Sarcoidosis and HIV infection: a case report and a review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Sarcoidosis occurring in patients with AIDS is rare. This infrequent association has been attributed to the impairment of the immune system that may interfere with the granuloma formation in HIV infected patients. However, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has brought about a substantial and sustained increase in CD4+ T lymphocyte cells, and has consequently led to the development of the so called "immune restoration disease". The case of an HIV infected man who developed sarcoidosis after the initiation of HAART is described. Skin nodule images and histological specimens are reported. The association between sarcoidosis and HIV infection is also reviewed.
Article: Pulmonary sarcoidosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis, a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology, characteristically involves multiple organs. However, pulmonary manifestations typically dominate. Chest radiographs are abnormal in 85 to 95% of patients. Abnormalities in pulmonary function tests are common and may be associated with cough, dyspnea, and exercise limitation. However, one third or more of patients are asymptomatic, with incidental abnormalities on chest radiographs. The clinical course and expression of pulmonary sarcoidosis are variable. Spontaneous remissions occur in nearly two thirds of patients. The course is chronic in up to 30% of patients. Chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis may result in progressive (sometimes life-threatening) loss of lung function. Fatalities ascribed to sarcoidosis occur in 1 to 4% of patients. Although the impact of treatment is controversial, corticosteroids may be highly effective in some patients. Immunosuppressive, cytotoxic, or immunomodulatory agents are reserved for patients failing or experiencing adverse effects from corticosteroids. Lung transplantation is a viable option for patients with life-threatening disease failing medical therapy.Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2007; 28(1):53-74. · 2.43 Impact Factor