Barbiturates and oxidative phosphorylation.

Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.78). 08/1960; 76:47-56.
Source: PubMed
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    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Bioenergetics 07/1979; 549(1):1–29. DOI:10.1016/0304-4173(79)90016-8
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic and traumatic brain injury is associated with increased risk for death and disability. The inhibition of penumbral tissue damage has been recognized as a target for therapeutic intervention, because cellular injury evolves progressively upon ATP-depletion and loss of ion homeostasis. In patients, thiopental is used to treat refractory intracranial hypertension by reducing intracranial pressure and cerebral metabolic demands; however, therapeutic benefits of thiopental-treatment are controversially discussed. In the present study we identified fundamental neuroprotective molecular mechanisms mediated by thiopental. Here we show that thiopental inhibits global protein synthesis, which preserves the intracellular energy metabolite content in oxygen-deprived human neuronal SK-N-SH cells or primary mouse cortical neurons and thus ameliorates hypoxic cell damage. Sensitivity to hypoxic damage was restored by pharmacologic repression of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Translational inhibition was mediated by calcium influx, activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, and inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. Our results explain the reduction of cerebral metabolic demands during thiopental treatment. Cycloheximide also protected neurons from hypoxic cell death, indicating that translational inhibitors may generally reduce secondary brain injury. In conclusion our study demonstrates that therapeutic inhibition of global protein synthesis protects neurons from hypoxic damage by preserving energy balance in oxygen-deprived cells. Molecular evidence for thiopental-mediated neuroprotection favours a positive clinical evaluation of barbiturate treatment. The chemical structure of thiopental could represent a pharmacologically relevant scaffold for the development of new organ-protective compounds to ameliorate tissue damage when oxygen availability is limited.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77258. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077258 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen deprivation during ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke results in ATP-depletion, loss of ion homeostasis, membrane depolarisation, and excitotoxicity. Pharmacologic restoration of cellular energy supply may offer a promising concept to reduce hypoxic cell injury. In this study we investigated whether carbimazole, a thionamide used to treat hyperthyroidism, reduces neuronal cell damage in oxygen-deprived human SK-N-SH cells or primary cortical neurons. Our results revealed that carbimazole induces an inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2 that was associated with a marked inhibition of global protein synthesis. Translational inhibition resulted in significant bioenergetic savings, preserving intracellular ATP-content in oxygen-deprived neuronal cells and diminishing hypoxic cellular damage. Phosphorylation of eEF2 was mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase and eEF2 kinase. Carbimazole also induced a moderate calcium influx and a transient cyclic adenosine monophosphate increase. To test whether translational inhibition generally diminishes hypoxic cell damage when ATP-availability is limiting, the translational repressors cycloheximide and anisomycin were used. Cycloheximide and anisomycin also preserved ATP-content in hypoxic SK-N-SH cells and significantly reduced hypoxic neuronal cell damage. Taken together, these data support a causal relation between the pharmacologic inhibition of global protein synthesis and efficient protection of neurons from ischemic damage by preservation of high-energy metabolites in oxygen-deprived cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that carbimazole or other translational inhibitors may be interesting candidates for the development of new organ-protective compounds. Their chemical structure may be used for computer-assisted drug design or screening of compounds to find new agents with the potential to diminish neuronal damage under ATP-limited conditions.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2013; 347(3). DOI:10.1124/jpet.113.205989 · 3.86 Impact Factor


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