[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cooperative nature of tetraspanin-tetraspanin interactions in membrane organization suggests functional overlap is likely to be important in tetraspanin biology. Previous functional studies of the tetraspanins CD37 and Tssc6 in the immune system found that both CD37 and Tssc6 regulate T cell proliferative responses in vitro. CD37(-/-) mice also displayed a hyper-stimulatory dendritic cell phenotype and dysregulated humoral responses. In this study, we characterize "double knockout" mice (CD37(-/-)Tssc6(-/-)) generated to investigate functional overlap between these tetraspanins. Strong evidence for a cooperative role for these two proteins was identified in cellular immunity, where both in vitro T cell proliferative responses and dendritic cell stimulation capacity are significantly exaggerated in CD37(-/-)Tssc6(-/-) mice when compared with single knockout counterparts. Despite these exaggerated cellular responses in vitro, CD37(-/-)Tssc6(-/-) mice are not more susceptible to autoimmune induction. However, in vivo responses to pathogens appear poor in CD37(-/-)Tssc6(-/-) mice, which showed a reduced ability to produce influenza-specific T cells and displayed a rapid onset hyper-parasitemia when infected with Plasmodium yoelii. Therefore, in the absence of both CD37 and Tssc6, immune function is further altered when compared with CD37(-/-) or Tssc6(-/-) mice, demonstrating a complementary role for these two molecules in cellular immunity.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2010; 185(6):3158-66. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0902867 · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetraspanins are a large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterised by their four transmembrane domains. They are expressed in a wide variety of cell types and have functional roles in processes, such as cellular adhesion, motility, activation and tumour invasion. Leukocytes express </=20 tetraspanin proteins on their surface. Tetraspanins have an exceptional ability to interact with a diverse array of important proteins, such as integrins, immunoreceptors and signalling molecules. They are thought to organise a novel type of cell surface membrane microdomain, which in leukocytes functions to regulate activation, motility and antigen presentation. The importance of tetraspanin microdomains in immunity is highlighted by the perturbations in the immune system observed in tetraspanin-deficient mice.
Trends in Immunology 11/2003; 24(11):610-7. DOI:10.1016/j.it.2003.09.011 · 12.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tetraspanins are a family of integral membrane proteins with four transmembrane domains. These molecules form multimolecular networks on the surfaces of many different cell types. Gene-targeting studies have revealed a role for tetraspanins in B- and T-lymphocyte function. We have isolated and deleted a novel tetraspanin, Tssc6, which is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic and lymphoid organs. Using a gene-trapping strategy, we generated an embryonic stem (ES) cell line with an insertion in the Tssc6 locus. Mice were derived from these ES cells and, using RNase protection and reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrated that the insertion resulted in a null mutation of the Tssc6 allele. Mice homozygous for the gene trap insertion (Tssc6(gt/gt) mice) were viable and fertile, with normal steady-state hematopoiesis. Furthermore, responses to hemolysis and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced granulopoiesis were equivalent to those of wild-type mice. Lymphoid development was normal in Tssc6(gt/gt) mice. Whereas Tssc6(gt/gt) B cells responded normally to lipopolysaccharide, anti-CD40, and anti-immunoglobulin M stimulation, Tssc6(gt/gt) T cells showed enhanced responses to concanavalin A, anti-CD3, and anti-CD28. This increased proliferation by Tssc6-deleted T lymphocytes was due to increased interleukin 2 production following T-cell receptor stimulation. These results demonstrate that Tssc6 is not required for normal development of the hematopoietic system but may play a role in the negative regulation of peripheral T-lymphocyte proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous analyses of the murine and human TSSC6 (also known as Phemx) proteins were not carried out using the full length sequence. Using 5′-RACE and cDNA library screening, we identified an additional 5′ sequence for both the murine Tssc6 cDNA and its human homologue TSSC6. This novel sequence encodes a 5′ exon encoding an in frame, upstream start codon, an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain and a transmembrane domain. The deduced, and now full length, murine and human TSSC6 proteins contained four hydrophobic regions together with other features characteristic of the tetraspanin superfamily. Computational analyses of the full length sequences show that TSSC6 is a genuine, albeit relatively divergent member of this superfamily. Using RNA from a number of mouse tissues, we identified seven splice variants of Tssc6. Splice variants of the human gene were also detected. Tssc6 expression was detected early in embryogenesis in primitive blood cells and was confined to haematopoietic organs in the adult mouse. Tssc6 expression was detected in many haematopoietic cell lines and was highest in cell lines of the erythroid lineage.