C Matthies

University of Bayreuth , Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (19)47.33 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Earthworms emit nitrous oxide (N(2)O) via the activity of bacteria in their gut. Four N(2)O-producing facultative aerobes, ED1(T), ED5(T), MH21(T) and MH72, were isolated from the gut of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. The isolates produced N(2)O under conditions that simulated the microenvironment of the earthworm gut. ED1(T) and ED5(T) were Gram-negative, motile rods that carried out complete denitrification (i.e. the reduction of nitrate to N(2)) and contained membranous c-type cytochromes. ED1(T) grew optimally at 30 degrees C and pH 7. ED1(T) oxidized organic acids and reduced (per)chlorate, sulfate, nitrate and nitrite. The closest phylogenetic relative of ED1(T) was Dechloromonas agitata. ED5(T) grew optimally at 25 degrees C and pH 7. ED5(T) grew mainly on sugars, and nitrate and nitrite were used as alternative electron acceptors. The closest phylogenetic relatives of ED5(T) were Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Flavobacterium flevense. MH21(T) and MH72 were motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria with a three-layered cell wall. Sugars supported the growth of MH21(T) and MH72. Cells of MH21(T) grew in chains, were linked by connecting filaments and contained membranous b-type cytochromes. MH21(T) grew optimally at 30-35 degrees C and pH 7.7, grew by fermentation and reduced low amounts of nitrite to N(2)O. The closest phylogenetic relatives of MH21(T) were Paenibacillus borealis and Paenibacillus chibensis. Based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, ED1(T) (= DSM 15892(T) = ATCC BAA-841(T)), ED5(T) (= DSM 15936(T) = ATCC BAA-842(T)) and MH21(T) (=DSM 15890(T) = ATCC BAA-844(T)) are proposed as type strains of the novel species Dechloromonas denitrificans sp. nov., Flavobacterium denitrificans sp. nov. and Paenibacillus anaericanus sp. nov., respectively. MH72 is considered a new strain of Paenibacillus terrae.
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 06/2005; 55(Pt 3):1255-65. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An aerotolerant, psychrotolerant anaerobe, anNAG3, was isolated from an acidic forest floor solution (in situ pH of 4.5). Cells of anNAG3 stained Gram-positive did not form spores, and were not motile. Cells were ovoid, approximately 1 microm long and 0.7 microm wide, mostly in pairs, and contained a multi-layered cell wall and intracytoplasmic membranes. Growth was observed at pH 3.5-7.5 and 0-35 degrees C. Glucose, galactose, fructose, mannitol, glucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, cellobiose, and maltose supported growth. Lactate, ethanol, formate, and acetate were end products. H(2) and CH(4) were not detected, and only very minor amounts of CO(2) were produced. The relative amount of a particular product was dependent on the substrate utilized, and product profiles indicated that (i) sugars were initially metabolized to pyruvate via glycolysis, and (ii) lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate-formate lyase were responsible for the subsequent metabolism of pyruvate. O(2) was not significantly utilized and was not toxic to growth. anNAG3 did not contain detectable membranous or cytoplasmic cytochromes. Nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III) were not dissimilated. Thus, anNAG3 was characterized as an aerotolerant, non-acetogenic chemoorganotroph with a mixed-fermentative metabolism. The G + C content of the DNA was 37.6 mol%. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of anNAG3 to that of its closest phylogenetic relatives (which were in the genera Lactococcus and Streptococcus) approximated 88-89%, indicating that anNAG3 constitutes the type species of a new genus. Based on the collective properties of anNAG3, it is proposed that anNAG3 be termed Lactovum miscens.
