[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial tRNA adenosine deaminases (TadAs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of tRNA(Arg2), a process that enables this single tRNA to recognize three different arginine codons in mRNA. In addition, inosine is also introduced at the wobble position of multiple eukaryotic tRNAs. The genes encoding these deaminases are essential in bacteria and yeast, demonstrating the importance of their biological activity. Here we report the crystallization and structure determination to 2.0 A of Staphylococcus aureus TadA bound to the anticodon stem-loop of tRNA(Arg2) bearing nebularine, a non-hydrolyzable adenosine analog, at the wobble position. The cocrystal structure reveals the basis for both sequence and structure specificity in the interactions of TadA with RNA, and it additionally provides insight into the active site architecture that promotes efficient hydrolytic deamination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TDP-vancosaminyltransferase GtfD catalyzes the attachment of L-vancosamine to a monoglucosylated heptapeptide intermediate during the final stage of vancomycin biosynthesis. Glycosyltransferases from this and similar antibiotic pathways are potential tools for the design of new compounds that are effective against vancomycin resistant bacterial strains. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of GtfD as a complex with TDP and the natural glycopeptide substrate at 2.0 A resolution. GtfD, a member of the bidomain GT-B glycosyltransferase superfamily, binds TDP in the interdomain cleft, while the aglycone acceptor binds in a deep crevice in the N-terminal domain. However, the two domains are more interdependent in terms of substrate binding and overall structure than was evident in the structures of closely related glycosyltransferases GtfA and GtfB. Structural and kinetic analyses support the identification of Asp13 as a catalytic general base, with a possible secondary role for Thr10. Several residues have also been identified as being involved in donor sugar binding and recognition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the biosynthesis of the vancomycin-class antibiotic chloroeremomycin, TDP-epi-vancosaminyltransferase GtfA catalyzes the attachment of 4-epi-vancosamine from a TDP donor to the beta-OHTyr-6 of the aglycone cosubstrate. Glycosyltransferases from this pathway are potential tools for the combinatorial design of new antibiotics that are effective against vancomycin-resistant bacterial strains. These enzymes are members of the GT-B glycosyltransferase superfamily, which share a homologous bidomain topology. We present the 2.8-A crystal structures of GtfA complexes with vancomycin and the natural monoglycosylated peptide substrate, representing the first direct observation of acceptor substrate binding among closely related glycosyltransferases. The acceptor substrates bind to the N-terminal domain such that the aglycone substrate's reactive hydroxyl group hydrogen bonds to the side chains of Ser-10 and Asp-13, thus identifying these as residues of potential catalytic importance. As well as an open form of the enzyme, the crystal structures have revealed a closed form in which a TDP ligand is bound at a donor substrate site in the interdomain cleft, thereby illustrating not only binding interactions, but the conformational changes in the enzyme that accompany substrate binding.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2003; 100(16):9238-43. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the biosynthesis of several classes of antibiotics, sugars are attached to aglycone scaffolds by antibiotic-specific glycosyltransferases in the latter stages of the pathways. Two glycosylation pathways will be examined: the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin class and the aminocoumarin antibiotics of the novobiocin class. An oxidatively cross-linked heptapeptide scaffold is sequentially glucosylated and vancosaminylated by GtfE and GtfD, respectively, in vancomycin maturation, while in chloroeremomycin assembly the same heptapeptide is glucosylated by GtfB, then epivancosaminylated at two distinct sites by GtfA and GtfC. The specificity and mechanism of these glycosyltransferases will be discussed. In novobiocin biosynthesis, three enzymes (NovM, NovP and NovN) are thought to act sequentially to transfer an L-noviose moiety to the novobiocic acid aglycone (NovM), followed by 4'-hydroxyl methylation (NovP) and 3'-hydroxyl carbamoylation to produce the mature antibiotic structure, targeting the GyrB subunit of DNA gyrase. Initial characterization of NovM and NovP will be discussed.
