. Mean aneurysm size was 9.8 mm. Stenting before coiling was performed in 13 of 45 aneurysms (29%), coiling before stenting in 27 of 45 aneurysms (60%), and stenting alone in five of 45 aneurysms (11%). The balloon remodeling technique for coiling before stenting was performed in 77% of patients. Angiographic and clinical follow up was available in 31 patients with 33 aneurysms and ranged from 3 to 24 months. Neuroform stenting was attempted in 46 wide-necked aneurysms (42 patients). Forty-nine stent sessions were performed, including three poststent retreatments. In 46 of 49 sessions (94%), successful deployment of 47 stents for 45 aneurysms was obtained. In 40 aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling, angiographic results showed 14 (35%) aneurysm occlusions, 18 (45%) neck remnants, and eight (20%) residual aneurysms. In five recanalized aneurysms treated with stenting alone, no changes were observed in four (80%) aneurysms and one (20%) neck remnant reduced in size. At angiographic follow-up in 30 aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling, there were 17 (57%) aneurysm occlusions, seven (23%) neck remnants, and six (20%) residual aneurysms. In three recanalized aneurysms treated with stent alone, two (67%) neck remnants remained unchanged and one (33%) neck remnant decreased in size. Procedural morbidity was observed in two of 42 patients (4.8%) and one patient died. On clinical follow-up, the modified Rankin Scale score was 0 in 27 patients (87%), 1 in three patients (10%), and 2 (3%) in one patient. No aneurysm bled during the follow-up period. These results indicate that Neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term durability of stent-assisted aneurysm occlusion and tolerance to the stent.
    Neurosurgery 10/2007; 61(3):460-8; discussion 468-9. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial aneurysms can be treated with endovascular or surgical techniques. We provide an objective comparison of these treatments, using data from single-centre studies, multicentre studies with and without independent outcome ascertainment, and randomised clinical trials. We compared the outcomes of patients who were candidates for endovascular treatment, surgical treatment, or both. In patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms, rates of aneurysm obliteration were higher, and need for second treatment was lower, after surgery than after endovascular treatment. However, in observational studies and randomised trials, outcome at discharge, at 2-6 months, and at 1 year, and later survival, were all better after endovascular treatment than after surgery. The results suggest that the higher rates of incomplete obliteration and retreatment after endovascular treatment do not affect patients' clinical outcome. In observational studies of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, discharge outcomes were better and hospital costs were lower after endovascular treatment than after surgery. These patients showed no difference between the two treatments in 1-year outcomes and later rebleeding, although few data were available for this comparison.
    The Lancet Neurology 10/2007; 6(9):816-25. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This 65-year-old man presented to the authors' institution reporting neck swelling. Stage IIIA Hodgkin disease was diagnosed, and a computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a vertebrobasilar artery aneurysm. His medical history was significant for subarachnoid hemorrhage and coma 2 years earlier. Subsequent digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a giant fusiform vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm with associated basilar artery (BA) fenestration. Endovascular treatment of the giant aneurysm was performed by left vertebral artery (VA) occlusion and placement of two Jo-stent coronary stent grafts from the right VA to the BA. The postprocedure course was uneventful. Follow-up angiography performed 1 week postoperatively demonstrated complete exclusion of the aneurysm. This unique case is described and a review of the relevant literature is presented.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 08/2007; 107(1):165-8. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Vallabh Janardhan, Adnan I Qureshi
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in neuroimaging have aided in the development of useful diagnostic modalities for neurological disease and have helped improve existing therapies and pioneer newer therapies in the field of interventional neurology, a new subspecialty of neurology. In this chapter, the authors discuss the advances in various neuroimaging modalities, such as digital subtraction angiography, transcranial and intravascular ultrasonography, interventional dynamic computed tomography and 64-slice computed tomographic scanners, magnetic resonance image-guided interventions and intravascular magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular and cellular neuroimaging tools using microbubbles. The authors also summarize the clinical usefulness of these advances and their role in improving the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of neurointerventional procedures.
    Neurotherapeutics 08/2007; 4(3):414-9. · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The false-negative rate of DSA in the setting of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is approximately 15% (Topcuoglu M, Ogilvy C, Carter B, et al. Subarachnoid hemorrhage without evident cause on initial angiography studies: diagnostic yield of subsequent angiography and other neuroimaging tests. J Neurosurg 2003;98:1235-1240). Detecting these aneurysms is imperative to avoid repeat hemorrhage. Rarely, one is able to document the phenomenon of the disappearance and subsequent reappearance of the ruptured aneurysm. This is a case report of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which a cerebral aneurysm of the M1 segment of the left proximal middle cerebral artery was initially detected by CTA at an outside hospital only to evade detection with both CTA and DSA at our institution. Repeat DSA 1 week later revealed the culprit aneurysm, which was then treated endovascularly. Patients with significant SAH and negative DSA findings should be considered for further diagnostic testing including CTA or repeat DSA. The current literature supports the strategy used at our institution of initial CTA and DSA in the setting of SAH, and then subsequent repeat DSA as warranted if the initial studies are nondiagnostic. Timing of repeat examination, as demonstrated in this case, should favor a shorter time course.