    Research in Microbiology 01/2005; 155(10):847-54. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this study were (i) to determine if gut wall-associated microorganisms are responsible for the capacity of earthworms to emit nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and (ii) to characterize the N(2)O-producing bacteria of the earthworm gut. The production of N(2)O in the gut of garden soil earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) was mostly associated with the gut contents rather than the gut wall. Under anoxic conditions, nitrite and N(2)O were transient products when supplemental nitrate was reduced to N(2) by gut content homogenates. In contrast, nitrite and N(2)O were essentially not produced by nitrate-supplemented soil homogenates. The most probable numbers of fermentative anaerobes and microbes that used nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher in the earthworm gut than in the soil from which the earthworms originated. The fermentative anaerobes in the gut and soil displayed similar physiological functionalities. A total of 136 N(2)O-producing isolates that reduced either nitrate or nitrite were obtained from high serial dilutions of gut homogenates. Of the 25 representative N(2)O-producing isolates that were chosen for characterization, 22 isolates exhibited >99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with their closest cultured relatives, which in most cases was a soil bacterium, most isolates were affiliated with the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria or with the gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C contents, and 5 isolates were denitrifiers and reduced nitrate to N(2)O or N(2). The initial N(2)O production rates of denitrifiers were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of the nondenitrifying isolates. However, most nondenitrifying nitrate dissimilators produced nitrite and might therefore indirectly stimulate the production of N(2)O via nitrite-utilizing denitrifiers in the gut. The results of this study suggest that most of the N(2)O emitted by earthworms is due to the activation of ingested denitrifiers and other nitrate-dissimilating bacteria in the gut lumen.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 04/2003; 69(3):1655-61. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emission of methane (1.3 mmol of CH(4) m(-2) day(-1)), precursors of methanogenesis, and the methanogenic microorganisms of acidic bog peat (pH 4.4) from a moderately reduced forest site were investigated by in situ measurements, microcosm incubations, and cultivation methods, respectively. Bog peat produced CH(4) (0.4 to 1.7 micro mol g [dry wt] of soil(-1) day(-1)) under anoxic conditions. At in situ pH, supplemental H(2)-CO(2), ethanol, and 1-propanol all increased CH(4) production rates while formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate inhibited the production of CH(4); methanol had no effect. H(2)-dependent acetogenesis occurred in H(2)-CO(2)-supplemented bog peat only after extended incubation periods. Nonsupplemented bog peat initially produced small amounts of H(2) that were subsequently consumed. The accumulation of H(2) was stimulated by ethanol and 1-propanol or by inhibiting methanogenesis with bromoethanesulfonate, and the consumption of ethanol was inhibited by large amounts of H(2); these results collectively indicated that ethanol- or 1-propanol-utilizing bacteria were trophically associated with H(2)-utilizing methanogens. A total of 10(9) anaerobes and 10(7) hydrogenotrophic methanogens per g (dry weight) of bog peat were enumerated by cultivation techniques. A stable methanogenic enrichment was obtained with an acidic, H(2)-CO(2)-supplemented, fatty acid-enriched defined medium. CH(4) production rates by the enrichment were similar at pH 4.5 and 6.5, and acetate inhibited methanogenesis at pH 4.5 but not at pH 6.5. A total of 27 different archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences indicative of Methanobacteriaceae, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinaceae were retrieved from the highest CH(4)-positive serial dilutions of bog peat and methanogenic enrichments. A total of 10 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were also retrieved from the same dilutions and enrichments and were indicative of bacteria that might be responsible for the production of H(2) that could be used by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. These results indicated that in this acidic bog peat, (i) H(2) is an important substrate for acid-tolerant methanogens, (ii) interspecies hydrogen transfer is involved in the degradation of organic carbon, (iii) the accumulation of protonated volatile fatty acids inhibits methanogenesis, and (iv) methanogenesis might be due to the activities of methanogens that are phylogenetic members of the Methanobacteriaceae, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinaceae.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 02/2003; 69(1):74-83. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Harold L Drake, Kirsten Küsel, Carola Matthies
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    ABSTRACT: Acetogens reduce CO2 to acetate via the acetyl-CoA pathway and have been classically thought of as obligately anaerobic bacteria. Nearly 100 acetogenic species from 20 different genera have been isolated to date. These isolates are able to use very diverse electron donors and acceptors, and it is thus very likely that the in situ activities of acetogens are very diverse and not restricted to acetogenesis. Since acetogens constitute a very phylogenetically diverse bacteriological group, it should be anticipated that they can inhabit, and have impact on, diverse habitats. Indeed, they have been isolated from a broad range of habitats, including oxic soils and other habitats not generally regarded as suitable for acetogens. Although the ecological impact of acetogens is determined by the in situ manifestation of their physiological potentials, assessing their in situ activities is difficult due to their physiological and phylogenetic diversities. This mini-review will highlight a few of the physiological and ecological realities of acetogens, and will focus on: (i) metabolic diversities and regulation, (ii) phylogenetic diversity and molecular ecology, and (iii) the capacity of acetogens to cope with oxic conditions under both laboratory and in situ conditions.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 09/2002; 81(1-4):203-13. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    C Matthies, C H Kuhner, G Acker, H L Drake