Biochemical Society Transactions 07/2003; 31(Pt 3):487-92. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analogs of the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin with alterations in one or both sugar moieties of the disaccharide have been prepared by tandem action of the vancomycin pathway glycosyltransferases GtfE and GtfD. All four regioisomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 6-) of TDP-deoxyglucoses and UDP/TDP-aminoglucoses were prepared, predominantly by action of D-glucopyranosyl-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase, E(p). GtfE transferred the deoxyglucoses or aminoglucoses onto the 4-OH of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine of both the vancomycin and teicoplanin aglycone scaffolds. Kinetic analysis indicated the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-amino-glucoses were transferred by GtfE with only a 4- to 30-fold drop in k(cat) and no effect on K(m) compared to the native substrate, UDP/TDP-glucose, suggesting preparative utility. The next enzyme, GtfD, could utilize the variant glucosyl-peptides as substrates for transfer of L-4-epi-vancosamine. The aminosugar moieties in these variant glycopeptides introduce sites for acylation or reductive alkylation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because teicoplanin and vancomycin are the last line of defense for many bacterial infections, the emergence of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in enterococci and streptococci has aroused concern. Despite their similarity in terms of structure and mechanism of action, vancomycin induces the expression of genes that leads to bacterial resistance, and teicoplanin does not. We have used a combination of chemical and enzymatic methods to produce sets of vancomycin and teicoplanin analogues that allow us to consider whether the aglycon, the carbohydrate, or other parts of these molecules stimulate VanB resistance. We show that the teicoplanin and vancomycin aglycons are the structural elements that lead to induction of resistance. We think that lipid-containing analogues of vancomycin, like teicoplanin itself, circumvent resistance because the lipid chain changes the periplasmic distribution of the glycopeptide and, therefore, changes the biosynthetic step that it blocks.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2002; 124(31):9064-5. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vancomycin class of antibiotics is regarded as the last line of defence against Gram-positive bacteria. The compounds used clinically are very complex organic molecules and are made by fermentation. The biosynthesis of these is complex and fascinating. Its study holds out the prospect of utilizing genetic engineering of the enzymes in the pathway in order to produce novel vancomycin analogues. In part, this requires detailed structural insight into substrate specificity as well as the enzyme mechanism. The crystallization of one of the enzymes in the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway (a member of the vancomycin family), dTDP-3-amino-4-keto 2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-glucose-5-epimerase (EvaD) from Amycolatopsis orientalis, is reported here. The protein is fourth in the pathway which makes a carbohydrate essential for the activity of chloroeremomycin. The crystals of EvaD diffract to 1.5 A and have unit-cell parameters a = 98.6, b = 72.0, c = 57.1 A with space group P2(1)2(1)2. Data to this resolution were collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large enzyme complexes that synthesize a variety of peptide natural products through a thiotemplated mechanism. Assembly of the peptides proceeds through amino acid loading, amide-bond formation and chain translocation, and finally thioester lysis to release the product. The final products are often heavily modified, however, through methylation, epimerization, hydroxylation, heterocyclization, oxidative cross-linking and attachment of sugars. These activities are the province of specialized enzymes (either embedded in the multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase structure or standalone).
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 11/2001; · 9.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the vancomycin group of glycopeptide antibiotics have an oxidatively crosslinked heptapeptide scaffold decorated at the hydroxyl groups of 4-OH-Phegly4 or beta-OH-Tyr6 with mono- (residue 6) or disaccharides (residue 4). The disaccharide in vancomycin itself is L-vancosamine-1,2-glucose, and in chloroeremomycin it is L-4-epi-vancosamine-1,2-glucose. The sugars and their substituents play an important role in efficacy, particularly against vancomycin-resistant pathogenic enterococci.
The glucosyltransferase, GtfB, that transfers the glucose residue from UDP-glucose to the 4-OH-Phegly4 residue of the vancomycin aglycone, initiating the glycosylation pathway in chloroeremomycin maturation, has been crystallized, and its structure has been determined by X-ray analysis at 1.8 A resolution. The enzyme has a two-domain structure, with a deep interdomain cleft identified as the likely site of UDP-glucose binding. A hydrophobic patch on the surface of the N-terminal domain is proposed to be the binding site of the aglycone substrate. Mutagenesis has revealed Asp332 as the best candidate for the general base in the glucosyltransfer reaction.