    Surgical Neurology 03/2007; 67(2):186-8; discussion 188-9. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Advances in neuroimaging and development of newer intraparenchymal monitoring devices have improved the prediction and diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm significantly. Recent experimental and clinical trials have increased the armamentarium of preventive and treatment strategies for cerebral vasospasm. Vasospasm refractory to medical therapy usually is treated endovascularly with percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) for proximal vessel vasospasm and vasodilator infusion for distal vessel vasospasm. Although vasospasm usually does not recur after PTA, recurrence is frequent after vasodilator infusion. The development of newer microballoon catheters has led to improvements in treatment of not only proximal but also distal vessel vasospasm with balloon angioplasty. This article reports on current knowledge in the diagnosis, prediction, prevention, and management of cerebral vasospasm.
    Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 09/2006; 16(3):483-96, viii-ix. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wide-necked aneurysms remain difficult to treat by either open microneurosurgical or endovascular procedures. Recent advances in the latter technology, including intracranial stents and bioactive coils, now allow an endovascular treatment option for cases in which this was not previously available. In this report the authors describe the new developments in endovascular technologies that make the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms possible. This includes discussion of intracranial stents and bioactive coils designed to promote obliteration of the aneurysm lumen. In addition, methods for coil insertion in wide-necked aneurysms are described, including balloon remodeling and various stent placement procedures. Wide-necked aneurysms previously thought to be untreatable by endovascular means can now be obliterated, thanks to new devices specifically designed for intracranial use.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 03/2005; 18(2):E7. · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neuroradiology - J NEURORADIOL. 01/2005; 32(2):84-84.
  • Vallabh Janardhan, Adnan I Qureshi
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Approximately 80% of all strokes are ischemic and there are limited therapies approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Understanding the mechanisms of ischemic brain damage is necessary for the development of innovative treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss the hemodynamic and molecular mechanisms of ischemic brain damage and the potential therapeutic strategies, including reperfusion and primary and secondary neuroprotection, and strategies for recovery of function, such as neural plasticity and stem cell transplantation. The effective treatment of ischemic stroke is likely to result from a combination of therapeutic modalities aimed at different mechanisms of ischemic brain damage and delivered at specific times after acute cerebral ischemia.
    Current Cardiology Reports 04/2004; 6(2):117-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Shaking limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) represent a rare clinical syndrome that has been ascribed to focal cerebral ischemia attributable to insufficient brain perfusion, usually resulting from carotid artery occlusive disease. The techniques conventionally used to evaluate this condition are contrast angiography, carotid artery ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment consists of internal carotid artery (ICA) endarterectomy or, in the case of complete ICA occlusion, extracranial-intracranial bypass. In this report, two patients with shaking limb TIAs are presented. For one patient, preoperative evaluations included single-photon emission computed tomographic studies with acetazolamide vasodilator challenge; for the second patient, computed tomographic angiography was used to assess vascular anatomic features. Two patients with severe carotid artery disease presented with brief, recurrent, shaking limb TIAs. Angiograms obtained for Patient 1 demonstrated complete ICA occlusion in association with severe external carotid artery stenosis, whereas preoperative single-photon emission computed tomographic scans revealed a lack of cerebrovascular reserve in response to acetazolamide challenge. Carotid artery duplex ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography demonstrated severe stenosis of the ICA for Patient 2. Patient 1 underwent a left external carotid artery endarterectomy. Patient 2 underwent a right ICA endarterectomy. After surgery, the shaking limb episodes ceased for both patients. Postoperative single-photon emission computed tomographic scans for Patient 1 demonstrated increased cerebral blood flow in response to acetazolamide challenge. These data provide support for the concept that shaking limb TIAs are related to hemodynamic failure and that improvements in cerebral blood flow through conducting vessels can alleviate the condition.
    Neurosurgery 09/2002; 51(2):483-7; discussion 487. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decision to treat incidental intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) relies on understanding the risks of treatment and weighing them against the those of aneurysm rupture. Whereas the natural history of IIAs is currently being studied, the risks associated with treating IIAs and factors associated with poor outcome need to be clearly established. In a consecutive series of 125 patients, 160 IIAs were treated either surgically (152 cases) or endovascularly (eight cases). Postprocedural morbidity was defined as a new neurological deficit associated with a score greater than or equal to 3 on the modified Rankin Scale or a score of less than 24 on the Mini-Mental Status Examination. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of postprocedural morbidity from retrospectively collected data on demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics. Treatment of IIAs was not associated with any mortality and was associated with postprocedural morbidity in 17 (13.6%) of 125 patients (early outcome) and eight (6.4%) of patients (late outcome). In the logistic-regression model, treatment of aneurysms (>or=13 mm) and posterior circulation aneurysms were independently associated with postprocedural morbidity. In patients in whom postprocedural neurological deficits developed, 12 (70.6%) of 17 and four (23.5% ) of 17 patients harbored aneurysms with broad or calcified necks, respectively. Age, comorbidities, multiple aneurysms, specific aneurysm location, and history of subarachnoid hemorrhage related to a different aneurysm were not significantly associated with poor outcome. The authors found that IIAs can be safely and effectively treated without causing mortality and with a lower morbidity rate than previously reported. A combination of radiographic variables may be helpful in identifying patients at risk for postprocedural morbidity.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 09/2002; 13(3):e1. · 2.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

271 Citations
52.28 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2009
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2004
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Neurology and Neurosciences
      Newark, NJ, United States