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    ABSTRACT: An anaerobic, acid-tolerant bacterium, CK55T, was isolated from an acidic forest bog. Cells of CK55T stained Gram-negative but did not have an outer membrane. Cells were spore-forming, motile rods with peritrichous flagella, formed chains or aggregates and were linked by connecting filaments that were composed of a core and outer sheath. Cellobiose, glucose, xylose, mannose, mannitol, sucrose and peptone supported growth. Arabinose, lactose, raffinose, H2/CO2, CO/CO2, vanillate, Casamino acids and various purines and pyrimidines did not support growth. Growth on carbohydrates yielded acetate, butyrate, lactate, formate and H2 as end-products. Growth was observed at pH 4.0-9.0, with an optimum at pH 6.5, and at 10-30 degrees C, with an optimum at 20-25 degrees C. At 20 degrees C, doubling times were 4 and 6 h at pH 6.5 and 4.0, respectively. Hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts was 12 U (mg protein)-1. CK55T did not: (i) contain detectable levels of CO, formate, lactate dehydrogenases or cytochromes; (ii) carry out dissimilatory reduction of nitrate or sulfate; or (iii) produce methane. Thus, CK55T was characterized as a non-acetogenic, fermentative chemo-organotroph. The G+C content of CK55T was 28.0 mol%. CK55T was phylogenetically most closely related to Clostridium botulinum (types B, E and F), Clostridium acetobutylicum and other saccharolytic clostridia; the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values to the nearest relatives of CK55T were approximately 97%. Based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic properties of CK55T, it is proposed that CK55T be termed Clostridium uliginosum sp. nov. (= DSM 12992T = ATCC BAA-53T).
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 06/2001; 51(Pt 3):1119-25. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    C Matthies, S Evers, W Ludwig, B Schink
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    ABSTRACT: The strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium strain NorPut1T ferments putrescine to acetate, butyrate, molecular hydrogen and ammonia. It also utilizes 4-aminobutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate as growth substrates. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed a phylogenetic affiliation of this strain to the phylum of gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C content. Together with its closest relative, 'Clostridium aminobutyricum' (DSM 2634), and several Eubacterium species, strain NorPut1T represents a well-defined monophyletic group. Moderate overall 16S rRNA sequence similarities (< 91%) were found for the NorPut1T/'Clostridium aminobutyricum' pair and several Eubacterium species. The type species, Eubacterium limosum, is not a member of the group and, together with Eubacterium barkeri and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, represents a distant phylogentic cluster. Therefore, a new genus, Anaerovorax, is proposed as harbouring strain NorPut1T (= DSM 5092T), which is described as a new species, i.e. Anaerovorax odorimutans.
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 07/2000; 50 Pt 4:1591-4. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two anaerobic acid-tolerant bacteria, CK58T and CK74T, were isolated from acidic beech litter and acidic peat-bog soil, respectively. Both bacteria were spore-forming, motile rods with peritrichous flagella. The capacity to sporulate decreased with prolonged cultivation. Cells of CK58T formed chains or aggregates and were linked by a connecting filament that consisted of a core and a surrounding sheath. Cellobiose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, mannose and salicin supported growth of CK58T. These substrates, as well as mannitol, lactose, sucrose, glycerol, melezitose, raffinose and rhamnose, supported growth of CK74T. Sorbitol, trehalose, H2/CO2, CO/CO2, vanillate, Casamino acids, peptone, and various purines and pyrimidines did not support the growth of either organism. Growth of CK58T and CK74T on glucose yielded butyrate, lactate, acetate, formate, H2 and CO2 as end products. Growth of CK58T and CK74T was observed at pH 3.7-7.1 and 3.6-6.9, respectively. CK58T and CK74T grew in nitrogen-free medium at pH 3.7 under an N2 atmosphere and reduced acetylene at rates approximating 1 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1. CK58T and CK74T did not contain carbon monoxide dehydrogenase or cytochromes, produce methane, or dissimilate nitrate or sulfate. Thus, CK58T and CK74T were characterized as nonacetogenic, N2-fixing, fermentative chemo-organotrophs. The G + C contents of CK58T and CK74T were 31.4 and 30.7 mol%, respectively. CK58T and CK74T were phylogenetically most closely related to Clostridium pasteurianum. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of CK58T and CK74T to C. pasteurianum and each other did not exceed 96.5%, and it is proposed that strains CK58T and CK74T be named Clostridium akagii CK58T (DSM 12554T) and Clostridium acidisoli CK74T (DSM 12555T), respectively. These results suggest that previously uncharacterized clostridial species reside and might fix N2 in the annoxic microzones of acidic forest soil and litter.