The structure of GtfB places it in a growing group of glycosyltransferases, including Escherichia coli MurG and a beta-glucosyltransferase from T4 phage, which together form a subclass of the glycosyltransferase superfamily and give insights into the recognition of the NDP-sugar and aglycone cosubstrates. A single major interdomain linker between the N- and C- terminal domains suggests that reprogramming of sugar transfer or aglycone recognition in the antibiotic glycosyltransferases, including the glycopeptide and also the macrolide antibiotics, will be facilitated by this structural information.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glycopeptides vancomycin and teicoplanin are clinically important antibiotics. The carbohydrate portions of these molecules affect biological activity, and there is great interest in developing efficient strategies to make carbohydrate derivatives. To this end, genes encoding four glycosyltransferases, GtfB, C, D, E, were subcloned from Amycolatopsis orientalis strains that produce chloroeremomycin (GtfB, C) or vancomycin (GtfD, E) into Escherichia coli. After expression and purification, each glycosyltransferase (Gtf) was characterized for activity either with the aglycones (GtfB, E) or the glucosylated derivatives (GtfC, D) of vancomycin and teicoplanin. GtfB efficiently glucosylates vancomycin aglycone using UDP-glucose as the glycosyl donor to form desvancosaminyl-vancomycin (vancomycin pseudoaglycone), with kcat of 17 min-1, but has very low glucosylation activity, ≤ 0.3 min-1, for an alternate substrate, teicoplanin aglycone. In contrast, GtfE is much more efficient at glucosylating both its natural substrate, vancomycin aglycone (kcat = 60 min-1), and an unnatural substrate, teicoplanin aglycone (kcat = 20 min-1). To test the addition of the 4-epi-vancosamine moiety by GtfC and GtfD, synthesis of UDP-β-l-4-epi-vancosamine was undertaken. This NDP-sugar served as a substrate for both GtfC and GtfD in the presence of vancomycin pseudoaglycone (GtfC and GtfD) or the glucosylated teicoplanin scaffold, 7 (GtfD). The GtfC product was the 4-epi-vancosaminyl form of vancomycin. Remarkably, GtfD was able to utilize both an unnatural acceptor, 7, and an unnatural nucleotide sugar donor, UDP-4-epi-vancosamine, to synthesize a novel hybrid teicoplanin/vancomycin glycopeptide. These results establish the enzymatic activity of these four Gtfs, begin to probe substrate specificity, and illustrate how they can be utilized to make variant sugar forms of both the vancomycin and the teicoplanin class of glycopeptide antibiotics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2,3,6-trideoxysugar l-epivancosamine is the terminal sugar added to the aglycone scaffold in chloroeremomycin, a member of the vancomycin family of glycopeptide antibiotics. Five proteins from the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic cluster, ORF14 and ORF23 to ORF26, have been expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity, and each has been characterized for an enzymatic activity. These five enzymes reconstitute the complete biosynthesis of TDP-l-epivancosamine from TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose. This process involves C-2 deoxygenation, C-3 amination and methylation, C-5 epimerization, and C-4 ketoreduction. Intermediates and the final product of this pathway have been identified by mass spectrometry and NMR. The pathway established here represents the complete in vitro reconstitution of an unusual sugar for an important class of antibiotics and sets the groundwork for future combinatorial biosynthesis for new bioactive compounds.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2000; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterobactin, the tris-(N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)serine) trilactone siderophore of Escherichia coli, is synthesized by a three-protein (EntE, B, F) six-module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). In this work, the 142-kDa four-domain protein EntF was bisected into two double-domain fragments: a 108-kDa condensation and adenylation construct, EntF C-A, and a 37-kDa peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) and thioesterase protein, EntF PCP-TE. The adenylation domain activity of EntF C-A formed seryl-AMP but lost the ability to transfer the seryl moiety to the cognate EntF PCP-TE in trans. Seryl transfer to heterologous PCP protein fragments, the SrfB1 PCP from surfactin synthetase and Ybt PCP1 from yersiniabactin synthetase, was observed at rates of 0.5 min−1 and 0.01 min−1, respectively. The possibility that these slow acylation rates reflected dissociation of acyl/aminoacyl-AMP followed by adventitious thiolation by the heterologous PCPs in solution was addressed by measuring catalytic turnover of pyrophosphate (PPi) released from the adenylation domain. The holo SrfB1 PCP protein as well as Ybt PCP1 did not stimulate an increase in PPi release from EntF C-A or EntE. In this light, aminoacylations in trans between A and PCP domain fragments of NRPS assembly lines must be subjected to kinetic scrutiny to determine whether transfer is truly between protein domains or results from slow aminoacyl-AMP release and subsequent nonenzymatic thiol capture.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2000; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EntF is a 142 kDa four domain (condensation-adenylation-peptidyl carrier protein-thioesterase) nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzyme that assembles the Escherichia coli N-acyl-serine trilactone siderophore enterobactin from serine, dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) and ATP with three other enzymes (EntB, EntD and EntE). To assess how EntF forms three ester linkages and cyclotrimerizes the covalent acyl enzyme DHB-Ser-S-PCP (peptidyl carrier protein) intermediate, we mutated residues of the proposed catalytic Ser-His-Asp triad of the thioesterase (TE) domain.
The Ser1138-->Cys mutant (kcat decreased 1000-fold compared with wild-type EntF) releases both enterobactin (75%) and linear (DHB-Ser)2 dimer (25%) as products. The His 1271-->Ala mutant (kcat decreased 10,000-fold compared with wild-type EntF) releases only enterobactin, but accumulates both DHB-Ser-O-TE and (DHB-Ser)2-O-TE acyl enzyme intermediates. Electrospray ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry of proteolytic digests were used to analyze the intermediates.
These results establish that the TE domain of EntF is both a cyclotrimerizing lactone synthetase and an elongation catalyst for ester-bond formation between covalently tethered DHB-Ser moieties, a new function for chain-termination TE domains found at the carboxyl termini of multimodular NRPSs and polyketide synthases.