[Intermittent mandatory ventilation].
ABSTRACT Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) is a mode of ventilation that allows the patient to make spontaneous breaths during the expiratory phase of mandatory ventilator breaths. There are two types of IMV according to whether respirator breaths are synchronized with the patient's respiratory efforts: Non-synchronized IMV and synchronized IMV (SIMV), and according to whether SIMV is volume- or pressure programmed. The main advantage of SIMV is that the respirator delivers the preset ventilator pressure and rate while allowing the patient to breath spontaneously, thus facilitating progressive weaning from mechanical ventilation. It diminishes the risk of barotrauma, produces less hemodynamic com-promise than control ventilation, reduces atrophy of respiratory muscles and the need for sedation and muscle relaxation and can be associated with pressure support ventilation.
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ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence and characteristics of mechanical ventilation in children admitted to Spanish pediatric intensive care units (PICU). A prospective, multicenter, observational study was performed using a written questionnaire sent to the 46 PICUs in Spain. Clinical data and mechanical ventilation settings in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation on 19th February 2002 were collected. Thirty-three PICUs participated in the study (27 had patients undergoing mechanical ventilation on the study day). The prevalence of mechanical ventilation was 86 patients (45.5 %). The mean age of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation was 36 months and the median was 8 months. Sixty percent of the patients were boys. The main indications for mechanical ventilation were acute respiratory failure (46.5 %), chronic respiratory failure (10.4 %), coma (11.6 %) and postoperative status (10.5 %). Endotracheal tubes were used in 73.2 % and a tracheostomy tube was used in 23.2 %. The most frequent mechanical ventilation modalities used were synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) in 43 % and control or assisted-control ventilation in 36 %. In 30 % of the patients the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer than 1 month. From the initiation of mechanical ventilation to the study day, pneumothorax developed in 8.1 % of the patients, accidental extubation occurred in 10.5 % and ventilator-associated pneumonia developed in 17.4 %. A high percentage of children admitted to the PICU requires mechanical ventilation. The most frequent indication is respiratory failure. The most frequently used modality in children aged less than 1 month is pressure SIMV. In children older than 1 month volume-cycled or pressure-limited ventilation and volume-cycled SMIV are used in similar proportions. The prevalence of prolonged mechanical ventilation and the incidence of ventilator-associated complications are very high.Anales de Pediatría 01/2005; 61(6):533-41. · 0.87 Impact Factor