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 04/2000; 50 Pt 2:873-81. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    C Matthies, N Springer, W Ludwig, B Schink
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    ABSTRACT: The strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative, spore-forming bacterium strain WoGl3T had been enriched and isolated in mineral medium with glutarate as the sole source of energy and organic carbon. Glutarate was fermented to a mixture of butyrate, isobutyrate, CO2 and small amounts of acetate. Strain WoGl3T grew only with the dicarboxylates glutarate, methylsuccinate and succinate. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed an affiliation of strain WoGl3T to the family Syntrophomonadaceae. This monophyletic group is comprised of strain WoGl3T and the genera Syntrophomonas, Syntrophospora and Thermosyntropha, within the phylum of Gram-positive bacteria with a low DNA G + C content. Overall intra-group 16S rRNA sequence similarities of 89.2-93.9% document a separate phylogenetic status for strain WoGl3T. Strain WoGl3T (= DSM 6652T) is described as the type strain of a new species within a new genus, Pelospora glutarica gen. nov., sp. nov.
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 04/2000; 50 Pt 2:645-8. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, and Octolasion lacteum) obtained from nitrous oxide (N(2)O)-emitting garden soils emitted 0.14 to 0.87 nmol of N(2)O h(-1) g (fresh weight)(-1) under in vivo conditions. L. rubellus obtained from N(2)O-emitting forest soil also emitted N(2)O, which confirmed previous observations (G. R. Karsten and H. L. Drake, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1878-1882, 1997). In contrast, commercially obtained Lumbricus terrestris did not emit N(2)O; however, such worms emitted N(2)O when they were fed (i.e., preincubated in) garden soils. A. caliginosa, L. rubellus, and O. lacteum substantially increased the rates of N(2)O emission of garden soil columns and microcosms. Extrapolation of the data to in situ conditions indicated that N(2)O emission by earthworms accounted for approximately 33% of the N(2)O emitted by garden soils. In vivo emission of N(2)O by earthworms obtained from both garden and forest soils was greatly stimulated when worms were moistened with sterile solutions of nitrate or nitrite; in contrast, ammonium did not stimulate in vivo emission of N(2)O. In the presence of nitrate, acetylene increased the N(2)O emission rates of earthworms; in contrast, in the presence of nitrite, acetylene had little or no effect on emission of N(2)O. In vivo emission of N(2)O decreased by 80% when earthworms were preincubated in soil supplemented with streptomycin and tetracycline. On a fresh weight basis, the rates of N(2)O emission of dissected earthworm gut sections were substantially higher than the rates of N(2)O emission of dissected worms lacking gut sections, indicating that N(2)O production occurred in the gut rather than on the worm surface. In contrast to living earthworms and gut sections that produced N(2)O under oxic conditions (i.e., in the presence of air), fresh casts (feces) from N(2)O-emitting earthworms produced N(2)O only under anoxic conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that gut-associated denitrifying bacteria are responsible for the in vivo emission of N(2)O by earthworms and contribute to the N(2)O that is emitted from certain terrestrial ecosystems.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 09/1999; 65(8):3599-604. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • C Frank, U Schwarz, C Matthies, H L Drake
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    ABSTRACT: When the acetogen Clostridium formicoaceticum was cultivated on mixtures of aromatic compounds (e.g., 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde plus vanillate), the oxidation of aromatic aldehyde groups occurred more rapidly than did O-demethylation. Likewise, when fructose and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were simultaneously provided as growth substrates, fructose was utilized only after the aromatic aldehyde group was oxidized to the carboxyl level. Aromatic aldehyde oxidoreductase activity was constitutive (activities approximated 0. 8 U mg-1), and when pulses of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were added during fructose-dependent growth, the rate at which fructose was utilized decreased until 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was consumed. Although 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde inhibited the capacity of cells to metabolize fructose, lactate or gluconate were consumed simultaneously with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and lactate or aromatic compounds lacking an aldehyde group were utilized concomitantly with fructose. These results demonstrate that (1) aromatic aldehydes can be utilized as cosubstrates and have negative effects on the homoacetogenic utilization of fructose by C. formicoaceticum, and (2) the consumption of certain substrates by this acetogen is not subject to catabolite repression by fructose.
