[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted great interest in recent years, largely due to the global Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) epidemic and major advances in metagenomic sequencing of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, with growing understanding of its structure and function. FMT is now recommended as the most effective therapy for relapsing CDI and, with further refinement, may even be used in "first-time" CDI. There is interest also in other conditions related to GI dysbiosis-for example, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, and diabetes mellitus-although quality evidence is at present lacking. A few trials are now underway in FMT for ulcerative colitis. Many unanswered questions remain, including FMT methodology-for example, optimal route of administration, what makes a "good donor," safety issues, and long-term effects of FMT.
Current Gastroenterology Reports 08/2013; 15(8):337.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental health disorders, depression in particular, have been described as a global epidemic. Research suggests that a variety of lifestyle and environmental changes may be driving at least some portion of the increased prevalence. One area of flourishing research involves the relationship between the intestinal microbiota (as well as the related functional integrity of the gastrointestinal tract) and mental health. In order to appreciate the recent scientific gains in this area, and its potential future directions, it is critical to review the history of the topic. Probiotic administration (e.g. Lactobacillus) and fecal microbiota transfer for conditions associated with depression and anxiety is not a new concept. Here, in the first of a 3-part series, we begin by reviewing the origins of the contemporary research, providing a critical appraisal of what has become a revisionist history of the controversial term 'autointoxication'. We argue that legitimate interests in the gut-brain-microbiota connection were obscured for decades by its association with a narrow historical legacy. Historical perspectives provide a very meaningful context to the current state of the contemporary research as outlined in parts II and III.
Gut Pathogens 03/2013; 5(1):5. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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