Bone formation on tissue-engineered cartilage constructs in vivo: effects of chondrocyte viability and mechanical loading.
ABSTRACT Interactions between bone and cartilage formation are critical during growth and fracture healing and may influence the functional integration of osteochondral repair constructs. In this study, the ability of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs to support bone formation under controlled mechanical loading conditions was evaluated using a lapine hydraulic bone chamber model. Articular chondrocytes were seeded onto polymer disks, cultured for 4 weeks in vitro, and then transferred to empty bone chambers previously implanted into rabbit femoral metaphyses. The effects of chondrocyte viability within the implanted constructs and in vivo mechanical loading on bone formation were tested in separate experiments. After 4 weeks in vivo, biopsies from the chambers consisted of a complex composite of bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue, with bone forming in direct apposition to the cartilage constructs. Microcomputed tomography imaging of the chamber biopsies revealed that the implantation of viable constructs nearly doubled the bone volume fraction of the chamber tissue from 0.9 to 1.6% as compared with the implantation of devitalized constructs in contralateral control chambers. The application of an intermittent cyclic mechanical load was found to increase the bone volume fraction of the chamber tissue from 0.4 to 3.6% as compared with no-load control biopsies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that tissue-engineered cartilage constructs implanted into a well-vascularized bone defect will support direct appositional bone formation and that bone formation is significantly influenced by the viability of chondrocytes within the constructs and the local mechanical environment in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors are key components of an enzyme system which is important in a number of fundamental biochemical and cellular processes. Our recent work has focused on the role of a particular metalloproteinase, collagenase, and the role of an endogenous inhibitor of this enzyme in the control of neovascularization. The proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix components by capillary endothelial cells (EC) has been shown to be one of the key prerequisites of the angiogenic process. As part of a study of the effect(s) of the inhibition of collagenase on neovascularization, we have recently reported the purification, characterization and partial NH2-terminal sequence of a cartilage-derived inhibitor (CDI) of angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Evidence is presented which suggests that one means of controlling deregualted vascular growth characteristic of a number of “angiogenic diseases” may be at the level of the control of metalloproteinase activity.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/1991; 47(3):230 - 235. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A hydraulically activated bone chamber model was utilized to investigate cellular and microstructural mechanisms of mechanical adaptation during bone repair. Woven trabecular bone and fibrotic granulation tissue filled the initially empty chambers by 8 weeks postimplantation into canine tibial and femoral metaphyses. Without mechanical stimulation, active bone remodeling to lamellar trabecular bone and reconstitution of marrow elements were observed between 8 and 24 weeks. In subsequent loading studies, the hydraulic mechanism was activated on one randomly chosen side of 10 dogs following 8 weeks of undisturbed bone repair. The loading treatment applied an intermittent compressive force (18 N, 1.0 Hz, 1800 cycles/day) for durations of a few days up to 12 weeks. Stereological analysis of three-dimensional microcomputed tomography images revealed an increase in trabecular plate thickness and connectivity associated with the loaded repair tissue microstructure relative to unloaded contralateral controls. These microstructural alterations corresponded to an over 600% increase in the apparent modulus of the loaded bone tissue. A significant increase in the percentage of trabecular surfaces lined by osteoblasts immunopositive for type I procollagen after a few days of loading provided further evidence for mechanical stimulation of bone matrix synthesis. The local principal tissue strains associated with these adaptive changes were estimated to range from approximately -2000 to +3000 mustrain using digital image-based finite element methods. This study demonstrates the sensitivity of bone tissue and cells to a controlled in vivo mechanical stimulus and identifies microstructural mechanisms of mechanical adaptation during bone repair. The hydraulic bone chamber is introduced as an efficient experimental model to study the effects of mechanical and biological factors on bone repair and regeneration.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 09/1997; 12(8):1295-302. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that engineered cartilage can provide a mechanically functional template capable of undergoing orderly remodeling during the repair of large osteochondral defects in adult rabbits, as assessed by quantitative structural and functional methods. Engineered cartilage generated in vitro from chondrocytes cultured on a biodegradable scaffold was sutured to a subchondral support and the resulting composite press-fitted into a 7-mm long, 5-mm wide, 5-mm deep osteochondral defect in a rabbit knee joint. Defects left empty (group 1) or treated with cell-free composites (group 2) served as controls for defects treated with composites of engineered cartilage and the support, without or with adsorbed bone marrow (groups 3 and 4, respectively). Engineered cartilage withstood physiologic loading and remodeled over 6 months into osteochondral tissue with characteristic architectural features and physiologic Young's moduli. Composites integrated well with host bone in 90% of cases but did not integrate well with host cartilage. Structurally, 6-month repairs in groups 3 and 4 were superior to those in group 2 with respect to histologic score, cartilage thickness, and thickness uniformity, but were inferior to those in unoperated control tissue. At 6 months, Young's moduli in groups 2, 3, and 4 (0.68, 0.80, and 0.79 MPa, respectively) approached that in unoperated control tissue (0.84 MPa), whereas the corresponding modulus in group 1 (0.37 MPa) was significantly lower. Composites of tissue-engineered cartilage and a subchondral support promote the orderly remodeling of large osteochondral defects in adult rabbits.Arthritis & Rheumatism 10/2002; 46(9):2524-34. · 7.48 Impact Factor