    Archives of Microbiology 12/1998; 170(6):427-34. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The four decades of the now classic studies by Harland G. Wood and Lars G. Ljungdahl lead to the resolution of the autotrophic acetyl-CoA 'Wood/Ljungdahl' pathway of acetogenesis. This pathway is the hallmark of acetogens, but is also used by other bacteria, including methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, for both catabolic and anabolic purposes. Thus, the pathway is wide spread in nature and plays an important role in the global turnover of carbon. Because most historical studies with acetogens focused on the biochemistry of the acetyl-CoA pathway, the metabolic diversity and ecology of acetogens remained largely unexplored for many years. Although acetogens were initially conceived to be a somewhat obscure bacteriological group with limited metabolic capabilities, it is now clear that acctogens are arguably the most metabolically diverse group of obligate anaerobes characterized to date. Their anaerobic metabolic arsenal includes the capacity to oxidize diverse substrates, including aromatic, C1, C2, and halogenated compounds, and engage a large number of alternative energy-conserving, terminal electron-accepting processes, including classic fermentations and the dissimilation of inorganic nitrogen. In this regard, one might consider acetogens on a collective basis as the pseudomonads of obligate anaerobes. By virtue of their diverse metabolic talents, acetogens can be found in essentially all habitats. This review evaluates the metabolic versatilities of acetogens relative to both the engagement (regulation) of the acetyl-CoA pathway and the ecological roles likely played by this bacteriogical group.
    BioFactors 02/1997; 6(1):13-24. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Under aerobic conditions, the culturable microbial population of acidic forest soils was more tolerant to acidic cultivation conditions than was the culturable microbial population of less acidic soils. The number of culturable bacteria decreased sharply under acidic cultivation conditions, while the number of culturable fungi remained relatively constant over the pH range 2.2–6.5. The ratios of culturable bacteria to culturable fungi were greater than one at pH 6.5; in contrast, the bacteria-to-fungi ratios were less than one at pH 2.2–4. At pH's approximating those of the soils examined, culturable fungi predominated the culturable microbial community in acidic soils. However, relative to the populations resolved, acidic forest soils displayed a more acid tolerant bacterial population than did less acidic forest soils. The culturable fungal population contained both filamentous and yeast morphologies. An acid-tolerant fungal isolate that grew at pH 1 was identified as a subspecies of Penicillium frequentans, and an acid-tolerant yeast that grew at pH 2 was identified as the yeast stage of the basidiomycetes Ustilago maydis.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 12/1996; 37(5):335 - 343. · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Carola Matthies, Anja Freiberger, Harold L. Drake
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    ABSTRACT: Methanol and the O-methyl group of vanillate did not support the growth of Clostridium formicoaceticum in defined medium under CO2-limited conditions; however, they were growth supportive when fumarate was provided concomitantly. Fumarate alone was not growth supportive under these conditions. Fumarate reduction (dissimilation) to succinate was the predominant electron-accepting, energy-conserving process for methanol-derived reductant under CO2-limited conditions. However, when both reductant sinks, i.e., fumarate and CO2, were available, reductant was redirected towards CO2 in defined medium. In contrast, in undefined medium with both reductant sinks available, C. formicoaceticum simultaneously engaged fumarate dismutation and the concomitant usage of CO2 and fumarate as reductant sinks. With Clostridium aceticum, fumarate also substituted for CO2, and H2 became growth supportive under CO2-limited conditions. Fumarate dissimilation was the predominant electron-accepting process under CO2-limited conditions; however, when both reductant sinks were available, H2-derived reductant was routed towards CO2, indicating that acetogenesis was the preferred electron-accepting process when reductant flow originated from H2. Collectively, these findings indicate that fumarate dissimilation, not dismutation, is selectively used under certain conditions and that such usage of fumarate is subject to complex regulation.
    Archives of Microbiology 09/1993; 160(4):273-278. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    Carola Matthies, Bernhard Schink
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    ABSTRACT: Methanogenic enrichment cultures fermented the long-chain dicarboxylates adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelate, and sebacate (C6-C10) stoichiometrically to acetate and methane. After several transfers, the cultures contained cells of only a few morphologically distinguishable types. During anaerobic degradation of dicarboxylic acids with even-numbered carbon atoms, propionate accumulated intermediately, and butyrate was the intermediate product of degradation of those with an odd number of carbon atoms. Degradation of the long-chain dicarboxylates depended strictly on the presence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The primary attack in these processes was/3-oxidation rather than decarboxylation. A general scheme of anaerobic degradation of long-chain dicarboxylic acids has been deduced from these results.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/1993; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    C Matthies, B Schink
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    ABSTRACT: Dicarboxylic acids with 2-5 carbon atoms can be degraded fermentatively by pure cultures of various strictly anaerobic bacteria. The small amount of free energy released in these decarboxylations (about 20-25 kJ mol-1) is conserved as sole source of growth energy either through sodium-pumping decarboxylases or through electrogenic substrate/product transport devices. In the glutarate-fermenting bacterial strain WoG13 a glutaconyl-CoA-decarboxylating enzyme activity was detected. This enzyme was inhibited by avidin and was stimulated by sodium ions. The enzyme activity was partially associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, indicating that energy conservation is accomplished through a sodium-ion-pumping glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase enzyme.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/1993; 79(1-3):221-5. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    C Matthies, B Schink
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    ABSTRACT: Isomerization of butyrate and isobutyrate was investigated with the recently isolated strictly anaerobic bacterium strain WoG13 which ferments glutarate to butyrate, isobutyrate, CO(2), and small amounts of acetate. Dense cell suspensions converted butyrate to isobutyrate and isobutyrate to butyrate. C-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments proved that this isomerization was accomplished by migration of the carboxyl group to the adjacent carbon atom. In cell extracts, both butyrate and isobutyrate were activated to their coenzyme A (CoA) esters by acyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferases. The reciprocal rearrangement of butyryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA was catalyzed by a butyryl-CoA:isobutyryl-CoA mutase which depended strictly on the presence of coenzyme B(12). Isobutyrate was completely degraded via butyrate to acetate and methane by a defined triculture of strain WoG13, Syntrophomonas wolfei, and Methanospirillum hungatei.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/1992; 58(5):1435-9. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • C Matthies, B Schink
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    ABSTRACT: Two strains of new strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria were enriched and isolated from a freshwater (strain WoG13) and a saltwater (strain CuG11) anoxic sediment with glutarate as sole energy source. Strain WoG13 formed spores whereas strain CuG11 did not. Both strains were rod-shaped, motile bacteria growing in carbonate-buffered, sulfide-reduced mineral medium supplemented with 2% of rumen fluid. Both strains fermented glutarate to butyrate, isobutyrate, CO2, and small amounts of acetate. With methylsuccinate, the same products were formed, and succinate was fermented to propionate and CO2. No sugars, amino acids or other organic acids were used as substrates. Molar growth yields (Ys) were very small (0.5-0.9 g cell dry mass/mol dicarboxylate). Cells of strain WoG13 contained no cytochromes, and the DNA base ratio was 49.0 +/- 1.4 mol% guanine-plus-cytosine. Enzyme activities involved in glutarate degradation could be demonstrated in cell-free extracts of strain WoG13. A pathway of glutarate fermentation via decarboxylation of glutaconyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA is suggested which forms butyrate and partly isobutyrate by subsequent isomerization.
    Archives of Microbiology 02/1992; 157(3):290-6. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Carola Matthies, Frank Mayer, Bernhard Schink
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    ABSTRACT: Three strains of new strictly anaerobic, Grampositive, non-sporeforming bacteria were isolated from various anoxic sediment samples with putrescine as sole carbon and energy source. Optimal growth in carbonate-buffered defined medium occurred at 37~ at pH 7.2-7.6. The DNA base ratio of strain NorPutl was 29.6 _+ 1 mol% guanine plus cytosine. In addition to a surface layer and the eptidoglycan layer, the cell wall contained a second innermost layer with a periodic arrangement of subunits. All strains fermented putrescine to acetate, butyrate, and molecular hydrogen; the latter originated from both oxidative putrescine deamination and 4-aminobutyraldehyde oxidation. In defined mixed cultures with methanogens or homoacetogenic bacteria, methane or additional acetate were formed due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. Also 4-aminobutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate were fermented to acetate and butyrate, but no hydrogen was released from these substrates. No sugars, organic acids, other primary amines or amino acids were used as substrates. Neither sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur, nitrate nor fumarate was reduced. Most of the enzymes involved in putrescine degradation could be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. A pathway of putrescine fermentation via 4-aminobutyrate and crotonyl- CoA with subsequent dismutation to acetate and butyrate is suggested.
    Archives of Microbiology 01/1989; · 1.91 Impact Factor